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here to specify:- The sublimity of the style does not vary more great benefits upon the Jews. Nor was Cyrus the man to throughout all the prophecies, than is usual in poems which suffer recent prophecies scarcely yet published to be palmed are written by the same author at different times, as for ex- upon him for ancient; not to mention that there were many ample, the different Psalms of David; and the style in all is who would have been glad to discover to him the fraud, if such as could by no means be expected from writers of the any had existed. Neither would Cyrus the Magian, who age of the Babylonian captivity. It is granted that style built nothing but pyres to Ormuzd, have been so easily led does not depend entirely upon the age, but in some measure to construct a magnificent temple to the God of the Jews. upon the cultivated genius of the writer; yet it does not, It may, indeed, seem strange that the prophet should therefore, become probable that such poems should be com- say so much concerning the return from Babylon, and yet posed in the age of the Babylonian captivity, so that we may make no express mention of the carrying away. But he cerassert this without any historical testimony or tradition : more tainly does say something concerning this subject, as xxxix. especially as we find nothing similar in the writings of Jere- 4-7. vi. 11–13. v. 5—9. xi. 11-16.; and Micah, the miah or Ezekiel, who wanted neither genius nor polish. The contemporary of Isaiah, speaks clearly of this carrying language itself is not the same as that observable in Jeremiah away, and of the overthrow of Jerusalem ; so that it would and Ezekiel : it is not probable that any one could have cul- seem probable that Isaiah had said more on this subject, tivated the knowledge of the Hebrew during the captivity which has not been preserved to us. If this were the case, more thoroughly than they, nor is such a state of the lan- the prophet who sings the glad return would no more con guage discernible in Zechariah, who is usually cited as an tradict himself by predicting the carrying away, than Jereinstance of it.-Lastly, the arrangement and method of treat- miah does, who has predicted both events. To all this, ing the subject are the same in all these prophecies. Chap. analogy is said to be opposed, according to which, it is ri. contains a prophecy interwoven with a history, which is thought, prophets do not foretell such remote events as those followed, ch. viii.-xii. by prophecies without titles; so also concerning the Chaldæans, the Medes and Persians, Cyrus, in ch. xxxix. the prophecy is woven into the history, and and the return of the Hebrews, which Isaiah has predicted. prophecies without a title follow. As in the first part there But this analogy is by no means universal. Besides, in this are several prophecies concerning Sennacherib; so also in the objection it is supposed that the Chaldæans, Medes, and second, there are several concerning the overthrow of the Persians, were in the age of Isaiah obscure nations, or enChaldæan monarchy, and the return of the Hebrews from tirely unknown; whereas, in fact, the Medes, almost 100 captivity. As in the vision in ch. vi. we read, that the pro- years before Isaiah and Hezekiah (826 before Christ, 149 phet's efforts should not be accompanied by a happy result; after the division), had, under their king Arbaces, joined an so the prophet, ch. xlii. 16. 23. xliii. 8. xlv. 4., and especi- alliance with Belesis the governor of Babylon, and overally xlix. 4. lix. 6., complains that his endeavours had been thrown the first
Assyrian monarchy. It is true that the Meunsuccessful.
dian anarchy of seventy-nine years followed, but in the ii. “What is said in ch. Ixvi. 1—6. of the temple, does tenth of Hezekiah (728° before Christ, 257 after the divi: not suit the latter part of the period of exile, in which Hag- sion), they elected Dejoces king, who founded Ecbatana, gai and Zechariah speak altogether differently on the same and whose son Phraortes (665—643 before Christ, 310– subject. Much less could any one during the captivity write, 332 after the division), attacking the new kingdom of the as in xlviii. 4–8., that the ruin and utter destruction of the Assyrians, was slain while besieging Nineveh ; and under city of Babylon had not yet been foretold, when Jeremiah 1. Cyaxares I., Zoroaster found the kingdom of the Medes li had plainly predicted it; or speak, as in lii. 4., of the again flourishing.? Elam was a celebrated kingdom even in Egyptians and Assyrians as the only enemies of the He- the most ancient times, Gen. ch. xiv., and it is always by brews, and pass over the Chaldæans. The severe reproofs, the ancient name oby, Gen. x. 22. xiv. 1. that Isaiah menIvi. 9.-ix. 20. Ixv. 11—16., especially those denounced tions it, and never by the modern appellation oro, which is against the shepherds, i. e. the kings, lvi. 11, &c.; the re- given it, Dan vi. 28. Ezra i. 1, 2. iv. 5. 2 Chron. xxxvi. proaches not only on account of idolatry, but also of the im- 22. s. The Elamites are mentioned as a part of the army molation of children, lvii. 1–13., and of enormous corruption of the Assyrians, Isa. xxii. 6., which prophecy is certainly of morals, lviii. 6—9. lix. 1–8., are entirely at variance Isaiah's, as appears from v. 8–11. compared with 2 Chron. with the times of the captivity. Then, we might rather ex- xxxii. 2–5. Esarhaddon sent some Elamites among his pect mention to be made of the prophecies of Jeremiah, as other colonists to Samaria. (Ezra iv. 9. s.) At a later in Dan. ix. 2. and that more should be said respecting the period Jeremiah, chap. xxv. 25. xlix. 24, &c. mentions Elam Magians or worshippers of Ormuzd, than that one allusion among the powerful kingdoms which should be conquered to the two principles of things, xlv. 7., which certainly were by the Chaldæans, and Ezekiel, ch. xxxii. 24. beholds Elam maintained' by very many in an age older than that of the overthrown. It is only by a long succession of time and captivity:
