on the lake at present; and the fish are caught, partly by the waters are no longer bitter, this lake derives no small interest fishermen going into the water, up to their waist, and throw- from the illustrations and allusions so often made to it by the ing in a hand net, and partly with casting nets from the prophets. beach : a method which must yield a very small quantity, 3. The LAKE or SEA OF Sodom, or the Dead Sea, has compared to what they would get with boats.

been celebrated not only by the sacred writers, but also by Pliny states this lake to be sixteen miles in length by six Josephus, and several profáne authors.? It was anciently miles in breadth. Josephus, whose intimate knowledge of called in the Scriptures the Sea of the Plain (Deut. iii. 17. his country gives his descriptions a high claim to attention, iv. 49.), being situated in a valley, with a plain lying to the says that ** its breadth is forty furlongs, and its length one south of it, where once flourished the cities of Sodom and hundred and forty. Its waters are sweet and very agreeable Gomorrah, with the other cities of the plain ;-the Salt Sea for drinking, for they are finer than the thick waters of other (Deut. iii. 17. Josh. xv. 5.) from the extremely saline, and fens. The lake is also pure, and on every side ends directly bitter, taste of its waters;—the Salt Sea eastward (Num. at the shores, and at the sand: it is also of a temperate na- xxxiv. 3.)—and the East Sea (Ezek. xlvii. 18. Joel ii. 20.), ture, when drawn up, and softer than river or fountain water : from its situation relatively to Judæa. By Josephus and and it is so cold, that the people of the place cannot warm it other writers it was called the Lake Asphaltites, from the by setting it in the sun, in the hottest season of the year. abundance of bitumen found in it; and by Jerome, the Dead 'There are several kinds of fish in it, different both to the Sea, that is, the Bituminous Lake, from ancient traditions, taste and sight from those elsewhere. It is divided into two erroneously though generally received, that no living creaparts by the river Jordan.”2

ture can exist in its stagnant and hydro-sulphuretted waters, 'The fidelity of Josephus's description is attested by two which, though they look remarkably clear and pure, are in learned and acute modern travellers. Mr. Buckingham, who the highest degree salt, bitter, and nauseous in the extreme, beheld it in 1816, observes that “ all these features are drawn and of such a degree of specific gravity as will enable a man with an accuracy that could only have been attained by one to float on their surface without motion. The acrid saltness resident in the country. The size is still nearly the same, of its waters is much greater than that of the sea; and the the borders of the lake still end at the beach or the sands, land, which surrounds this lake, being equally impregnated at the feet of the mountains which environ it. Its waters are with that saltness, refuses to produce any plants except a still as sweet and temperate as ever, and the lake abounds few stunted thorns, which wear the brown garb of the desert. with great numbers of fish of various sizes and kinds. The To this circumstance Moses alludes in Deut. xxix. 23.-The appearance of the lake as seen from Capernaum," Mr. whole land therenf is brimstone and salt."9 The air itself, Buckingham states, “ is still grand; its greatest length runs which is by evaporation loaded with it, and which is imnearly north and south from twelve to fifteen miles; and its pregnated with the sulphureous and bituminous vapours, is breadth seems to be, in general, from six to nine miles. The fatal to vegetation : hence arises the deadly aspect which barren aspect of the mountains on each side, and the total - reigns around the lake.10 Here formerly stood the cities of absence of wood, give, however, a cast of dulness to the pic- Sodom and Gomorrah, which, with three other cities of the ture; and this is increased to melancholy by the dead calm plain, were consumed by fire from heaven; to this destrucof its waters and the silence which reigns throughout its tion there are numerous allusions in the Scriptures, as diswhole extent, where not a boat or vessel of any kind is to be playing most signally the certainty and suddenness of the found."3

divine anger which sooner or later overtakes the impenitently Dr. Clarke, by whom this lake was visited a few years wicked. ”Viewing this sea (which has never been navigated before Mr. Buckingham's arrival, describes it as longer and since those cities were engulphed) from the spot where the finer than our Cumberland and Westmorland lakes, although Jordan discharges its waters into it, this body of water takes it yields in majesty to the stupendous features of Loch Lomond in Scotland: like our Windermere, the lake of Gen- of any place called Daphne in this vicinity, and Daphne near Antioch was nesareth is often greatly agitated by winds. (Matt. viii. 23— far distant from the waters of Merom. Palestina, tom. i p. 263.

6 Carne's Recollections of the Fast, p. 39. 27.) A strong current marks the passage of the Jordan Josephus de Bell. Jud. lib. iv. c. 8. $ 4. ; Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. v. c. 16.; through the middle of this lake; and when this is opposed by Tacitus, Hist. lib.v. c. 6. ; Justin. lib. xxxvi. c. 3. ; Strabo, lib. xvi. pp. 1097, contrary winds, which blow here with the force of a hurri

Irby's and Mangles' Travels, p. 330. Quarterly Journal of Science, cane from the south-east, sweeping into the lake from the Literature, and the Arts, vol. viii. p. 164. An analysis of the water of the mountains, a boisterous sea is instantly raised : this the small Dead Sea (a phial of which had been brought to England by Mr. Gordon vessels of the country, are ill qualified to resist. “The Clunie, at the request of the late Sir Joseph Banks), conducted by Dr. wind,” says he, “ rendered its surface rough, and called to and does not deposit any crystals on standing in close vessels.-Iis taste mind the situation of our Saviour's disciples; when, in one is peculiarly bitter, saline, and pungent. -The application of tests or re. of the small vessels, which traversed these waters, they were agents proves that it contains the muriatic and sulphuric acids. There is tossed in a storm, and saw Jesus in the fourth watch of the muriate of soda.–On summing up the contents of 150 grains of the water, night walking to them upon the waves.” (Matt. xiv. 24- they were found to hold in solution the following substances, and in the 26.). These agitations, however, do not last for any length

under-mentioned proportions : of time.--Its broad and extended surface, covering the bot

Muriate of lime..... 5,88 grains 3,89 grains. tom of a profound valley, environed by lofty and precipitous

Muriate of magnesia........ eminences (excepting only the narrow entrance and outlets

Muriate of soda...

