power and influence in Leadenhall-street, | faction is formed in India, to counteract had reached India, and would probably and defeat the instructions of the court effect as much mischief in the latter place of directors. To let matters rest there, as in the former. This, he said, had been would be only doing things by halves ; brought about by more ways than one ; the new influence created in the country but chiefly by the commission from the must be cherished and strengthened, by crown, enabling certain persons therein encouraging appeals to Europe. The named to be plenipotentiaries, to treat | nabob employs his agents and ambassa. with the country powers, and enter into dors; they conceal themselves for a while, treaties with them independent of the till they form an interest here. One of Company, and without consulting it. them, (Mr. Macleane) announces himself Thus, what was not done in Leadenhal)- as the agent of Mr. Hastings. He acts for street, was effectually completed on the him, but suddenly throws off the mask, spot. The Directors were rendered and declares himself the agent or ambascyphers at home, whenever they thought sador for the nabob of Arcot. Thus a proper to differ from administration; their faction is formed, fomented, and nouorders were defeated in India, whenever rished, both in India and Great Britain ; they carried any point here against the and the proprietors, willing to support sentiments of the King's servants. These their servants from such unconstitutional plenipotentiaries had done more mischief attacks, resist every attempt to seduce than perhaps the nation was aware of; them in the first instance, till at length they detached the country powers from administration making it a public point, the Company's servants, teaching them to as well as private object, by the full influ. look up to more powerful assistance. The ence of the crown, overturn every thing nabob of Arcot was a striking instance of that had been effected by their directors this. Those plenipotentiaries of the crown at home, or their servants in India. He had filled him full of ideas of equality and thought the council at Madras had acted independency; of equality with the King from the most factious and corrupt motives: of Great Britain, as a sovereign prince; of because they agreed unanimously with independency of the Company, who were lord Pigot on the propriety of carrying but the servants and subjects of his ally. his instructions relative to the restoration

These men, from views of ambition and of the rajah of Tanjore into execution; self-interest, had filled the nabob's head and never differed from him on any general full of similar notions with those they or particular measure concerning it, till themselves were inspired with. They Mr. Benfield, on his own account, and as talked to him of the treaty of Paris, and trustee for those who acted along with the guarantee of his dominions by the him, composed the majority of the councourt of France. Part of the consequences cil, became a mortgagee of the revenues of of the spirit thus raised, was the plan Tanjore, by having them assigned to him agreed upon between the nabob and Mr. for money supposed to be advanced to the Hastings, for dispossessing the rajah of nabob. He observed, that his hon, friend Tanjore of his dominions, and annexing who made the motion stated the patricular them to the Carnatic. The ill policy and part of the mortgage belonging to Mr. injustice of such an outrage of every thing | Benfield, at 30,0001. and the whole, for that ought to be held sacred and binding which he stands trustee, at 250,0001. but among men, struck the direction with he begged leave to say, that this fell infic horror. They heard, with grief and asto- nitely short of the real sum; for, the acnishment, that the unfortunate and unof- tual sum, for which the majority of the fending Gentoo prince was despoiled of his council were creditors of the nabob, was dominions, on a shameful, barefaced pre- upwards of 800,0001. which he could shew tence of an arrear of tribute being due to from proofs not to be controverted. The the nabob. The directors accordingly worst part of the whole transaction, and sent out lord Pigot, for the express pur- what corroborated every argument used, pose of repairing the injury, and restoring and deduction drawn by him, was, that the rajah to his territories. What has been this mortgage, or mock loan, took place the consequence of this ? Lord Pigot un- after the council knew that Tanjore was to dertakes the execution of the task; he be restored to its rightful owner, which performs it, as far as depends on him, proved two things; that they acted from with spirit and fidelity. The effect of this corrupt motives, in opposing lord Pigot ; new system of power is suddenly felt; a and that they dared to do so on promises