victories, that nations are enabled to conquer the surrounding lii. " Jeremiah shows that he had read these prophecies, people, and spread themselves so widely as to obtain suffiseven years before the destruction of Jerusalem, Jer. li. 49— cient celebrity to entitle them to an eminent place in his61.; for the connection of the prophecy of Jeremiah con- tory. It was not, therefore, in a short space of time that the tained in Jer. I. li. with the predictions of Isaiah is evident : Chaldæans, Medes, and Elamites or Persians, emerged from nor can it be said, that the author of the controverted pro- their obscurity into so great a light as to become conspicuous phecies of Isaiah, living toward the end of the captivity, to the world when before they had been utterly unknown. had read the book of Jeremiah; for he is an original and if, then, Isaiah foretells the overthrow of the Chaldæans by independent author, drawing entirely from his own resources, the Medes and Elamites, his prophecy in that age would and never imitating others; while, on the contrary, it is well have been neither more nor less obscure than Zechariah's known that Jeremiah had read the older prophets, and bor- (ix. 13.) concerning the wars of the Jews against the Greeks rowed much from them, especially in his prophecies against in Syria. Isaiah might easily have used the name Cyrus, v-19 foreign nations. Some passages have been observed in other (or Koresh), xliv. 28. xlv. 1., since it means nothing more than prophets also, which have been taken from the controverted king; for in the language of the Parsees Khor means the prophecies of Isaiah: as Zeph. ii. 14, &c. from Isa. xiii. 21, sun, and Schid splendour, whence is compounded KoRSCHID, &c. ; Ezek. xxxiv. from Isa. lvii. 10, &c.; Ezek. xxvi. 20. the splendour of the sun, and with the addition of the word xxxi. 14–17. xxxii. 18—33. from Isa. xiv. 8—28.; Ezek. PAE or Pal, habitation, KorschIDPAI, the habitation of the xxvi. 13. from Isa. xxiii. 25.; Ezek. xxxviii. xxxix. from splendour of the sun, which was a customary appellation of Isa. Ixvi. 6–9. 24. That Habakkuk is indebted to Isaiah, the kings of Persia. This appellation corrupted into v113 has been long since observed : compare Hab. i. 6. with Isa. (Koresh), might become known to the Hebrews by means xxiii. 13.
of merchants travelling between Judæa and Persia ; and iv. “Cyrus, in his written proclamation (Ezra i. 2.), Isaiah, who did not hesitate to call Cyrus the anointed, noon, says, that the God of heaven had given him all kingdoms of may have called him by the appellative of the kings of the earth, and had charged him to build to Him a temple at Jerusalem. These words, as well as the acts of Cyrus, in announcing future events.
1 Prophets are not, like historians, confined to the order of chronology
This is plain from their writings, which namely, his dismission of the Jews to their own country, always give perspective views. Zechariah predicted a kingdom for the his grant of a sum of money for the building of the temple, high priest
, without noticing thie destruction of the Persian monarchy and and his restitution of the valuable holy vessels, can only be the division of the Greek power. Isaiahı foretold the return of the Israel. explained on the supposition that he had seen the prophe- ing revolutions by the Chaldæans, Medes, and Persians. "In prophecy the
more remote events are often introduced, while the intermediate are unno. cies of Isaiah concerning him, as Josephus states, and was nduced, by their manifestly divine origin, to confer such
3 Comp. Prideaux, Conn. Part I. Book I.
Persia, which became afterwards the proper name of that because the same devastation is predicted by Jeremiah xlix. particular king."
7. ss., and by Ezekiel xxv. 12. ss., and after a long time was 2. EXAMINATION AND REFUTATION OF OBJECTIONS AGAINST first effected by Nebuchadnezzar, which is thought to be too PARTICULAR PREDICTIONS OF Isaiah.
distant from the time of the prophet. But it has not been These may be referred to three heads; viz. i. Prophecies disproved that Isaiah is speaking, ch. xxxiv., of another against the Egyptians, Elamites, Idumæans, &c.;—ii. The calamity, to be inflicted on Idumea by the Assyrians, of prophecies against Tyre;-and, iii. The prophecy concerning which Amos, ch. i. 11–15., had spoken before him. the subversion of the Chaldæo-Babylonian empire, and the (9.) “ The xxxvth chapter of Isaiah is entirely destitute return of the Hebrews from captivity.
of any thing which could give countenance to the supposition i. Prophecies against the Egyptiuns, Elamites, Idumæans, of a more recent origin, and ver. 8. compared with 2 Kings &c.
xvii. 25. proves it to belong to the age of Hezekiah.''3 (1.) “Some have said that the passage in Isa. ii. 24. is ii. The Prophecy against Tyre. Isa. xxiii. inserted by mistake by the person whom they suppose to “The prophecy concerning the destruction of Tyre by the have collected the several prophecies into this one book, Chaldæans, Isa. xxiii., points out its own age in ver. 13., about the end of the Babylonish captivity; but others have where the Chaldæans are said to be a recent nation, to whom already remarked that this passage may have been taken by a district of country lying on the Euphrates had been assigned Isaiah from Micah iv. 1-3., or by Micah from Isaiah, or by by the Assyrians, who must, consequently, have been at that both from some more ancient prophecy.
time the prevailing power. For as Habakkuk also, who (2.) " Chapters xi. and xii. have been supposed not to lived under Manasseh, asserts (i. 6.) that the Chaldæans belong to Isaiah, because in ch. xi. 11–16. the very distant were a late people, who were endeavouring to possess themevent of the return of the Israelites from Assyria and Egypt selves of the territories of others, it is plain that the time of and other regions is predicted. But this return was predicted the delivery of the prophecy in Isa. xxiii. could not have also by Micah, the contemporary of Isaiah, by Hosea, and been far distant from that of Habakkuk. It is, indeed, by Amos.
