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Julian Pe-
TITUS iii. 1-8.

Nicopolis. riod, 4766. Vulgar Æra, Titus is directed, in Opposition to the Judaizing Christians, 53.

to impress upon the Minds of his Converts the Duty of
Submission to their civil Governors, of whatsoever Nation
or Religion; and from the Consideration of the great
Love and Mercy of Christ towards themselves, Titus is
desired to inculcate the Duty of brotherly Love and
Kindness to all.

1 Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and
powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good

2 To speak. evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.

3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.

4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,

5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;

6 Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour ;

7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.

8 This is a faithful saying; and these things I will that
thou affirm constantly; that they which have believed in
God might be careful to maintain good works. These
things are good and profitable unto men.

TITUS iii. 9.
St. Paul commands the Teachers of Christianity to avoid

the Discussion of useless Questions and Speculations.

9 But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and
contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are un-
profitable and vain.

Titus iii. 10, 11.
St. Paul directs Titus in what manner he is to proceed

with respect to Heretics.
10 A man that is an heretic, after the first and second
admonition reject ;

11 Knowing that he that is such, is subverted, and
sinneth, being condemned of himself.
by its directions. If, bowever, as we are sometimes told, the cir-
cumstances of mankind are such in the present day, that scrip-
tural precedents are to direct us no longer, we declare one part,
at least, of Scripture to be useless; and that part, tvo, which
the primitive Church, and after it Christians in all ages have
esteemed most valuable.

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$ 8.

Julian Pe

$ 9. TITUS ii. 12-14. riod, 4766.

Nicopolis. Vulgar Æra,

Titus is directed to proceed to Nicopolis, on the Arrival of 53.

Artemas and Tychicus ; and to provide for Zenas and
Apollos, if they should pass through the Island.

12 When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychi-
cus“, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis : for I
have determined there to winter.

13 Bring Zenas the lawyer, and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them.

14 And let our's also learn to maintain good works for
necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful.

§ 10. TITUS iii. 15.
St. Paul's Salutations and Conclusion.
15 All that are with me salute thee. Greet them that
love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.

St. Paul proceeds to Cenchrea.

ACTS xviii. part of ver. 18.
Julian Pe. 18 –And sailed thence into Syria, and with him Pris- Cenchrea.
riod, 4767. cilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for
Vulgar Æra,

he had a vow *. 54.

45 See Ephes. vi. 21. Coloss. iv. 7.

46 It is uncertain whether St. Luke here refers to St. Paul or Aquila. Witsius supposes the vow to relate to Aquila, as being more zealous of the Jewish rites and ceremonies than St. Paul, s who refused to consider the Mosaic law as any longer binding. Others, however, would rather interpret it of St. Paul; and impute to him the observance of a vow from prudential motives, that the Jews might not consider him as the enemy of the law of Moses. Witsius observes, that it is absurd to suppose the apostle would bind himself by that yoke, which he was so anxious to break away from the neck of others; but that be made certain compliances with the legal ritual, to avoid giving offence to the more ignorant or prejudiced among his country. men. See Acts xxi. 26. This also was the opinion of Calvin.

Many commentators understand this vow to be that of the
Nazarite. To the objection that the Nazarite was compelled to
shave his hair at the door of the tabernacle, when the Israelites
were in the wilderness, and in the temple when they had taken
possession of Canaan, (Numb. vi. 18.) Grotius replies, that
these laws, as well as many others respecting sacrifices, were
not binding upon the Jews out of Canaan. The testimony of
Maimonides is quoted to prove this point. Yet the difficulty in
question seemed so great to Salmasius, that he endeavoured to
shew the vow could not have been that of the Nazarite; but
that either St. Paul or Aquila had made a vow that they would
not shave the bead till they had arrived at Cencbrea. This,
bowever, is very improbable ; it was useless in itself, and not
required by existing circumstances.

A very curious interpretation of the passage is given by the
learned Petit. He would refer the words, “ for ho
not to the previous cutting off ofthe hair, but to a previous vow
which the apostle had before made, which was now the cause of
bis proceeding to Jerusalem. Ho supposes that St. Paul, while

a vow,”




Julian Pe-

Ephesus. riod, 470, From Cenchrea to Ephesus-where he disputed with the Valgar ,


ACTS xviii. 19.
19 And he came to Ephesus, and left them there: but
he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with
the Jews.

From Ephesus St. Paul proceeds to Cesarea ; and having

saluted the Church at Jerusalem, completes his second
Apostolical Journey, by returning to Antioch, in Syria.

ACTS xviii. 20-22.
20 When they desired him to tarry longer time with Cesarea,
them he consented not;


Antioch in
21 But bad them farewell, saying, I must by all means Syria.
keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem : but I will re-
turn again unto you, if God will. And he sailed from

22 And when he had landed at Cesarea, and gone up,
and saluted the church, he went down to Antioch ".
he resided among the Corinthians, let his hair grow: long hair
bcing much valued among the Greeks. But when he was about
to return to Jerusalem, he cut off his hair, and prepared him.

self for his own country. Among the Greeks he had become a
, Greek, and among the Jews he shewed himself a Jew, 1 Cor. ix.
that he might by all means win them to Christ (a).