7,15 Selenite...

0,08 at the Jordan at each extremity), added to the impression of a certain reverential awe under which every Christian pil

36,87 18,65 grim approaches it, give it a character of dignity unparalleled by any similar scenery. When not agitated by tem- water would be :

And, consequently, the proportions of these salts in 100 grains of the pests, the water is stated to be as clear as the purest crystal,

Grains. gweet, cool, and most refreshing to the taste.

Muriate of lime...

3,920 2. 'The WATERS OF MEROM, mentioned in Josh. xi. 5. 7.,

Muriate of magnesia.

10,246 Muriate of soda,..

10,360 are generally supposed to be the lake, afterwards called Sa

Sulphate of lime...

0,054 mochonitis, which lies between the head of the river Jordan and the Sea of Tiberias. Its modern name is Houle. Ac

24,580 cording to Josephus, it is thirty furlongs broad, and sixty, furlongs in length ; and its marshes extend to the place called

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for 1807,

part pp. 298–312. Another analysis, made by the eminent French Daphne, where the Jordan issues from it. Though its chemist, M. Gay-Lussac in 1819, gave

nearly similar results. See Quarterly Journal of Science, &c. vol. viii. p. 165.) Hence it appears that the Dead

Sea water nou contains about one fourth of its weight of salt supposed in · Travels in Egypt, &c. by Captains Irby and Mangles, p. 293. Madden's a state of perfect desiccation; or, if they be desiccated at the temperature Travels in Turkey, &c. vol. ii. p. 312. See also Carne's Letters from the Fast, of 180 degrees on Fahrenheit's scale, they will amount to forty-one per pp. 254—363. Richter's Pilgrimages in the East. (Cabinet of Foreign cent of the water. If any person wish for a stronger confirmation of the Voyages, vol. i. p. 157.) Josephus de Bell. Jud. lib. iii. c. 10. $ 7. Pritii Introd. in Nov. Saripture account of the origin of the Dead Sea than this furnishes, we

to ,

and commit him to the influences of that Power which can cause the 'wil • Buckingham's Travels, pp. 470, 471. Mr. Jowett's estimate nearly derness to blossom as the rose,' and from stones raise up children unto coincides with that of Mr. Buckingham (Christian Researches in Syria, Abraham."" Eclectic Review for 1809, vol. v. part i. p. 134. p. 175.), as also does that of Mr. Rae Wilson. (Travels in the Holy Land, . In the vicinity of this sea Captains Irby and Mangles collected lumps Fol. ti. pp. 13, 14, 3d edition.).

of nitre and fine sulphur, from the size of a nutmeg to that of a small hen's • Dr. Clarke's Travels, rol. iv. pp. 209, 210. 225. Buckingham's Travels, egg, which had been brought down from the surrounding cliffs by the rain. pp. 468. 471.

Travels in Egypt, &c. p. 453. De Bell. Jud. lib. iv. c. 1. $1. Reland conjectures that, for Daphne, 19 Volney's Travels in Egypt and Syria, vol. i. p. 288. 8vo. 3d edit.; Turin this passage of Josephus, we ought to read Dan, as there is no mention I ner's Tour in the Levant, vol. ii. p. 227.




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a south-easterly direction visible for ten or fifteen miles, descent to this fountain is by fifteen or sixteen steps. Being when it disappears in a curve towards the east. Its sur- defended from the sun, it is deliciously cool, and clear as face is generally unruffled, from the hollow of the basin in crystal: it has a kind of ebb and flood, sometimes dischargwhich it lies, scarcely admitting the free passage neces- ing its current like the fountain of Vaucluse; at others, resary for a strong breeze; it is, however, for the same reason, taining and scarcely suffering it to run at all. The pool or subject to whirlwinds or squalls of short duration.' The ex, rather the two pools of the same name are quite close to the panse of water at this point has been supposed not to exceed spring. They are still used for washing litten as formerly.. five or six miles; though the mountains, which skirt each Anciently, its waters were conducted into the two large reserside of the valley of the Dead Sea, are apparently separated voirs or pools, already noticed in page 21. Modern travelby a distance of eight miles. These mountains present to lers relate that people still bathe their eyes with the waters the eye of the spectator granite, and those other rocks, which of this fountain, in memory of the miracle performed on the (according to the Wernerian system of geology) characterize man who had been born blind. At this fountain, the ancient the oldest or primitive formation. It is probable that this Jews were wont to draw water with great solemnity on the region, at a remote period, was the theatre of immense vol- last day of the Feast of Tabernacles : an account of this cerecanoes, the effects of which may still be traced along the mony will be found in Part III. chap. iv. § vii. of this banks of the Lower Jordan, and more especially on the lake volume. itself, on the shores of which bitumen, lava, and pumice 2. Jacob's Well or fountain is situated at a small distance stones continue to be thrown by the waves. As the Dead from Sichem or Sechem, also called Sychar, and at present Sea advances towards the south, it evidently increases in Napolese: it was the residence of Jacob before his sons slew breadth. Pliny states the total length to be one hundred the Shechemites. It has been visited by pilgrims of all ages, miles, and its greatest breadth twenty-five. Byt Dr. Shaw but especially by Christians, to whom it has become an oband other modern travellers, who appear to have ascertained ject of veneration from the memorable discourse of our Saits dimensions with accuracy, have estimated its length to be viour with the woman of Samaria. (John iv. 5—30.) about seventy-two English miles, and its greatest breadth to In consequence of the scarcity of water in the East, travelbe nearly nineteen. A profound silence, awful as death, lers are careful to stop as often as possible near some river, hangs over the lake: not a ripple is to be seen on its surfacefountain, or well: this will probably account for Jacob's haltand its desolate though majestic features are well suited to ing with his family at the ford Jabbok (Gen. xxxii. 22.); for the tales related concerning it by the inhabitants of the coun- the Israelites assembling their forces near the fountains of try, who all speak of it with terror.''