uncertain whether Isaiah lived till the reign of Manasseh ; (3.) “The prophecy in chapters xv. xvi. is thought to but as the Chaldæans made frequent irruptions out of their have been written three years before the devastation of Moab own settlements in the eastern and norther parts of Armenia by Nebuchadnezzar, xiv. 13, &c., because Zephaniah, ii. 8, into the more southern territories, during a long period of time, &c. and Jeremiah, ch. xlviii., threaten the Moabites with the without doubt these incursions had began as early as the same calamity. But who can show that Isaiah did not speak latter years of the reign of Hezekiah, since the kingdom of of another calamity to be inflicted upon them by the Assy- Assyria was at that time so much weakened by the assassirians ? or who would suppose that the Assyrians spared the nation of Sennacherib and the intestine tumults which followMoabites ? Their country was devastated, therefore, as ed that event, as to afford a sufficient inducement for such Isaiah foretold, by the Assyrians, and then again by the expeditions.-Without sufficient reason also is it asserted Chaldæans, of whom Zephaniah and Jeremiah prophesied. that the 70 years mentioned Isa. xxiii. 10. are prophetic That this prophecy of Isaiah was much older than the time number taken from Jeremiah xxv. 11, 12. xxix. 10., and that of Jeremiah, is certain; for Jeremiah, ch. xlviii., borrow's therefore the whole prophecy must be later than the time of many ideas from it, as must be evident to every one who Jeremiah. If either of the prophets borrowed this number compares the two. That it is the production of Isaiah from the other, it is certainly more reasonable to conclude himself is shown by the time of its fulfilment being stated, that Jeremiah, who, we know, has borrowed from prophets which is according to Isaiah's usual practice. See vii. 14— more ancient than himself, took it from the prophecy of 17. viii. 4.
Isaiah, than that the author of this prophecy, who every (4.) “ No other reason is brought to prove that the passage where else appears to rely, solely upon his own resources, ch. xix. 18–25. is not Isaiah's, than this, that in the same was indebted for it to Jeremiah. What confirms this concluchapter, ver. 1–15., a prophecy of the calamity of Egypt sion is, that particular specifications of time are altogether had preceded, whereas ver. 18—25. predict prosperity. But in character with Isaiah's manner. The distance of the this is nothing more than is common with the prophets—to event predicted is no objection; for Amos had before the promise better fortune after predicting calamity. As the time of Isaiah, denounced the destruction of 'Tyre. The Egyptians are called, ver. 25., the people of Jetovah, and Chaldaisms, Isa. xxiii. 11. 17"Jiyo ncus, will disappear, if we the Assyrians, the work of the hands of Jehovah, the prophecy must necessarily have been the production of a point the words muyd 1025, to destroy her weakened or expelled Hebrew, and it is much more probable that Isaiah should ones."; have written it, than any more modern author.
. Prophecies concerning the Subversion of the Chaldæo (5.) " Isa. xxii. 1–14. is rejected as spurious, because Babylonian Empire, and the return of the Hebrews from Capthe Elamites are mentioned, ver. 6.; but from a comparison tivity. (Isa. xii. 1–14. 23. xxi. and xl.—Ixvi.) of ver. 8–11. with 2 Chron. xxxii. 2–5. and Isa. vii., it These predictions, it has been affirmed, must have been appears that the subject is the irruption of Sennacherib: the written in the time of the Babylonish captivity, for the folmention of the Elamites, therefore, must be at least as lowing reasons; viz. old as the time of Isaiah: why, then, seek for any other (1.) “ The difference of style : for in the last twenty-seven author than Isaiah, who is mentioned in the title of the chapters, the better part of the people is distinguished as the prophecy?
servant or worshipper of Jehovah, xli. 8, 9. xlii. 1, &c. xliv. 1. (6.). "They who contend that it is not natural that Isaiah xlviii. 12. 20. xlix. 7. lii. 13., which is not the case in the should have uttered so many prophecies concerning the former part of the book.-Idolatry is exposed to derision and irruption of Sennacherib alone, do not consider that this contempt, xl. 19, 20. xliv. 9—17. xlvi. 5—7., an exhibition not event was one of great importance, and contributed very to be found in those passages of the former part; e. g. ii. 19., much to confirm the Hebrews in their religion, so that it wherein idolatry is reprehended.-The accomplishment of well deserved a multitude of prophetic notices. The style former prophecies is frequently noticed, xli. 21—24. 26–29. and construction, too, confirm the opinion that they are pro- xliv. 6. s. xlv. 21. xlviii. 5., which argues a modern author, ductions of Isaiah, since they do not differ more from each and is not to be found in the first part.-Lastly, words and other in this respect, than do the various Conferences of phrases of frequent occurrence in the first part are not disHariri, or the different Psalms of David.
coverable in the second." (7.) “ The prophecy, Isa. xxiv.-xxvii., is referred to a To this objection Professor Jahn replies, that “the lanmore recent date, on account of the frequent occurrence of guage, style, and composition are certainly not such as must paronomasiæ.
