nation and he would profit. He founded | large number of books issued from his the newspaper now known as the Times, logographic press. I have before me a to prove that newspapers as well as books list of fifteen of these works which apcould be printed far better and more peared between 1784 and 1790. But the cheaply than by the system in common system had to be abandoned at last. It

had several practical and insurmountable The “logotype "system of printing con- drawbacks – one of these being that the sists in using whole words or parts of mass of ready-made words was too bulky words in place of single letters; thus the and cumbersome to admit of being as compositor, instead of building up each readily handled as the corresponding mass word, has the word ready made to his of single types; another being that, if the hand. This looks very simple, and the cost of composition were less, that of corapparent simplicity of the scheme has al- rection was very much greater. Many ways been its chief attraction. Mr. Wal- years later an effort was made to revive ter took counsel with Sir Joseph Banks, the system. Major Beniowski, an ingen , then president of the Royal Society, and ious and a plausible Pole, made some received his approval in the most emphatic changes in it for which he procured letterms, the new system being pronounced ters patent, and he obtained the assistance by him to be “a most useful acquisition of Captain John Greene, for many years to the literary world, and deserving the member for Kilkenny, in furthering and highest encouragement and support from advocating it. In 1854, Captain Greene the public.” Mr. Walter corresponded succeeded in getting a select committee of on the subject with Benjamin Franklin ; the House of Commons to investigate the he had the satisfaction of learning that matter, and he did so despite the opposi. Franklin looked with favor upon the new tion of Mr. Gladstone, then chancellor of system, and as Franklin was not only a the exchequer. The report of the comshrewd man but a practical printer, his mittee was to the effect that, as the evigood opinion carried great weight. Not dence was conflicting, no decision had merely did Mr. Walter hope to economize been arrived at concerning the scheme. in printing both as regards time and cost, The Times, which had suffered severely but he also anticipated a great extension from the delusion of logographic printing, of the art by the use of " logographic" naturally wrote in condemnation of Major types. In the Universal Register for the Beniowski and his invention. 12th of August, 1786, he announced that Not long after the Universal Register having established a type foundry for became known as the Times, it ceased to casting logographic types, he was “able be printed by logotypes. The first numto supply any gentleman with logographic ber under the new name, which appeared types who may have reasons for execut. on the ist of January, 1788, contained an ing any work of secrecy or amusement, as address to the public on the subject of the types of the words are so easily used printing, wherein Mr. Walter returns in preference to single letters, and, conse. thanks for the reception accorded to his quently, the knowledge of printing may efforts to improve that art, states that he be acquired with facility. The experi- purposes issuing a pamphlet containing ment already made by a nobleman of the bis grievances, and gives as a specimen first rank and abilities, both in station the fact that, being in want of apprentices, and knowledge, fully evinces the truth of he sent an advertisement asking for them what is asserted.” It is probable that the to the General Advertiser, which was Duke of Portland is the nobleman here" generally read by the lower orders of referred to, that nobleman having handed the people,” but that Mr. Jenour, the to the king a copy of Mr. Walter's pam- printer of the paper, refused to insert the phlet on logographic printing.

advertisement after taking payment for it. In addition to setting up his newspaper It is probable that the readers of Mr. with these types, Mr. Walter used them Walter's paper cared little for his dis. in his general printing business, and a putes with rival printers and were luke.


warm supporters of his inventions. They on the new name: “The Times! What had a clear piece of evidence against the a monstrous name! Granted — for the success of the new system. The Univer- Times is a many-headed monster that sal Register was sold for 2 d., being a speaks with a hundred tongues, and dis. halfpenny less than any contemporary, the plays a thousand characters, and in the reduced price being said to be a proof of course of its transformations in life as. the saving effected by the new plan, sumes innumerable shapes and bumors." whereas the price was raised to 3d. when Mr. Walter defends the change in the the paper assumed a new name.

title as follows: “The alteration we have The first number of the Times, or made in our head is not without preceDaily Universal Register, was a folio dents. The World has parted with half sheet of four sides, of which more than of its caput mortuum and a moiety of its one-half was filled with advertisements. brains. The Herald has cut off half of It resembled its contemporaries in nearly its head, and lost its original humor. all respects, being, like any of them, as The Post, it is true, retains its whole head Cowper stated in “ The Task,”

and its old features; and as to the other The folio of four pages, happy work,

public prints, they appear as having neither Which not even critics, criticise.