of indemnity both in India and England. He wished sincerely that the House would take up the matter distinct from all party considerations. Sir Herbert Mackworth expressed his surprize, that the hon. gentleman should move the present resolutions so late in the session; and said, he was the more surprised, that he should think of bringing the affairs of the India Company at all before parliament, when he recollected for several years past to have heard him uniformly declaim against the interference of parliament in the affairs of the Company. The resolutions of the Company of the 9th of May, had been approved by all inde. pendent persons, and only those who had particular connections with lord Pigot, had disapproved. He maintained, that lord Pigot had abused the trust committed to him, and had, contrary to all justice and form, suspended the two counsellors, by a trick as unconstitutional as indecent. He had therefore acted so extremely wrong, that it became necessary to recall him. On the other hand, the behaviour of the counsellors, in seizing and imprisoning lord Pigot, to the total subversion of all legal government, was equally reprehensible. On that ground, the counsellors were likewise ordered to return to this country, to answer for their misconduct; but as the consequences of the misconduct of lord Pigot, in suspending the two counsellors, and thereby obtaining a majority in support of his measures, were not to be so much dreaded as a sudden subversion of government, and an usurpation in consequence of that subversion; to hold out an example, and assert the dignity of government, lord Pigot was restored; but as equally involved in the most manifest violations of the constitution of the Company, and abuse of power, his lordship was included in the public disapÉ. such a conduct deservedly rought after it. He defended the logical ropriety of the terms in which the resoution at the India House, for recalling lord Pigot, &c. was conveyed. He said, that it might be easily conceived, that a person should be reinstated to preserve certain forms, and to convey a consequential censure, and yet forthwith be recalled. It would be answered, probably, why not, after reinstating lord Pigot, let him remain in his station for a month, or three, or six months, if required 2 He was of opinion, that as his lordship had abused the powers intrusted to him, he should not be per

mitted to retain them a day. He then moved, “That the chairman do now leave the chair.” Mr. T. Townshend said, the hon. gentleman had observed upon the connections and particular affections of those persons who favoured lord Pigot, and had remarked, that no independent man found fault with the resolutions of the court of proprietors for replacing and then recalling lord Pigot; for his part, he declared himself independent of both sides of the House, neither had he any knowledge of lord Pigot but from his public character, which he had heard was most excellent. As to the India House, he had never been but once at their court, and he then resolved it should be the last time : he was therefore free to declare, that he disapproved the last resolution of the court of proprietors of the 9th of May, but most highly approved the first. It appeared to him, that the restoration of lord Pigot to his government was a voluntary act of the court of proprietors, founded in justice; that the second, for recalling him immediately, was a most absurd contradiction of the first, and a measure brought about by administration; for the nabob was encouraged at home; he had an ambassador here, not indeed with any pompous titles, state, and parade, but agentleman of abilities, a Mr. Macleane, who he heard, as soon as he had effected the nabob's business by the destruction of lord Pigot, was to return back as ambassador from the King of Great Britain to the nabob. It seemed likewise, that he had a third master, Mr. Hastings, the avowed enemy of lord Pigot, though once his firm friend; that Mr. Hastings had recommended Mr. Macleane to the nabob : and it might fairly be concluded from all this, that his highness and Mr. Hastings were the contrivers of the arrest of lord Pigot. He was severe on the ambitious views of the nabob, on the supineness of the Company’s servants at home, and the influence of the ministry over them; in short, he represented the majority to have been collected by the minister's industry for the second resolution of recalling lord Pigot; adding, that he should not be surprised to see Mr. Macleane and the gentlemen of the council, who subverted the government of Madras by the most daring act of violence, brought into parliament hereafter as borough members. So far from thinking parliament ought not to interfere, or that the committee should be broke up on account of the late season, he thought parliament had not a moment to lose to prevent a civil war, and the arbitrary power of the nabob. He had voted for the Bill for regulating the East India Company; he thought them competent to manage their trading business, but not to govern large territories independent of the parliament of Great Britain; and the moment they became influenced by the King’s ministers, which it was evident they were, it was time to interfere. Mr. Wombwell defended the resolution of the 9th of May; read extracts from two or three of the bye laws of the Company, which directs that the minority of the council shall be bound by the majority; and that when there is an equality of voices, the fate of the question shall be decided by lot; from which he drew this inference, that as lord Pigot had broke through the bye laws of the Company, he had broke through its constitution, and had been guilty of positive and direct disobedience, he was of course no longer worthy of their trust or confidence. He spoke of the flourishing state of the Company; said, he did not wish that parliament should interfere but when there was real occasion, as there was at the time of the regulating Bill, which he called a most wise and timely interposition, which saved the Company and proprietors from dissolution and ruin. The effects were apparent in more instances than one; the proprietors might sleep on their pillows with ease and security: the Company was rescued from impending bankruptcy, and the widows and fatherless from penury and distress. The face of things was now, thank God, altered; the affairs of the Company were in a most flourishing condition. The debts in Bengal were paid off; the investments were made; the bond debts were reducing; in truth, the conduct of the friends of the present motion was uniform in its effects, should their doctrines prevail, though seemingly incon. sistent; for as at one time they were against the interference of parliament, when it proved the salvation of the Company; so now they pressed a parliamentary interference, when it promised to be roductive of the very worst consequences. e read an extract of a letter, relative to lord Pigot's conduct towards one of the council, a Mr. Floyer, who at first pressed to be sent to one of the out-presidencies, but was refused by his lordship, in order to keep him for the purpose of supporting