Now we know that these are considered necessarily be referred to the time of the captivity, and could singular beauties in the Oriental style, and that Micah, the not have been produced by Isaiah. On the contrary, the contemporary of Isaiah, makes frequent use of them, so that purity of the language, the sublimity of the style, and the they are no proof of a recent date." Besides, Isaiah himself elegance of the composition, are such as could not be exelsewhere frequently uses paronomasiæ. See Isa. i. 7. 23. pected from the leaden age of Hebrew literature; but show iii. 1.5. vii. 7, 8. 22. s. xxix. 16.; compare Hos. i. 4. 5. v. 1. their origin to have been in the silver age. The difference and Mic. i. 14. s. iii. 12. iv. 10.
of style in the two parts is not greater than the difference of (8.) “ The xxxivth chapter of Isaiah, in which the devas- Micah i.-v. from vi. vii., and is less than that which may tation of Idumæa is predicted, is thought to be of later origin, be observed in Hosea i. iii. compared with ii. iv.-xiv., or
1 Prof. Turner's and Mr. Whittingham's translation of Jahn's Introduc. tion, pp. 346—350.
9 Jahn's Introduction by Prof. Turner and Mr. Whittingham, pp. 352, 353 3 Ibid. p. 354.
in Amos i.-vi. compared with vii. viii., or in the different part, was itself exceedingly distant from the end of the Babypsalms of David. The concurrence of some words or phrases lonian captivity; so that even allowing, for argument's sake, not to be found in the other writings of the age of Isaiah the hypothesis concerning the recent origin of these propheproves nothing: for it is not to be expected that in the small cies to be correct, there will yet remain a prophecy verified remains of Hebrew literature, all the words and phrases of in a remote posterity, the Hebrew people, and more particuany particular age should repeatedly occur. Yet there are larly the better part of that people, being pointed out as the in the writings in question exceedingly few words or phrases instruments of its completion.-It is certainly true that the of this kind.1_On the contrary, the accustomed vehemence prophet discerns the hostile kingdom of the Chaldæo-Babyof Isaiah, the same dismemberment of objects, and the same lonians, the cities of Judæa overthrown, the ruins of Jerusaantithesis between Jacob and Israel, are observable in both lem, and the downfall of the Chaldæan monarchy, and parts of these prophecies. All the difference is, that the names not only the Medes and Elamites, but even °Cyrus prophet, who in the first part was censuring wickedness, in himself. But that Isaiah, receiving such revelations in the the latter endeavours rather to teach and console, as the na- time of Hezekiah or Manasseh, might so totally have lost ture of his subject required : yet even here he sometimes himself in the contemplation of a very distant period, as to inveighs against different vices, lvi. 9.-lvii. 12. lviii. 1-7. forget the present and write only of the future, will not be lix. 128. Ixv. 11–14. If Isaiah wrote these prophecies in denied by any one who has observed that Micah, Joel, Hathe latter years of his life, it is easy to conceive that the bakkuk, and Nahum are altogether conversant with far disprophet, now old (in the time of Manasseh, as appears from tant ages. And Isaiah himself warns his reader of this, every part of these prophecies), filled with consolatory pros- ch. xl. 1. xli. 7. 21. Ixvi. 9., by the expression in arm, the peets, chose rather to teach than to rebuke: but it was pecu- LORD WILL say. Compare Isa. xliv. 5." liarly proper for a teacher to address the people as the servant (3.) “ The prophecies of events as far as the time of Cyrus of God, to distinguish the better part of the nation, and to are clear and perspicuous; but those which refer to later times illustrate the madness of idolatry, which last, however, he are obscure ; hence it may be concluded that the author was had done in the first part, not only ch. ii. 18. s., but also ii
. contemporary with Cyrus.-For if it had pleased God to grant 8. viii. 19. 21., although with more brevity than in the latter such very clear prophecies in times so far remote, and even part. The notice of the fulfilment of former prophecies was to reveal the name of Cyrus; why is it said, ch. xlv. 14., especially adapted to convey instruction, whether the author that the Hebrews, after their return to their country, should refers to the carrying away of the ten tribes, or to the de participate in the commerce of the Cushites and Sabæans, liverance of the Jews from the Assyrians, or to some other when, as is evident from Ezra, Nehemiah, and Malachi, the more ancient predictions: this, therefore, is no proof of a event was not so? Nor were the great promises made, ch. modern date. Such remarks do not occur in the first part of Ix. 6—10., ever fulfilled. The contemporaries of Isaiah the book, because there the prophet neither teaches nor con- certainly never could have been able to discern that those soles, bút reproves. The occurrence of certain phrases in things which were prophesied concerning Cyrus should be one part which are not to be found in the other might literally fulfilled, but the others only in part, and figuratively.” prove a difference of authors, if the genius of Isaiah were To ihis objection Jahn answers, " That the prophecies dry and barren; but not otherwise."
relating to times anterior to Cyrus should be the more per(2.) “ The particularity of the prophecies, and the distance spicuous, but those referring to more distant periods the of the events from the time of their prediction,
more obscure, is not to be wondered at; for in vísions, as in • In the age of Isaiah there was no Chaldæan monarchy, prospects, the more distant objects appear the more indisnor were the Medes and Elamites, who are predicted to be tinctly marked. That the Cushites and Sabæans formerly the destroyers of the Chaldæan monarchy, nations of any carried on a considerable commerce and brought merchandise celebrity. From the fourteenth year of Hezekiah to the to the Hebrews even after the captivity, cannot be doubted: founding of that monarchy, was ninety years: it was one nor were the Hebrews of that time so universally poor as is hundred and fifteen to the birth of Cyrus, who was appoint- pretended; for, Hag. i., they built ceiled houses, and suped general of the Median army in the one hundred and fifty-plied funds for the building of the temple, and, in the time fifth year after Hezekiah, and it was not until the one hun- of Nehemiah, even for the fortifications of Jerusalem. Bedred and seventy-sixth year that he overthrew the Chaldæan sides, these passages relate not so much to commercial inmonarchy. Yet our prophet so long before sees Judæa and tercourse with these people, as to their conversion to the Jerusalein devastated by the Chaldæans, xlv. 26–28.; dis worship of the true God. That not a few of them did emcerns the kingdom which had brought such destruction upon brace Judaism, and visit the temple of Jerusalem, as is preJudæa verging to its ruin, and its enemies already rushing dicted ch. Ix. 6—10., is certain from Acts ii. 10, 11. and from the north, xlii. 14. xli. 2. 25.; and even designates viii. 27.”2 Cyrus twice by his very name as the deliverer of the He- 3. ExaminaTION OF THE QUESTION WHETHER Isaiah WAS brews, xliv. 28. xlv. 1."