The vow, by others, is supposed to have been the same as that mentioned by Josephus. Berenice, he tells us, went to Jeru. salem, to perform her vows to God. For it was the custom with those who had laboured under any disease, or had met with difficulties and afflictions, to pass thirty days in prayer before they sacrificed their victims; during which they abstained from wine, women, and shaving the bair. The custom prevailed among the Heathen, of offering the hair to the gods after any grcat calamity (6).

(a) Witsius Meletem. Leidens. de vit Pauli. chap. vii. sect. 15, &c. (b) See the whole subject discussed in Kuinoel and Witsius.

47 It does not seem necessary to make many observations on the condition of the Christian Church at this period. The very fact of St. Paul's journeying from Church to Church, and province to province, to superintend the converts, implies the only truth which it is at all necessary to provo; that the ministers or elders of the Churches were ordained, and the Churches themselves directed and ruled by a power which was superior to that of the stationary teachers. If the rulers of the Church of Christ had been as auxious and as clamorous for truth, during the last three centuries, as they have been for liberty, liberality, toleration, or any other popular cry, the worshippers of Christ would have been more united against the ancient superstition which preceded, and the unscriptural innovations which followed, the Reformation. Toleration and candour are the second class of Christian blessings. Truth and union are the first. That Church and nation alone are bappy, in which they flourish together.

Julian Pe.

Galatia and riod, 4768.

Phrygia. Vulgar Æra,

Third Apostolical Journey of St. Paul. 65.

St. Paul again leaves Antioch, to visit the Churches of

Galatia and Phrygia.

ACTS xviii. 23.
23 And after he had spent some time there, he de-
parted, and went over all the country of Galatia and
Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.

History of Apollos, who was now preaching to the Church

at Ephesus, planted by St. Paul.

ACTS xviii. 24, to the end.
24 And a certain Jew named Apollos ', born at Alex-

andria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures,
came to Ephesus.

25 This man was instructed in the way of the Lord ; and being fervent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord, knowing only the baptism of John.

26 And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue : whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly.

27 And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive bim: who, when he was come, helped them much which had believed through grace:

28 For he mightily convinced the Jews, and that publicly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ.

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" In one of tho early numbers of the Quarterly Review, is a very curious article; in wbich an attempt is made to prove the identity of the Apollos of the Acts, with Apollonias of Tyanea.

? The publicity with which the apostles preached the new religion, is justly considered a decisive proof of their conviction of its truth. They uniformly appealed to those audiences who were most capable of examining the evidences of Christianity, and were at the same time prejudiced against its doctrines.

Even after the crucifixion of our Lord, the apostles and believers went to the temple, the most public place, and in the most public manner taught and worked miracles. Jerusalem, the seat of the doctors, the judges of religion, was the first place in which, by the command of their Lord, the disciples preached Christ crucified. They were therefore not afraid to have their cause tried by the most rigid test of Scripture, and in the very spot too where that Scripture was best understood.

When the same apostles carried this Gospel to Heathen coun. tries, did they go to the villages among the less informed, or



Julian Pe-

Ephesus. riod, 4768. St. Paul proceeds from Phrygia to Ephesus, and disputes Vulgar Æra, 55.

there with the Jews.

ACTS xix. 1-10.
1 And it came to pass, that while Apollos was at Co-
rinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts, came
to Ephesus; and finding certain disciples,

2 He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy
Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We
have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy

$ And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism.

4 Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, That they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.

5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.

7 And all the men were about twelve.

8 And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing, and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God.

9 But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus ‘.

comparatively ignorant Greoks, in order to form a party, and
protect themselves by thefavour of the multitude? They went
to Cæsarea, to Antioch, to Thessalonica, to Athens, tu co-
rinth, to Ephesus, to the very places where learning flou-
rished most, where sciences were best cultivated; where in.
posture was most likely to be detected, and where the secular
power existed in the most despotic manner, and could at once
have crushed them, if they could bave been proved to be impos-
tors, or if they had not been under the immediate protection of
Heaven ; for it is evident that these boly men feared po rational
investigation of their doctrines.

They preached Cbrist crucified, where it was the most so.
lemn interest of the Jews to disprove their doctrine, that they
might exculpate themselves from the murder of Jesus Christ.
They preached the same Christ, and the vanity of idolatry,
where idolatry existed in the plenitude of its power; and
where all its interests required it to make the most desperate
and formidable stand against those innovators. See Dr. Clarke's

They had not heard of the miraculous descent of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost.

Ligbtfoot was os opinion, that the school in wbicb St. Paul


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