his measures in council; but as soon as he differed from him, was for getting rid of him, and told him, that no man should ever rise in the service who opposed him. [The House called for proof of this fact, but none was produced.] Mr. For opened with a remark as to the objection of bringing on the business at this time of the year; he desired gentlemen to remember that it was in the month of May they voted away the liberties of America, and it was in the month of May they voted the Quebec establishment so contrary to our constitution; he thought no time so proper as the present for the . business before them. When a noble lord had suffered a violence unknown under any legal government in the world; had been thrown from his seat of office, arrested, imprisoned, and his life threatened by the military power, trampling upon the civil, it was necessary to make an enquiry how this dark transaction had been contrived, and by whose influence, those who were the principal actors and agents in it, were encouraged both at home and in India. He said it was evident the nabob of Arcot wanted to be master of the EastIndia Company’s affairs; and this he could not effect, without removing a governor sent out express to controul his power. Lord Pigot was the only governor in any part of his Majesty's dominions who had gone out without the approbation of the minister, therefore he must be removed, therefore the agent of the nabob must be countenanced here, and a resolution to recall him be contrived for the purpose. For his part, he saw it was impossible for the muscles of the human face to be kept composed, while such an absurd resolution was read: he never had met with any one man, of any party whatever, who approved it. He had heard, ever since he knew any thing of public affairs, that Tanjore was a rich country, that all the other parts of India had been plucked till they could bear no more, but Tanjore still remained to be fleeced, and would afford fine pickings for the nabob of the Carnatic and his party in England and in Asia. He saw a chain of connection established long since between the nabob and administration, which was now made public by the arrival of the nabob’s ambassador, who had not yet declared himself in form, but had been perfectly well received. He justified lord Pigot principally upon the justification and representations of his enemies and persecutors; upon the ac

counts transmitted home by Mr. Stratton, and the other counsellors, who stood in the same predicament. He contended, that this was evidence not to be controverted, or explained away. It was a record against the parties, the truth and authenticity of which they could not now dare to appeal from. He said, the effect of this evidence throughout, led to the most certain self-conviction. He gave the highest encomiums on the virtues and military talents of lord Pigot; and was so very able, pointed, convincing, and severe, that several of the members, in a transport of approbation, forgot themselves so far, as to testify it in accents of Bravo! Hear him —which they accompanied with a clapping of hands [a conduct unprecedented.] He observed, that there was a remarkable deficiency in the House, which shewed the opinion that men in office had of the business. One learned gentleman, the Attorney General, was ill; the next in the law did not chuse to be present, to risk defending such a proceeding as that now condemned ; he supposed he too was ill. A noble lord (G. Germain), who was upon every occasion so anxious to discountenance rebellion in the west, might have been supposed an equal enemy to it in the east,--but he also was absent. Many, however, as were absent from this dirty business, there were enough, he feared, present, to insure its success. Mr. Henry Dundas observed, how unparliamentary it was to call on a gentleman for proof of what he said, as if nobody was to advance any thing in that House without proof at hand; and how absurd it was to give the theatrical aplause to a gentleman for a ready turn. e remarked, that the resolution of the last court of proprietors was when 700 were present, whereas the preceding one was when there was no more than 500, consequently the last was the genuine opinion; for as to ministerial influence, as he knew not the fact, he could not admit the supposition. The resolution of recalling all, he thought a very wise one, since it was certain they had fallen into many factions; and when once that was the case, no good could be expected from continuing them; besides, the proper enquiry into the transaction could not be had without lord Pigot's assistance here: if it was found he was injured, there were means enough in this country to reward him. Another circumstance was, the impropriety of replacing lord Pigot in a capacity

of revenging himself upon all who had of. fended him: would you let loose Marius on the friends of Sylla It was not a situation desirable for human nature to be placed in. General Conway lamented the fate of the noble lord, who must continue to lie at the mercy of his most inveterate enemies and persecutors, without a possibility of redress, till relieved by orders to be sent from Europe. Mr. Wombwell rose to explain, and moved, that some of the papers on the table might be read; particularly a copy of the minutes of what passed between lord Pigot and one of the counsellors at Madras, Mr. Floyer, relative to a difference of opinion. Mr. Burke said, he had been twice on his legs; first, when the righthon. general spoke ; and a second time, when the last hon. gentleman, a chairman of the East India.Company, stood up, to move for the reading of the papers. #. that gentleman's situation, and his means of knowing the true state of affairs in India, he expected to have heard something interesting on the subject, and accordingly relinquished his turn ; but now that he disappointed that expectation, by forbearing to say a syllable, but to read papers which were open to every member, he was in the judgment of the committee, whether he had not a right to be heard. Mr. Wombwell replied, that he did not mean to fatigue the committee, with reading a voluminous state of facts already known. He only pointed to a particular circumstance which he asserted in debate, and was called upon by the gentlemen on the other side to prove: and wished, therefore, it might now be corroborated by the minutes taken in council at the very time the matter happened; and that in the presence of the parties. It was a collateral proof; it would confirm the conversation which, he asserted, had passed. [The clerk began to read; and the House began to be noisy.] Mr. Burke again rose, and urged his former plea for being heard, in preference to the papers now reading. He said, it was impossible to contend further, the hon. gentleman was in possession; if, however, he intended by that means to tire and thin the House, he was, for his part, contented to wait till all the heavy folios now lying on the table were read through; and, to prepare himself for the task, would