THE AUTHOR OF CHAPTERS xxxvi.xxxix. ? In answer to this objection, it is urged by Jahn, that “ the These " chapters agree verbally in most respects with particularity of the predictions to be accomplished at a pe- 2 Kings xviii. 13.-xx. 19.; yet in some they diller. Thus riod so distant is indeed extraordinary : but the prophet fre- the song of Hezekiah, Isaiah xxxviii. 9—20., is wanting in quently recommends this very circumstance to the attention 2 Kings : on the contrary, the reconciliation of Hezekiah of the reader as something remarkable; whence it appears with Sennacherib, 2 Kings xviii. 14–16., is wanting in that even in his age it seemed incredible to many, and there- Isaiah.. What we read, 2 Kings xx. 7. s., concerning the fore the fact that ihe remoteness of the fulfilment is noticed lump of figs to be placed upon the boil of Hezekiah, is, in in these prophecies is a proof of the antiquity of their au- Isa. xxxviii., introduced where it does not belong: its natuthor.-It has already been shown that the Chaldæans, Medes ral place would have been after ver. 6. There are also some and Persians, or Elamites, were not in the time of Isaiah other discrepancies of less moment, which it is unnecessary such obscure nations as that the prophet, when speaking of to adduce. "From all this it appears that the text of these them, could not have been understood as far as was neces- two passages is so different and yet so similar, that both sary. That the prophets have sometimes spoken of very re- would seem to have been taken from one common source, mote events has been already proved by several examples, namely, from the history of Hezekiah, which Isaiah wrote, some of which were even afforded by Isaiah himself': to 2 Chron. xxxii. 32. The speeches of the ambassadors of these may be added, that in this same second part, Jesus the Sennacherib, of Hezekiah, and of Isaiah, and the attention Messiah is predicted, ch. lii. 13.-liii. 12., a passage so paid to minute circumstances, show that the narration was clear that all attempts to explain it of any other are perfectly written by a contemporary witness who was himself convain and fruitless." Compare also ch. lv. 1–5. Indeed, in cerned, as it is certain that Isaiah was, in the transactions his very first vision, ch. vi., the prophet foresees the entire which he has recorded. The words nno and nown, which devastation of Judæa, and the subsequent restoration. Lastly, occur in the narration, are not more recent than the time of the propagation of religion, predicted in the same second Isaiah, and even if nnd were of Aramæan origin, that would
pot be a proof of a modern date, since some exotic words 1 In his larger German Introduction, Prof. Jahn "declares that after re- had already been introduced into the Hebrew language, in peated perusals, he can find only two such words : nys, ch. Ivi. 14. Ixiii. 1. the time of Isaiah, as may be observed in the writings of which occurs elsewhere only in Jer. ii. 20. xxviii. 12. but yet is not Ara. Hosea and Amos. The word nomine has not in this place mæan; and D9310, which is found in Isa. xli. 25. and elsewhere only in Jere the signification which it acquired after the captivity, but miah, Ezekiel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, but which cannot be a very modern word, as it was in use among the Assyrians.
9 Jahn's Introduction by Prof. Turner and Mr. Whittingham, pp. 355 Einleit
. S. 485." Notes of Prof. Turner and Mr. Whillingham. Vol. 11.
See Ezek. xxiii, 6. 12. 23.
designates the Hebrew language, which at that time flourish-|Part I. contains a general Description of the Estate and Coned only in the kingdom of Judah.”
dition of the Jews, in the several Periods of their History ; III. "The Scope of Isaiah's predictions is three-fold ; viz. the Promulgation and Success of the Gospel and the Coming
1. To detect, reprove, and condemn the sins of the Jewish of Messiah to Judgment. (ch. i.-v.)- The Predictions in people especially, and also the iniquities of the ten tribes of this Section were delivered during the Reign of Uzziah King Ísrael, and the abominations of many Gentile nations and of Judah. countries; denouncing the severest judgments against all Discourse 1. (ch. i. throughout.) The prophecy contained in sorts and degrees of persons, whether Jews or Gentiles.
this first chapter stands single and unconnected, constituting 2. To invite persons of every rank and condition, both Jews
an entire piece of itself. If, as we suppose to have been the and Gentiles, to repentance and reformation, by numerous
case, it was delivered in the reign of Uzziah, the desolation promises of pardon and mercy. It is worthy of remark that
which it describes may refer to the calamities which were no such promises are intermingled with the denunciations
occasioned before that time by Jehoash king of Israel (compare of divine vengeance against Babylon, although they occur
2 Kings xiv. 12–14.); or, the prophet may describe scenes yet in the threatenings against every other people.
future, as already passing before his eyes, to denote their cer3. 7o comfort all the truly pionis (in the midst of all the calamities and judgments denounced against the wicked)
tainty. As, however, the portrait, which it presents of the
desolate and distressed state of the land of Judah, agrees much with prophetic promises of the true Messiah. These pré
better with the wicked and afflicted reign of the apostate Ahaz, dictions seem almost to anticipate the Gospel history, so clearly do they foreshow the divine character of Christ (ch.
than with the flourishing circumstances in the reigns of Uzziah
and Jotham (who were both, in the main, good princes) : on vii. 11. compared with Matt. i. 18—23. and Lukei. 27–35. ; vi. ix. 6. xxxv. 4. xl. 5. 9, 10. xlii. 6–8. lxi. 1. compared
this account the learned Dr. John Taylor thinks it probable with Luke iv. 18. lxii. 11. Ixiii. 1—4.); his miracles (ch.
that the prediction in this chapter was uttered in the reign of xxxv. 5, 6.); his peculiar qualities and virtues (ch. ix. 2, 3.