Jezreel (1 Sam. xxix. 1.), as the celebrated Moslem warrior 4. The Great Sea, mentioned in Num. xxxiv. 6. and Saladin afterwards did ; 11 and for David's men that were unelsewhere in the Sacred Volume, is the Mediterranean Sea, able to march with him, waiting for him by the brook Besor. so called by way of eminence: in Exod. xxii. 31, it is called (1 Sam. xxx. 21.) It is not improbable that the ancient wells, the Sea of the Philistines, because their country bordered on mentioned in Gen. xvi. 14. xxiv. 20. and Exod. ii. 15., were its shores.

furnished with some conveniences for drawing water to re5. The Red Sea, so often noticed, is now known by the fresh the fainting traveller, and with troughs or other contriappellation of the Arabian Gulph.?

vances for supplying cattle with water, similar to those which Besides the preceding rivers and lakes, the Scriptures are to this day found in Persia, Arabia, and other countries in mention several Fountains and Wells. In a country where the East. 2 În Eccl. xii. 6. Solomon alludes to a wheel as these are of rare occurrence, it is no wonder that they should being employed for the purpose of raising water.13 Great preanciently have given rise to strife and contention. (Gen. cautions were taken, anciently as well as in modern times, to xxi. 25. xxvi. 20.). The most remarkable of these fountains prevent the moving sands from choking up their wells, by and wells are the Fountain or Pool of Siloam, and Jacob's Well. placing a stone over the mouth (Gen. xxix. 2-8.) after the

1. Siloam was a fountain under the walls of Jerusalem, requisite supply had been drawn up; or by locking them up, east, between the city and the brook Kedron: it is supposed which Sir John Chardin thinks was done at Laban's well, to be the same as the fountain En-Rogel, or the Fuller's of which Rachel, perhaps, kept the key. (Gen. xxix. 6. 9.) Fountain (Josh. xv. 7. and xvjii. 16. 2 Sam. xvii. 17. and The stopping up of wells is to this day an act of hostility in 1 Kings i. 9.), and also the Gihon. (1 Kings i. 33.) The the East, as it was in the days of Abraham and Isaac (Gen. spring issues from a rock, and runs in a silent stream, ac- xxvi. 15—18.), and of Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxii. 3, 4.), and cording to the testimony of Isaiah. (viü. 6.) The modern also long after among several ancient nations. Thus, the

Scythians, in their retreat before the Persians, under Darius, 1 Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, p. 293. * The mountains on the Judæan side are lower than those of the Ara: and Arsaces ordered the wells to be broken and filled up,

filled up the wells and fountains which lay in their way:14 inity, is said to consist of dark granite, and of various colours. The hills, upon the advance of Antiochus from Ecbatana; while the which branch off from the western end, are composed entirely of white latter, who was fully aware of their consequence to himselt to this lake, though the Jordan flows into it, as did formerly the Kedron, and his army, sent a detachment of a thousand horse, to drive and the Arnon to the south. It is not

known that there has been any away the Persian cavalry who were employed upon this servisible increase or decrease of its waters. Some have supposed that it finds a subterraneous passage to the Mediterranean, or that there is a considerable auction in the plain which forms its western boundary." (Carne's 9 Chateaubriand's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 34. 36. Mr. Buckingham, who visited Letters, pp. 317, 318.) But the uniform level of its waters is sufficiently the fountain or Siloam in 1816, describes it as a dirty, little brook; which accounted for by the quantity which is evaporated. (See Dr. Shaw's even in the rainy season is said to be an insignificant muddy stream. Travels, vol. ii. pp. 157, 158.)

Travels in Palestine, p. 188. See also Richardson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 357. • Volney's Travels in Syria, vol. i. pp.

281, 282. Travels of Ali Bey (M. 19 Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 278–280. Some learned men have Radhia), vol. ii. p. 263. Buckingham's Travels, pp. 443. 448. Russell's conjectured that Jacob's well was only a cistern or reservoir for raiu Palestine, p. 412

water; but the whole of the surrounding scenery confirms the evange. • Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 113.

list's narrative, and the antiquity of the well. Such cisterns, indeed, are * Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 157. Mr. Carne, however, who visited the common in the oriental deserts to this day, and it is perhaps to conve. Dead Sea in 1825, estimates its length to be about sixty miles, and its gene- niences of this kind, wade or renewed by the devout Israelites, in the ral breadth eight. On his arrival at its shore, where the waters lay like valley of Baca, to facilitate their going up io Jerusalem, that the Psalmist lead, there was not a breath of wind. “Whoever," says this intelligent refers (lxxxiv. 6, 7.) where he speaks of going from strength to strength traveller, "has seen the Dead Sea, will ever after have its aspect impressed till they appeared in Zion. Hariner's Observations, vol. ii. p. 184. To upon his memory; it is, in truth, a gloomy and fearful spectacle. The pre prevent accidents by the owners of such cisterns leaving them uncovered, cipices, in general, descend abruptly into the lake, and on account of their Moses enacted various regulations. See Exod. xxi. 33, 34. height it is seldom agitated by the winds. Its shores are not visited by any 11 Harner's Observations, vol.iii. p. 401. The Christian kings of Jerusafootstep, save that of the wild Arab, and he holds it in superstitious dread. lem, in the close of the twelfth century, also assembled their forces at a No unpleasant effluvia are perceptible round it, and birds are seen occa- fountain between Nazareth and Sephoris. Ibid. sionally Nying across.... A few inches beneath the surface of the m d are 19 In the villages of Ethiopia, Messrs. Waddington and Hanbury frequently found those black sulphureous stones, out of which crosses are made, met with huts by the road side, containing large jars of water for travellers. and sold to the pilgriins. The water has an abominable taste, in which When there is no hut, the jar is generally placed under a pine tree. that of salt predominates; and we observed incrustations of salt on the Journal of a Visit to Ethiopia, p. 35. surface of soine of the rocks." Letters from the East, pp. 316, 317.