send for his night-cap.–[Here a cry of 2

go on, go on!] Mr. Burke then pro- | his recall, which would be a very pretty ceeded, and in answer to Mr. Dundas, he situation for any governor and council to affirmed, that lord Pigot was a man of too | be in. The learned gentleman's other ar. nice a sense of honour to accept of any guments of not restoring Jord Pigot for salvo it was in the power of administration fear of his revenge, was of the same comto bestow; even though they covered him plexion. It was surprizing so learned a with ribbons and court favours, instead of gentleman should use no arguments but a single ribbon and a pension. He ob- what went too far; they proved so much, served, that he never heard of so extraor-that they tumbled all proof about his ears. dinary a species of proof, as what the hon. So a governor is to be illegally, cruelly, gentleman who moved for the reading of and without any adequate reason, deposed, the papers produced. He asserted a fact imprisoned, and his life threatened, by a of lord Pigot's ill treatment of the council, bribed, corrupted council, and you are not and in order to prove it, he reads a letter to restore him, lest he then uses his power from one of the council, that is, from the without moderation! Was there ever so party, which is another assertion of the farcical a system that the principle of same thing. There's proof for you! But doing mischief was to be maintained, and it may be complete and substantial, ac. its consequences endured, lest by disarmcording to the ideas which he recommends ing the authors, and restoring authority to to the great body he is at the head of. its rightful possessors, you might run the However, what the gentleman thinks, or risk of having it exerted too rigidly on the what he so proves, is of very little conse- delinquents. If this was logic, there was quence in this business. But the learned at once an end of law and justice. gentleman (Mr. Dundas) has attempted Lord North treated the power of the to reply to some of the ablest orations that nabob of Arcot, his intrigues in India and ever were heard in this or any other as- England, and the arts of his agents and sembly. The learned gentleman's argu- ambassadors, as the ideal, ill-founded sugment for recalling the whole body, be- gestions of ill informed or designing men. cause factions had broken out among He represented the nabob as a needy, them, was, in his judgment, the most fri- miserable, ill-treated, dependent prince, volous imaginable. If this was to be without power, protection, or internal readopted as a rule of conduct, which it sources; and therefore, totally unable to must be, as the argument clearly went to eitherinfluence or bribe; totally incapable of that, all governors and their councils must persuading, by motives of fear, or through be recalled as soon as factions broke out, the means of influence or corruption. He which would be preposterous. If this defended the recall of lord Pigot, and said, mode of reasoning was good, the governor his lordship had expressly broke through general of Bengal and his council, should the late Act for regulating the affairs of the be recalled, since there were the most out. Company, which likewise annexes the purageous factions among them; accusing nishment to the breach of it. That Act each other of the most enormous crimes. said, “ That any governor, or other officer, Why not recall them? The hon. gentle-civil or military, who shall accept of any man knew better; for Mr. Hastings had present after such a day, shall forfeit dou. the nabob of Arcot for his friend; à most ble the value, and be incapable ever after powerful friend in the court and ministry of serving the Company. This was the of England; so powerful, that for himself, letter of the Act, and his lordship had most if he wanted any favour of great magni- certainly incurred the penalty and the tude, he knew of no canvasser he should consequence. It was not a question so much wish for as that nabob. This concerning the malum in se ; whether acsame prince of the Carnatic, who, it was cepting the tea service was or was not plain, would soon be our master in all a crime. It was a mere question respectihose territories, would be delighted to ing the malum prohibitum. Had his lordhear the doctrine laid down by the learned ship offended, or not? Clearly, therefore, gentleman, that governors, &c. are to be in that narrow view of the question, dis. recalled when factions arise in their coun- tinct from every collateral consideration, he cils; for he would never find the least dif- did not see how it could remain a subject ficulty in bribing a majority, the moment of debate for an instant, whether his lorda governor should be hardy enough to op- ship was longer eligible to serve the Com. pose his will : his treasures would at once pany in any civil or military capacity.. secure factions, and factions would secure Mr. Dempster said, the noble lord's ara

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