Ahaz, and intends the invasion of Judah by Resin and Pekah, xl. 11. xliii, 1–3.); his rejection (ch. vi. 9–12. viii. 14, 15.
kings of Syria and Israel.? But whichever of these conjecliii. 3.); and sufferings for our sins (ch. 1. 6. liii. 4–11.;)s
tures may be preferred, the chapter contains a severe remonhis death, burial (ch. liii. 8, 9.), and victory over death (ch. strance against the inclinations to idolatry, want of inward xxv. 8. liii. 10–12.); and, lastly, his final glory (ch. xlix. piety, and other corruptions, prevailing among the Jews of 7. 22, 23. lii. 13—15. liii. 4, 5.), and the establishment,
that time, intermixed with powerful exhortations to repentance, increase (ch. ii. 244. ix. 7. xlii. 4. xlvi. 13.), and perfec- grievous threatenings to the im penitent, and gracious promises tion (ch. ix. 2. 7. xi. 4—10. xvi. 5. xxix. 18—24. xxxii. 1. of better times, when the nation shall have been reformed by xl. 4, 5. xlix. 9—13. li. 3—6. lii. 6–10. lv. 1-3. lix. the just judgments of God. The whole of this discourse affords 16–21. Ix. Ixi. 1–5. Ixv. 25.) of his kingdom ; each speci- a beautiful example of the prophet's elegant and impressive fically pointed out, and portrayed with the most striking manner of writing, and discriminating characters. It is impossible, indeed, to Discounse 2. (ch. ii. iii. iv.) contains the following particulars :reflect on these, and on the whole chain of his illustrious
1. The kingdom of Messiah, the conversion of the Gentiles, and their prophecies, and not to be sensible that they furnish the most adınission into it. (ii. 1-5.) incontestable evidence in support of Christianity:"4
2. A prediction of the punishment of the unbelieving Jews, for their
idolatrous practices, for their confidence in their own strength, and IV. The predictions of Isaiah are contained in sixty-six distrust of God's protection; and likewise the destruction of idolatry, chapters; of which the five first are generally supposed to in consequence of the establishment of Messiah's kingdom. (ii. 6-20.) have been delivered in the reign of Uzziah: the sixth in the 3. A prophecy of calamities of the Babylonian invasjon (perhaps also reign of Jotham; the seventh to the fifteenth in the reign
of the invasion by the Romans), with a particular amplification of the
distress of the proud and luxurious daughters of Sion. (iii. 1-26.6 iv. 1.) of Ahaz; and the remainder in that of Hezekiah. Various 4. A promise to the remnant that should escape this severe purgation, inodes of classifying them have been proposed, in order to
of a restoration to the favour and protection of God. (iv. 2–6.) present them in the most useful and lucid arrangement; some This prophetic sermon was probably delivered in the time of commentators and critics dividing them into three parts :- Jotham, or perhaps in the reign of Uzziah. 1. Evangelico-Legal, which contain denunciations of the Discourse 3. ch. v. This chapter likewise stands single and divine vengeance, intermixed with evangelical promises ;- alone, unconnected with the preceding or following : its sub2. Historical, comprising the narrative part;—and, 3. Evan- ject is nearly the same with that of ch. i., but it exceeds that gelicul, comprising prophecies and promises relative to the chapter in force, in severity, in variety, and elegance. It is a deliverance of the Jews from captivity, and the yet greater general reproof of the Jews for their wickedness, which is redeliverance of mankind from the bondage of sin, by the presented in the parable of the vineyard (verses l_5.); and it Messiah. By other writers, the book of the prophet Isaiah adds a more express declaration of vengeance by the Babylois divided into,-1. Reprehensory, including sharp reproofs nian invasion. (verses 6–30.) and threatenings of the Jews for their sins, in which are mingled promises to the penitent;—2. Minatory, containing Part II. comprises the Predictions delivered in the Reigns of threatenings against the enemies of the Jewish church, and
Jotham and Ahaz. (ch. vi.—xii.) also against the Jews themselves;—3. Narrative or Histori- DISCOURSE 1. The vision and prophecy of Isaiah in the reign cal;—and, 4. Consolatory and evangelical promises concern- of Jotham. (ch. vi.)As this vision seems to contain a solemn ing Messiah and the church. Other classifications have designation of Isaiah to the prophetical office, it is supposed been proposed, which it is not necessary to specify; but, by many interpreters to be the first in order of his prophecies without adopting any of them, we apprehend that the follow- Bishop Lowth, however, conjectures that this may not be the ing synopsis will be found to exhibit a clear view of the
case, because Isaiah is said, in the general title of his predic. various topics discussed by the royal prophet. The predic- tions, to have prophesied in the time of Uzziah; and is of tions of Isaiah, then, may be divided into six parts, each opinion, that it is a new designation, to introduce, with the containing a number of discourses, delivered by the prophet greater solemnity, a general declaration of the whole course to the various nations or people whom he was commissioned to address.5
Tomline. (Elements of Christ. Theol. vol. i. p. 107.). In the analysis of the various discourses, or prophetic serions comprised under each sec
tion, we have principally followed Bishop Lowth, in his admirable transla1 Jahn's Introduction, p. 339. Bishop Lowth considers the narrative. tion of, and notes upon, the prophet Isaiah. chapters in Isaiah as a diferent copy of the relation in the second book of • Commentators are divided in opinion, whether the title in verse 1. (the Kings, the account of Hezekiah's sickness only excepted. The ditterence vision of Isaiah) belongs to the whole book, or only to the prophecy con of the two copies, he is of opinion, is little more than what has manifestly ained in this chapter. The former part of the title seeins properly to be. arisen froin the mistakes of transcribers: they mutually correct each long 10 this particular prophecy; the latter part, which enumerates the other; and most of the mistakes may be perfecily rectified by a collation kings of Judah, under whom Isaiah exercised his prophetic office, seems of the two copies with the assistance of the ancient versions. Some few to extend it to the entire collection of prophecies delivered in the course sentences, or members of sentences, are omitted in this copy of Isaiah, of bis ministry. Vitringa (with whom Bishop Lowth agrees) has solveu which are found in the other copy of the book of Kings; but he doubts this dombe very judiciously. He supposes that the former part of the title whether these omissions were made by design or by inistake. Isaiah, was originally prefixed to this single prophecy; and that, when the collec: vol. ii. p. 237.