13 In Smyrna and many other places in the East, a large wheel is fixed s for an account and refutation of the ancient traditions concerning the over the mouth of a well in a vertical position to this wheel a number of Dead Sea, see Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 400-406. 8vo. A compre. pitchers is attached in such a manner, that by means of its revolution, hensive digest of nearly all that has been written concerning this sea will which is effected by a horse, they are continually descending and filling, be found in the Modern Traveller, Palestine, pp. 204-224.

and ascending and discharging themselves." (Hartley's Researches in See the article Red Sea, in the Historical and Geographical Index, Greece, pp 235, 236.) In the Russian Government of lver, Dr. Henderson Infra

was struck with the number of wells which he saw, over each of which is • When Capt. Light descended in 1814, into the beautiful plain of Sephora, built a large wooden apparatus, consisting chiefly of a windlass, with a wheel or Sephoury, at a short distance from Nazareth, he saw in the centre a about six feet' in diameter, which is turned round by the hand, and thus biaad of herdsmen, armed with muskets, watering their cattle in a large the water is drawn up in a bucket. He is of opinion that it is obviously to stone reservoir. With them he was obliged to have an altercation before a machine of this kind that Solomon refers in his highlý figurative picture they would permit him to water his horse, without paying for the privilege of old age. Biblical Researches, p. 32. Traveis, p. 196. Three Weeks ia Palestinc, p. 68.

· Herodotus, lib. iv. c. 120. toin. I. p. 292. Oxon. 1809.

vice. Wells and fountains were also lurking places of rob- | vicinity of Damascus eastward, and firming the extreme bers and assassins, and enemies were accustomed to lie in northern boundary of the Holy Land. Anciently, it abounded ambush at them as they are now. To this Deborah alludes with odoriferous trees of various descriptions, from which the in her song. (Judg. v. 11.). The Crusaders suffered much most curious gums and balsams were extracted. from the Saracens, who lay in ambush for them in like man- It is divided into two principal ridges or rariges parallel to ner; and Dr. Shaw mentions a beautiful well in Barbary, the each other, the most westerly of which is known by the water of which is received into a large basin for the accom- name of Libanus, and the opposite or eastern ridge by the modation of travellers; and which is called Shrub we krub, appellation of Anti-Libanus: but the Hebrews do not make that is, Drink and away, from the danger which they incur this distinction of names, denominating both summits by the of meeting with assassins there.2

common name of Lebanon. These mountains may be seen In our own time it is the custom for the oriental women, from a very considerable distance, and some part of other of particularly those who are unmarried, to fetch water from the them is covered with snow throughout the year. On the wells, in the mornings and evenings; at which times they loftiest summit of all, Dr. Clarke observed the snow lying, go forth adorned with their trinkets. This will account for not in patches, as he had seen it during the summer apon the Rebecca's fetching water (Gen. xxiv. 15.), and will further tops of very elevated mountains, but investing all the higher prove that there was no impropriety in Abraham's servant part with that perfect white and smooth velvet-like appearpresenting her with more valuable jewels than those she had ance which snow only exhibits when it is very deep-a strikbefore on her hands. (Gen. xxiv. 22–47.)3

ing spectacle in such a climate, where the beholder, seeking 3. As the cities were mostly erected on éminences, and (as protection from a burning sun, almost considers the firma we have already seen) the rains fall only in the spring and ment to be on fire. These mountains are by no means barautumn, the inhabitants of Palestine constructed CISTERNS, ren, but are almost all well cultivated, and well peopled : or reservoirs for water, both in cities and in private houses. their summits are, in many parts, level, and form extensive Allusions to the latter occur in 2 Kings xvii. 31. Prov. v. 15. plains, in which are sown corn, and all kinds of pulse. They and Isa. xxxvi. 16. Uzziah king of Judah cut out many cis- are watered by numerous cold flowing springs, rivulets, and terns (2 Chron. xxvi. 10.) for the supply of his cattle. Cis- streams of excellent water, which diffuse on all sides a freshterns of very large dimensions exist, at this day, in Palestine. ness and fertility even in the most elevated regions. To In the vicinity of Bethlehem, in particular, there are three these Solomon has a beautiful allusion. (Song iv. 15.). Vinecapacious pools, known by the name of SOLOMON'S Pools. yards, and plantations of mulberry, olive, and fig trees are They are in the shape of a long square, covered with a thick also cultivated on terraces formed by walls, which support coat of plaster in the inside, and supported by abutments : the earth from being washed away by the rains from the the workmanship throughout, like every thing Jewish, is sides of the acclivities. The soil of the deelivities and of more remarkable for strength than beauty. They are situated the hollows that occur between them is most excellent, and at the south end of a small valley; and, from the slope of the produces abundance of corn, oil, and wine; which is as much ground, the one falls considerably below the level of the celebrated in the East in the present day as it was in the time other. That on the west is nearest the source of the spring, of the prophet Hosea, who particularly alludes to it. (Hos. and is the smallest, being about four hundred and eighty feet xiv. 7.) Lebanon was anciently celebrated for its stately long; the second is about six hundred feet, and the third, cedars, which are now less numerous than in former times;9 about six hundred and sixty feet long. The breadth of them they grow among the snow near the highest part of the mounall is nearly the same, about two hundred and seventy feet. tain, and are remarkable, as well for their age and size, as The fountains communicate freely with each other, and are for the frequent allusions made to them in the Scriptures. capable of holding a great quantity of water; which they (See 1 kings iv. 33. Psal. Ixxx. 10. and xcii. 12, &c. &c.) discharge into a small aqueduct that conveys it to Jerusalem. These trees form a little grove by themselves, as if planted Both fountains and aqueduct are said to have been made by by art, and are seated in a hollow amid rocky eminences all Solomon the son and successor of David, and the antiquity around them, and form a small wood, at the foot of the ridge, of their appearance bears testimony to the truth of the state- which forms the highest peak of Lebanon. The number of ment.