tion of all Isaiah's propliecies was made, the enumeration of the kings of The scope of Isaiah's prophecies above given is abridged from Ro. Judah was added, to make it at the same time a proper title to the whole berts's Clavis Bibliorum, p. 616.
As such it is plainly taken in 2 Chron. xxxii. 32. where the book of ? The Ethiopian eunuch appears to have been made a proselyte by Saint Isaiah is cited by the title of “The Vision of Isaiah the Prophet, the Son of Philip's explication of this chapter. Vide Acis viii. 32. The whole of it is Amos.” Vitringa, tom. I. pp. 25-29. Bishop Lowth's Isaialı, vol. ii. p. 4. so ininutely descriptive of Christ's passion, that a famous Rabbi, likewise, 7 Scheme of scripture Divinity, chap. xxxiv. in vol. i. of Bishop Waison's on reading it, was converted from Judaism.-Who, indeed, can resist its Collection of Tracts, pp. 143, 144 evidence ?
8 See a striking medallie illustration of Isa. iii. 26. in Vol. I. p. 91. • Gray's Key, pp. 369, 370.
; For a particular elucidation of this sublime vision, see Bp. Lowth's These general divisions of the prophecy are according to the scheme Isaiah, vol. ii. pp. 72–77. and Dr. Ilales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ij. proposed by Vitringa (Comment. in Esaiain, tom. i. p. 24.) and Bishop' book i, p.136. et seq.
of God's dispensations towards his people, and the fates of the hind him, possess himself of their whole country, by taking nation,-events which are still depending, and will not be fully their principal strong places. Jeremiah, says Bishop Lowth, accomplished until the final restoration of Israel.
has happily introduced much of this prophecy of Isaiah into Discourse 2. (ch. vii.-ix. 7.) commences with an historical his own larger prophecy against the same people in his forty
account of the occasion of the prophecy (vii. 1-3.), and then eighth chapter; denouncing God's judgments on Moab subsefollows a prediction of the ill success of the designs of the quent to the calamity here foretold, and to be executed by Israelites and Syrians against Judah (vii. 1–16.); to this Nebuchadnezzar, by which means several mistakes in the text succeeds the denunciation of the calamities that were to be of both prophets may be rectified. brought upon the king and people of Judah by the Assyrians, Discourse 4. (ch. xvii.) is a prophecy chiefly directed against whom they had now hired to assist them. (vii. 17—25.) Damascus or the kingdom of Syria, with whose sovereign the These predictions are repeated and confirmed in ch. viii., the king of Samaria (or Israel) had confederated against the kingninth and tenth verses of which give a repeated general assu- dom of Judah. Bishop Lowth conjectures that it was derance that all the designs of the enemies of God's people shall livered, soon after the prophecies of the seventh and eighth ultimately be frustrated ; and the discourse concludes, after chapters, in the commencement of Ahab's reign. It was fulvarious admonitions and threatenings (viii. 11–22. ix. 1.), filled by Tiglath-Pileser's taking Damascus (2 Kings xvi. 9.), with an illustrious prophecy (ix. 2—7.), in the first instance, overrunning a very considerable part of the kingdom of perhaps, of the restoration of prosperity under Hezekiah, but Israel, and carrying a great number of the Israelites also capprincipally of the manifestation of the Messiah, the transcen- tives into Assyria; and still more fully in regard to Israel, by dent dignity of his character, and the universality and eternal the conquest of the kingdom, and the captivity of the people, duration of his kingdom.
effected a few years after by Shalmaneser. The three last DiscocRSE 3. (ch. ix. 8.—x. 4.) contains a distinct prophecy verses of this chapter seem to have no relation to the prophecy
and a just poem, remarkable for the regularity of its disposi- to which they are joined : they contain a noble description of tion and the elegance of its plan. It has no relation to the the formidable invasion and sudden overthrow of Sennacherib, preceding or to the following prophecy, but is exclusively ad- which is intimated in the strongest terms and most expressive dressed to the kingdom of Israel, and its subject is a denunci- images, exactly suitable to the event. ation of vengeance awaiting their enemies.