the largest trees has varied at different times. To omit the IV. Palestine is a mountainous country, especially that varying

numbers stated by the earlier travellers :—the Rev. part of it which is situated between the Mediterranean or Henry Maundrell, who travelled in this region in 1696, Great Sea and the river Jordan. The principal MOUNTAINS reckoned sixteen of the largest size, one of which he meaare those of Lebanon, Carmel, Tabor, the mountains of Israel, sured, and found it to be twelve yards and six inches in girth, and of Gilead: those which are either within the limits, or and yet sound; and thirty-seven yards in the spread of the in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem, have been noticed in boughs. The celebrated oriental traveller, Mr. Burckhardt, p. 19. supra.

who traversed Mount Libanus in 1810, counted eleven or 1. LEBANON, by the Greeks and Latins termed Libanus, is twelve of the oldest and best looking trees, twenty-five very a long chain of limestone mountains, on the summits of which large ones, about fifty of middling size, and more than three fossilized antediluvian fishes were formerly discovered ;5 ex- hundred smaller and young ones. Mr. Buckingham, ir tending from the neighbourhood of Sidon on the west to the 1816, computed them to be about two hundred in number, i Polybius, lib. x. c. 29. tom. iii.

twenty of which were very large.10 In 1817-18 Captains

Shaw's Travels, vol. I, p. 63. Irby and Mangles stated that there might be about fifty of 8vo. Burckhardt's Travels in Syria, &c. p. 627. Captains Irby and Mangles them, not one of which had much merit

either for dimensions stopped at some wells of fresh water, where they found a great assem.

or beauty; the largest among them appearing to be the juneblage of camels and many Arabs, who appeared to stop all passengers. They entered into a violent dispute with the conductors of those gentle: tion of four or five trunks into one tree. Dr. Richardson, in men: and presently levied a contribution on the Arabs who accompanied 1818, stated the oldest trees to be no more than seven.12 The them. A similar fate would certainly have awaited them, had it not been oldest trees were distinguished by having the foliage and to El Arish, surveying

• Harmer's Observations,

vol. 1: 25.3. edit. Schweighaeuser.

. 409

their baggage with the most thieving inquisitive. small branches at the top only, and by four, five, or even ness." Travels in Egypt, &c. pp. 173, 174. Harmer's Observations, vol. I. pp. 198. 199. vol. ii. pp. 125. 184. 193. vol. iii. trunks of the others were lower: the trunks of the old trees

seven trunks springing from one base; the branches and p. 401. "In the valley of Nazareth," says Dr. Clarke, appeared one of those fountains, which, from time immemorial, have been the halting place of cara. were covered with the names of travellers and other persons vans, and sometimes the scene of contention and bloodshed. The women of who have visited them, some of which are dated as far back Nazareth were passing to and from the town, with pitchers upon their heads. We stopped to view the group of camels with their drivers, who were

as 1640. The trunks of the oldest trees (the wood of which there reposing; and calling to mind the manners of the inost remote ages, is of a gray tint) seemed to be quite dead.13 These cedars we renewed the solicitations of Abraham's servant unto Rebecca, by the were the resort of eagles (Ezek. xvii. 3.); as the lofty sumwell of Nahor, Gen. xxiv. 17.(Travels, vol. iv. p. 165.) A similar custom was observed by the same traveller in the Isle of Syros. (vol. vi. The heights of ODOROUS Lebanon are eulogized by Musaeus :-A.Bavcu pp. 152, 153.) And by Mr. Emerson. (Letters from the Ægean, vol. ii. p. 45.) JUORUTOS BY #Tspugsooi. Good's Sacred Idyls, p. 122. At Cana Mr. Rae Wilson, (Travels in the Holy Land, vol. ii. pp. 3, 4.), and also * Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. p. 201, 202. Mr. Carne, observed several of the women bearing stone waterine-pots on • Light's Travels, p. 219. their heads as they returned from the well. (Letters from the East, p. 253.) • Mr. Kinneir, who visited this country at the close of the year 1913, says, In Bengal it is the universal practice for the women to go to pools and that the once celebrated cedars are now only to be found in one particular rivers to fetch water. Companies of four, six, ten, or more, inay be seen in spot of the great mountainous range wbich bears the name of Libanus, and every town, daily, going to fetch water, with the pitchers resting on their that in so scanty a nuinber as not to exceed four or five hundred. Journey sides. (Ward's View of the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. li. p. 316.) through Asia Minor, &c. p. 172. 8vo. 1818. In the island of Goza, which is eighteen miles from Malta, Mr. Joweit says, 10 Buckingham's Travels among the Arab Tribes, pp. 475, 476. that the women, as they go to the wells for water, carry their empty 11 Irby's and Mangles' Travels, pp. 209, 210. Jutchers horizontally on their heads, with the mouth looking backwards. 12 Maundrell's Journey, p. 191. La Roque, Voyage de Syrie et du Mont Missionary Register for 1818, p. 297.) May not this illustrate Jer. xiv. 3.? Liban, p. 88. See also Dr. Richardson's Travels,

vol. ii. pp. 512, 513. • Dr. Richardson's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 379, 380.

13 Burckhardt's Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, pp. 20, 21. London, ! See the authorities in Reland's Palæstina, torn. I. p. 321.

1822. 4to.

mits of the mountains were the haunts of lions and other by the river Kishon; and on the west a narrower plain de. beasts of prey (Sol. Song iv. 8.), which used to descend and scending to the sea. Its greatest height does not exceed surprise the unwary traveller. But instead of these, the tra- fifteen hundred feet. The summits of this mountain aie veller may now frequently see the hart or the deer issue from said to abound with oaks, pines, and other trees; and, among his covert to slake his thirst in the streams that issue from brambles, wild vines and olive trees are still to be found, the mountains. To this circumstance David beautifully al- proving that industry had formerly been employed on this ludes in Psal. xlii. 1., which was composed when he was ungrateful soil: nor is there any deficiency of fountains and driven from Jerusalem by the rebellion of Absalom, and was rivulets, so grateful to the inhabitants of the east. There wandering among these mountains. Finally, Mr. Carne, in are many caves in this mountainous range, particularly on 1825, states that the forests, the cedar trees, the glory of the western side, the largest of which, called the school of Lebanon, have in a great measure disappeared, to make way Elijah, is much venerated both by Mohammedans and Jews. for innumerable plantations of vines.'