Discourse 5. (ch. xviii.) contains one of the most obscure proDiscouRSE 4. (ch. x. 5. xii.) foretells the invasion of Senna- phecies in the whole book of Isaiah. Vitringa considers it as
cherib, and the destruction of his army (x. 5—34. xi.) ; and, directed against the Assyrians; Bishop Lowth refers it to the according to Isaiah's usual method, he takes occasion, from the Egyptians; and Rosenmüller, and others, to the Ethiopians. mention of a great temporal deliverance by the destruction of Discourse 6. (ch. xix. xx.) is a prophecy against Egypt, the the Assyrian host, to launch forth into a display of the spirit- conversion of whose inhabitants to the true religion is intiual deliverance of God's people by the Messiah, to whom this mated in verses 18–25. of ch. xix. prophecy relates ; for that this prophecy relates to the Messiah Discourse 7. (ch. xxi. 1-10.) contains a prediction of the we have the express authority of St. Paul in Rom. xv. 12. taking of Babylon' by the Medes and Persians. " It is a pasThe hymn in ch. xii. seems, by its whole tenor, as well as by sage singular in its kind for its brevity and force, for the variety many of its expressions, much better calculated for the use of and rapidity of the movements, and for the strength and energy the Christian than for the Jewish church under any circum- of colouring with which the action and event are painted.” stances, or at any time that can be assigned ; and the Jews The eleventh and twelfth verses of this chapter contain a prothemselves seem to have applied it to the times of the Mes- phecy concerning Dumah or Idumæa, the land of the Edomsiah.
ites, Mount Seir; which, from the uncertainty of the occasion Part III. contains various Predictions against the Babylonians,
on which it was delivered, as well as from the brevity of the Assyrians, Philistines, and other Nations with whom the
expression, is very obscure. The five last verses comprise a Jews had any intercourse (ch. xiii.—xxii.); these Predic
prophecy respecting Arabia, which was fulfilled within a year
after its delivery. tions are contained in nine Prophetic Poems or Discourses.
Discourse 8. (ch. xxii.) is a prophecy concerning the capture Discourse 1. (ch. xiii. xiv. 1—28.) contains one entire prophecy,
of the Valley of Vision, or Jerusalem (verses l_14.), the foretelling the destruction of Babylon by the Medes and Per
captivity of Shebna (15—19.), and the promotion of Eliakim. sians : it was probably delivered in the reign of Ahaz, about
(20—24.) The invasion of Jerusalem here announced is two hundred years before its completion. The captivity itself
either that by the Assyrians under Sennacherib; or by the of the Jews at Babylon (which the prophet does not expressly Chaldæans under Nebuchadnezzar. Vitringa is of opinion foretell, but supposes in the spirit of prophecy as what was
that the prophet had both in view; viz. the invasion of the actually to be effected), did not take place till about one hun.
Chaldæans in verses 1–5. and that of the Assyrians in verses dred and thirty years after this prediction was delivered. And
8–11. Compare 2 Kings xxv. 4,5. and 2 Chron. xxxii. 2–5. the Medes, who (in xii. 7.) are expressly mentioned as the DiscourSE 9. (ch. xxiii.) denounces the destruction of Tyre by principal agents in subverting this great monarchy, and re
Nebuchadnezzar2 (1–17.), the restoration of its prosperity, leasing the Jews from that captivity, were at this time an
and the conversion of the Tyrians. Accordingly a Christian inconsiderable people, having been in a state of anarchy ever
church was early formed at Tyre, which became a kind of since the fall of the great Assyrian empire, of which they had
mother-church to several others, which were connected with made a part under Sardanapalus; and did not become a king
it. See Acts xxi, 1–6.3 dom under Deioces, until about the seventeenth year of Hezekiah's reign. The former part of this prophecy, Bishop Lowth Part IV. contains a Prophecy of the great Calamities that remarks, is one of the most beautiful examples that can be
should befall the People of God, His merciful Preservation given of elegance of composition, variety of imagery, and sub
of a Remnant of them, and of their Restoration to their limity of sentiment and diction in the prophetic style ; and the Country, of their Conversion to the Gospel, and the Destruclatter part consists of a triumphal ode, which, for beauty of tion of Antichrist. (ch. xxiv.-xxxv.) disposition, strength of colour, grandeur of sentiment, brevity, Discounse 1. (ch. xxiv. xxv. xxvi.) was probably delivered beperspicuity, and force of expression, stands unrivalled among all the monuments of antiquity. The exact accomplishment
fore the destruction of Moab by Shalmaneser, in the beginof this prophecy is recorded in Dan. v. Jerome (in loc.) says,
ning of Hezekiah's reign; but interpreters are not agreed
whether the desolation announced in ch. xxiv. was that caused that, in his time, Babylon was quite in ruins; and all modern travellers unanimously attest that Babylon is so utterly anni
by the invasion of Shalmaneser, the invasion of Nebuchadhilated, that even the place, where this wonder of the world
nezzar, or the destruction of the city and nation by the Romans. once stood, cannot now be determined with any certainty.
Vitringa is singular in referring it to the persecution by AnOn the subject of this prophecy, see Vol. I. p. 126.
tiochus Epiphanes; and Bishop Lowth thinks it may have a DISCOURSE 2. (ch. xiv. 29–32.) contains severe prophetic de
view to all the three great desolations of the country, especially
to the last. In verses 21-23, it is announced that God shall nunciations against the Philistines, the accomplishment of which is recorded in 2 Kings xviii. 8.
at length revisit and restore his people in the last age; and DiscouRSE 3. (ch. xv. xvi.) is a prophecy against the Moabites ;
1 Bishop Newton has collected and illustrated the various predictions of it was delivered soon after the preceding, in the first year of Isaiah and other prophets against Babylon. See his Dissertation on the Hezekiah, and it was accomplished in his fourth year when Prophecies, vol. i. diss. ix. See also Vol. I. p. 126. supra. Shalmaneser invaded the kingdom of Israel. He might, pro- Bishop Newton's Dissertations, vol. i. diss. xl. See also Vol. I. pp. 124, 125. bably, march through Moab; and, to secure every thing be- 3 Scott, on Isa. xxiij. 18.