On the summit, facing the sea, tradition says, that the proANTI-LIBANUS or ANTI-LEBANON is the more lofty ridge of phet stood when he prayed for rain, and beheld the cloud the two, and its summit is clad with almost perpetual snow, arise out of the sea :9 and on the side next the sea is a cave, which was carried to the neighbouring towns for the purpose to which some commentators have supposed that the prophet of cooling liquors (Prov. xxv. 13. and perhaps Jer. xviii. 14.); Elijah desired Ahab to bring Baal's prophets, when celestial a practice which has obtained in the east to the present day. fire descended on his sacrifice. (1 Kings xviii. 19—40.) Its rock is primitive calcareous, of a fine grain, with a sandy Carmel appears to have been the name, not of the hill only slate upon the higher parts: it affords good pasturage in distinguished as Mount Carmel, on the top of which the many spots where the Turkmans feed their cattle, but the faithful prophet Elijah offered sacrifice, but also of the whole western declivity towards the district of Baalbec is quite district, which afforded the richest pasture: and shepherds barren.3 The most elevated summit of this ridge was by the with their flocks are to be seen on its long grassy slopes, Hebrews called HERMON; by the Sidonians, Sirion; and by which at present afford as rich a pasture ground, as in the the Amorites, SHENIR (Deut. iii. 9.): it formed the northern days when Nabal fed his numerous herds on Carmel.10 This boundary of the country beyond Jordan. Very copious dews was the excellency of Carmel which Isaiah (xxxv. 2.) opposes fall here, as they also did in the days of the Psalmist. (See to the barren desert. It is mentioned by Àmos (i. 2.) as the Psal. cxxxiii

. 3.)

, In Deut. iv. 48. this mountain is called habitations of the shepherds. The expression forest of his Sion, which has been supposed to be either a contraction, or Carmel (2 Kings xix. 23. Isa. xxxvii. 24.), implies that it a faulty reading for Sirion : but Bishop Pococke thinks it abounded at one time with wood: but its remoteness, as the probable that Hermon was the name of the highest summit border country of Palestine, and the wilderness characteristic of this mountain, and that a lower part of it had the name of of pastoral highlands, rather than its loftiness or its inaccesSion. This obviates the geographical difficulty which some sibility, must be alluded to by the prophet Amos. (ix. 2, 3.) interpreters have imagined to exist in Psal. cxxxiii

. 3., where There was another Mount Carmel, with a city of the same Mount Sion is mentioned in connection with Hermon, and name, situated in the tribe of Judah, and mentioned in is generally understood to be Mount Sion in Jerusalem, Joshua xv. 55. 1 Sam. xxv. 2. and 2 Sam. iii. 3. which was more than thirty miles distant. According to the 3. Tabor or THABOR is a calcareous mountain of a conical bishop's supposition, the dew falling from the top of Hermon form, entirely detached from any neighbouring mountain, and down to the lower parts, might well be compared in every stands on one side of the great plain of Esdraelon: the sides respect to the precious ointment upon the head that ran down are rugged and precipitous, but clothed with luxuriant trees unto the beard, even Aaron's beard, and went down to the skirts and brushwood, except on the southern side of the mountain. of his garments (Psal. cxxxiii. 2.), and that both of them, Here Barak was encamped, when, at the suggestion of Deboin this sense, are very proper emblems of the blessings of rah, he descended with ten thousand men, and discomfited unity and friendship, which diffuse themselves throughout the host of Sisera. (Judg. iv.) The mountain is computed the whole society.5

to be nearly one mile in height; to a person standing at its Both Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon are computed to be about foot, it appears to terminate in a point; but when arrived at fifteen or sixteen hundred fathoms in height, and offer a the top, he is agreeably surprised to find an oval plain of grand and magnificent prospect to the beholder; from which about a quarter of a mile in its greatest length, covered with many elegant metaphors are derived by the sacred writers. a bed of fertile soil on the west, and having on its eastern (See Isa. X. 34. xxix. 17. and xxxv. 2.) Lebanon was justly side a mass of ruins, seemingly the vestiges of churches, considered as a very strong barrier to the Land of Promise, grottoes, and strong walls, all decidedly of some antiquity, and opposing an almost insurmountable obstacle to the move- and a few appearing to be the works of a very remote age. 11 ments of cavalry and to chariots of war. “When, therefore, The prospects from this mountain are singularly delightful Sennacherib, in the arrogance of his heart, and the pride of and extensive. To the south lie the MOUNTAINS OF ENGEDDA his strength, wished to express the ease with which he had AND SAMARIA; to the north-east, about six miles off, appears subdued the greatest difficulties, and how vain was the re- Mount HERMON, beneath which were Nain and Endor. To sistance of Hezekiah and his people, he says, By the multi- the north lie the Mount OF THE BEATITUDES,12 where Christ tude of my chariots hare I come to the height of the mountains, delivered his divine sermon to the multitude (who were mito the sides of Lebanon! and I will cut down the tall cedars raculously fed in its vicinity), and the MOUNTAINS OF GILBOA thereof, and the choice, fir trees thereof; and I will enter into so fatal to Saul. The latter are still called by the natives the height of his border, and the forest of his Carmel. (Isa. Djebel Gilbo, or Mount Gilbo. They are a lengthened ridge, xxxvii. 24.) What others accomplish on foot, with much rising up in peaks about eight hundred feet above the level labour and the greatest difficulty, by a winding path cut into of the road, probably about one thousand feet above the level steps, which no beast of burden, except the cautious and of the Jordan, and about twelve hundred above that of the sure-footed mule can tread, that haughty monarch vaunted sea; and bounding the plain of the Jordan on the west. Utter he could perform with horses and a multitude of chariots."' solitude is on every side of these mountains, which afford no During the latter period of the Roman empire, Lebanon af- dwelling places for men, except for the wandering shepherd, forded an asylum to numerous robbers, who infested the whose search for pasturage must often be in vain; as a little neighbouring regions, so that the eastern emperors found it withered grass and a few scanty shrubs, dispersed in different necessary to establish garrisons there.?

places, constitute the whole produce of the mountains of 2. Mount Carmel is situated about ten miles to the south Gilboa.13 The sea of Tiberias is clearly discovered towards of Acre or Ptolemais, on the shore of the Mediterranean sea : it is a range of hills extending six or eight miles nearly north • Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, pp. 119, 120. Mr. Rae Wilson, and south, coming from the plain of Esdraelon, and ending however, estimates its height at two thousand feet. Travels in the Holy in the promontory or cape which forms the bay of Accho of Land, vol. ii. p. 51. Third edition.

. Scholz's Travels in Egypt, &c. cited in the Brit. Crit. and Theol. Re. Acre. 'It is very rocky, and is composed of a whitish stone, view, vol. i. p. 372. Carne's Letters, p. 249. with flints imbedded in it. On the east is a fine plain watered 10 Carne's Recollections of the East, p. 43.

11 Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 140. Buckingham's

Travels in 1 Letters from the East, p. 411.

Palestine, p. 104. Burckhardt's Travels in Syria, &c. p. 334. The vignette 2 Harmer's Observations, vol. ii. pp. 156, 157.

of this mountain in p. 23. is copied from Dr. E. D. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. • Burckhardt's Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, pp. 20, 21.

p. 234. It represents the mountain as seen in crossing the plain of Jezreel • Maundrell, p. 77.

Pococke's Description of the East, vol. ii. part i. pp. 74, 75. Bp. Po- 19 This hill may have an elevation of from two to three hundred feet. cocke's explanation is approved by Mr. Buckingham. Travels among the The prospect from its summit, which is an area of many acres containing Arab Tribes, p. 395.

scattered ruins, is both extensive and beautiful. Wilson's Travels in & Paxton's Illustrations of Scripture, vol. 1. p. 134. First edition. Egypt and the Holy Land, p. 343. (London, 1822, 8vo.) Glycæ Annal. lib. xiv. p. 91. Procopius de Bell. Pers. lib

13 Richardson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 425.' Carne's Recollections of the lib. ii. c. 16. 19. cited in Reland's Palæstina, tom. I. p. 322.

East, p. 19. (London, 1830, 8vo.)

or Esdraelon.


the north-east, terminated by the snow-capped Hermon. On are conjectured to have derived their name from the passes the eastern side of Tabor there is a small 'height, which by between the hills, of which they were formed, or perhaps. ancient tradition is supposed to have been the scene of our from the Israelites having passed the river Jordan into the Lord's transfiguration.2 (Matt. xvii. 1–8. Mark ix. 2—9.) promised land, opposite to these mountains. According to During the greater part of the summer, the mountain is co- Dr. Shaw, they are a long ridge of frightful, rocky, and prevered in the morning with thick clouds, which disperse cipitous hills, which are continued all along the eastern coast towards mid-day. Mount CARMEL is to the south-west, and of the Dead Sea, as far as the eye can reach. Near these conceals the Mediterranean from view: and at the foot of mountains the Ísraelites had several encampments. The this mountain the spacious and cultivated plain of Esdraelon most eminent among them are Pisgah and NEBO, which form spreads itself.

a continued chain, and command a view of the whole land of 4. The MOUNTAINS OF ISRAEL, also called the MOUNTAINS Canaan. (Deut. iii. 27. xxxii. 48–50. xxxiv. 1, 2, 3.) of EPHRAIM, were situated in the very centre of the Holy From Mount Nebo Moses surveyed the promised land, before Land, and opposite to the MOUNTAINS OF JUDAH. The soil he was gathered to his people. (Num. xxvii. 12, 13.) The of both ridges is fertile, excepting those parts of the moun- Hebrews frequently give the epithet of everlasting to their tains of Israel which approach the region of the Jordan, and mountains, because they are as old as the earth itself. See, which are both rugged and difficult of ascent, and also with among other instances, Gen. xlix. 26. and Deut. xxxiii. 15. the exception of the chain extending from the Mount of Olives The mountains of Palestine were anciently places of refuge near Jerusalem to the plain of Jericho, which has always to the inhabitants when defeated in war (Gen. xiv. 10.); and afforded lurking places to robbers. (Luke x. 30.) The most modern travellers assure us that they are still resorted to for elevated summit of this ridge, which appears to be the same the same purpose. The rocky summits found on many of that was anciently called the Rock of Rimmon (Judg. xx. 45. them appear to have been not unfrequently employed as 47.), is at present known by the name of Quarantania, and altars, on which sacrifices were offered to Jehovah (Judg. vi. is supposed to have been the scene of our Saviour's tempta- 19–21. and xiii. 15—20.); although they were afterwards tion." (Matt. iv. 8.) It is described by Maundrell, as situ- converted into places for idol worship, for which the prophets ated in a mountainous desert, and being a most miserably Isaiah (lvii. 7.) and Ezekiel (xviii. 6.) severely reprove their dry and barren place, consisting of high rocky mountains, degenerate countrymen. And as many of the mountains of torn and disordered, as if the earth had here suffered some Palestine were situated in desert places, the shadow they great convulsion. The celebrated Mountains of Ebal (some- project has furnished the prophet Isaiah with a pleasing times written Gebal) and Gerizim (Deut. xi. 29. xxvii. 4. 12. image of the security that shall be enjoyed under the kingdom Josh. viii. 30—35.) are separated from each other merely by of Messiah. (xxxii. 2.) an intervening valley: they are situate, the former to the From the mountains, the transition to the VALLEYS is north, and the latter to the south of Sichem or Napolose, natural and easy. Of those which are mentioned in the whose streets run parallel to the latter mountain, which Sacred Writings, the following are the most celebrated; viz. overlooks the town." In the Mountains of Judah there are 1. The VALLEY OF BLESSING (in Hebrew, the Valley of numerous caves, some of a considerable size: the most re- Berachah), in the tribe of Judah, on the west side of the lake markable of these is the cave of Adullam, mentioned in of Sodom, and in the wilderness of Tekoah. It derived its 1 Sam. xxii. 1,2.—“There is a kind of sublime horror in the name from a signal victory which God granted to the pious lofty, craggy, and barren aspect of these two mountains, king Jehoshaphat over the combined forces of the Moabites, which seem to face each other with an air of defiance; espe- Edomites, and Immonites. (2 Chron. xx. 22–26.) cially as they stand contrasted with the rich valley beneath, 2. The VALE OF SIDDIM, memorable for the overthrow of where the city [of Shechem or Napolose) appears to be em- Chedorlaomer and his confederate emirs or kings. (Gen. bedded on either side in green gardens and extensive olive xiv. 2—10.). In this vale stood the cities of Sodom and Gogrounds,-rendered more verdant by the lengthened periods morrah, which were afterwards destroyed by fire from of shade which they enjoy from the mountains on each side. heaven, on which account this vale is also termed the Salt Of the two, Gerizim is not wholly without cultivation.”:4 Sea. (Gen. xiv. 3.)

5. The MOUNTAINS OF GILEAD are situated beyond the Jor- 3. The Valley of Slaven, also called the King's Dale dan, and extend from Anti-Libanus or Mount Hermon south-(Gen. xiv. 17. 2 Sam. xviii. 18.), derived its name from a ward into Arabia Petræa. The northern part of them, known city of the same name that stood in it. Here Melchisedek, by the name of BASHAN, was celebrated for its stately oaks, king of Salem, met the victorious Abraham after the defeat and numerous herds of cattle pastured on its fertile soil, to of the confederate kings. (Gen. xiv. 18.) which there are many allusions in the Scriptures. (See, 4. The VALE OF SALT is supposed to have been in the land among other passages, Deut. xxxii. 14. Psal. xxii. 12. and of Edom, east of the Dead Sea, between Tadmor and Bozrah. lxviii.

15. Isa. ii. 13. Ezek. xxxix. 18. Amos iv. 1.) The Here both David and Amaziah discomfited the Edomites. hair of the goats that browsed about Mount Gilead, appears (2 Sam. viii. 13. 2 Kings xiv. 7.). from Cant. iv. 1. to have been as fine as that of the oriental 5. The VALLEY OF MAMRE received its name from Mamre goat, which is well known to be possessed of the fineness of an Amorite, who was in alliance with Abraham : it was celethe most delicate silk, and is often employed in modern times brated for the oak (or as some critics render it terebinth) tree, for the manufacture of muffs. The middle part of this moun- under which the patriarch dwelt (Gen. xiii. 18.), in the tainous range, in a stricter sense, was termed Gilead; and in vicinity of Hebron. all probability is the mountain now called Djebel Djclaad or 6. The VALLEY OF AJALON is contiguous to the city of the Djebel Djelaoud, on which is the ruined town of Djelaad, same name, in the canton allotted to the tribe of Dan: it is which may be the site of the ancient city Gilead (Hos. vi. memorable as the scene of the miracle related in Josh. x. 12. 8.), elsewhere called Ramoth Gilead. In the southern part It is said to be of sufficient breadth and compass to allow a of the same range, beyond the Jordan, were,

numerous host to engage thereon. “ This valley is better 6. The MOUNTAINS OF ABARIM,6 a range of rugged hills, inhabited and cultivated than most other places in the terriforming the northern limits of the territory of Moab, which tory, and seems to enjoy a more equal and healthful tempera

1 Light's Travels, p. 200. • From the silence of the evangelists as to the mountain of transfigura: was so called from its gigantic inhabitants : it was situated

7. The VALLEY OF THE REPhaim (or the Giant's Valley) Cæsarea Philippi, some learned men have contended that Tabor could not on the confines of the territories allotted to the tribes of Judah have been the scene of that great event. No mountain, it is true, is speci: and Benjamin. It was memorable, as oftentimes being the fied by the evangelist, nor is the fact of Tabor being a mountain apart by field of battle between the Philistines and the Jews under to have happened six days after our Saviour's discourse at Cæsarea Phi- David and his successors. (2 Sam. v. 18. 22. xxiii. 13. lippi, he had time enough to return into Galilee, which was not above twenty-five leagues' distance from Tabor. It is, therefore, not improbable that this mountain was the scene of his transfiguration. Beausobre and * Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. pp. 429, 430. L'Enfant's Introduction. (Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. pp. 271, 272.) 8 "Ascending a sand hill that overlooked the plain, we saw Jericho, con.

Maundrell, pp. 106, 107. A later traveller, however, (Mr. Jolliffe) is trary to our hopes, at a great distance; and the level tract we must pass to of opinion that the view from this mountain is not sufficiently extensive. arrive at it was exposed to a sultry sun, without a single tree to afford us a Letters from Palestine, p. 129.

teinporary shade. The simile
of the shadow of a great rock

in a weary Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 102. (London, 1825. 8vo.) | land was never more forcibly felt." (Carne's Letters, p. 320.)." The • The oak, which in ancient tiines supplied the Tyrians with oars (Ezek shadow of a great projecting rock is the most refreshing that is possible in xxvii. 6.) is still frequently to be found here; the soil is most luxuriantly a hot country, not only as most perfectly excluding the rays of the sun, but fertile; and the nomadic Arab inhabitants are as robust and comely as we also having in itself a natural coolness, which it reflects and communicates may conceive its ancient possessors to have been, according to the notices to every thing about it.” Bishop Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 221. See also which incidentally occur in the Sacred Volume. See Mr. Buckingham's Dr. Henderson's Travels in Iceland, vol. I. p. 206., and Dr Richardson's interesting description of this region. Travels, pp. 325-329

Travels along the Mediterranean, &c. vol. ii. p. 186. Abarim denotes passes or passages.

• Carne's Recollections of the East, pp. 137.140


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