heads nor tails.” The chief reference to

politics is in these terms: "The political In that number the foreign intelligence bead of the Times, like that of Janus, the occupies a little over half a column, and Roman deity, is double-faced ; with one consists of four paragraphs from Warsaw countenance it will smile continually on dated the 5th of December; two from the friends of Old England, and with the Frankfort dated the 14th of December ; other will frown incessantly on her eneone from Constantinople dated the roth of mies." November; two from Paris and one from Mr. Walter may not have thought it Rotterdam dated the 25th of December. necessary to lay down any programme, Ten short paragraphs are given of London because this paper was the continuation news, amongst them being a paragraph to of an established one, and not a new ven. the effect that “the indisposition of Lord ture on a fresh plan. In the Universal Salisbury is a public evil,” a fact which, Register for the 29th of June, 1785, he had if announced now, would doubtless be distinctly announced his aim : “Uninflu. expressed in corresponding words. Under enced by party, uncontrolled by power, the heading of the “ Theatre,”, a short and attached solely to the public interest, notice is given of “Hamlet," then per- every exertion shall be urged to ensure a forming at Drury Lane, and of “ Henry the continuance of that support the journal Fourth at Covent Garden. A column has already experienced.” More tban half headed the “Cuckoo" is filled with those a column of No. 940 is occupied with a paragraphs of gossip and scandal which poem, which is rather worse than the were greatly to the taste of our forefathers, poems that then found places in news. which do not appear unacceptable to read papers, being an “Ode for the New Year" ers of the present day, but which are by the poet laureate. One marriage is excluded from the London daily press and announced, and, one death. The advernow form the staple fare of some weekly tisements are as interesting as anything journals. A column and a quarter headed else in the paper. C. Sharp, perfumer “ The Times,"contains a statement as to and razor-maker to the Prince of Wales, the change in the title, and an exposition vaunts the superiority of bis concave raof the policy of the paper. The gist of zors; John Young is anxious that the no the explanation is that the name Universal bility and gentry should try his “ CaledoRegister was as “injurious to the logo. nian macabau" snuff, assuring them that graphic newspaper as Tristram was to they will find it as good as his Irish snuff; Mr. Shandy's son,” and that, as most Mrs. H. M.informs ladies that her“ opera readers spoke of it as the Register, it was fans," showing the numbers of the boxes commonly confounded with the Annual and names of subscribers, are ready for Register, the Court and City Register, and delivery; C. Walsh recommends his recertain disreputable publications. For fined liquorice to all who wish to get rid of these reasons and others, "the parents of coughs; while other medicines are adver. the Universal Register have added to its tised for sale, not for emolument, but out original name that of the Times, which, of philanthropy, the prices, however, bebeing a monosyliable, bids defiance to cor- ing high enough to leave no small profit. ruptors and mutilators of the language.” These quack medicines are quite as won.

The writer thus proceeds to comment | derful as others of a later day: they com.

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prise the Opiate of Life, which is “most teen months he was liberated on the insovereign for weak stomachs, and infalli. tercession of the Prince of Wales. In ble to all consumptive complaints,” and the reigns both of George the Third and costs 75. a pot of eighteen doses; the his son, imprisonmeot for libel occasioned Golden Pill, which prevents pains in the as little disgrace as it did in France durhead and eyes, restores a lost memory, and ing the reign of the third Napoleon, when beautifies the complexion, is composed some of the best men were in prison and “of tbe wholesomest and scarcest articles some of the worst in office. However, as are not even to be had in Europe,” the Mr. Walter was so disheartened by the box containiog twenty-four pills costing treatment which he received that be cop. 10s. 61. ; Danish pills, a remedy for gravel, templated giving up the Times, and concosting 6s. a box. Only one firm amongst fining himself to printing and publishing these advertisers still survives; this is the books. The journal was conducted at a Messrs. Burgess, who call attention to loss, and to be subjected to fine and im. their smoked salmon and Dutch herrings, prisonment, in addition to losing money French olives and rich sauces. John by the journal, was as trying to his temper Abernethy informs the public that he will as to bis pocket. begin a course of anatomical lectures. Instead, however, of discontinuing to Nine works printed at the Logographic publish the Times, Mr. Walter wisely asPress are advertised, and three firms set sociated his eldest son in its management, forth at length the reasons why lottery and in 1803 made him sole conductor, tickets should be purchased from them. Mr. Jono Walter, jun., was born in 1776; Such are the salient features in the first like Henry Sampson Woodfall

, the emi. number of the journal bearing the name of nent editor of the Public Advertiser, he the Times.

educated at Merchant Taylors' The success of the Times was not rapid. School. He went to Trinity College, Writing in December, 1789, Horace Wal. Oxford, afterwards, where he remained pole asks the Countess of Ossory, “ Have one year only. He studied at Oxford you seen

Mr. Cambridge's excellent with the view of entering the Church, but, verses, called • The Progress of Liberty'? at his father's request, he abandoned his They were printed last Wednesday in a original intention. He had been regu. newspaper called the Times, but they are larly apprenticed to his father, and had ascribed to a young lady.” Mr. Walter mastered the art of printing. It was for often felt his post of editor a most trying the purpose of giving the Times another

In 1786 he had to pay a fine of 150l. and a last chance that Jolin Walter, jun., for a libel upon Lord Loughborough. In was admitted to a share in its manage. 1789. being convicted of libelling the ment. He had the great qualification, in Dukes of York, Gloucester, and Cumber- addition to remarkable natural gifts, of a land, the libel consisting of the remark, thorough acquaintance with the details of probably well founded, that they were printing and publishing. He was twenty. “insincere "in their professions of joy at seven when he undertook the sole man. the king's recovery, he was sentenced to agement of the Times, an early age it is pay a fine of 501., to stand for an hour in true, yet not so early by eight years as the pillory at Charing Cross, to be im- that at which Henry Sampson Woodfall prisoned in Newgate for twelve months, became editor of the Public Advertiser. and to find security for good behavior for The connection of John Walter, jun., with seven years after leaving prison. When the Times was the beginning of its pros. in prison two other libels were laid to his perity and the true source of its fame. charge : he was accused of publishing that He found it a struggling and feeble jour. the Prince of Wales and the Duke of nal; he left it the most successful and York had demeaned themselves so as to powerful journal in the world. On obincur the just disapprobation of his Maj. taining the power to give effect to his esty, and that the Duke of Clarence had policy, he set himself to reorganize the returned home without authority from the staff of the Times, to do everything that Admiralty or his commanding officer. Mr. he could to accelerate the production of Walter was brought from Newgate on the the paper, to fill it with fresh and trust. 3rd of January, 1790, to receive sentence worthy intelligence, to discard any arfor these heinous offences. For both rangement and terminate any understand. libels be was sentenced to a year's impris. ing which might interfere with free action onment in Newgate, to date from the ex. and fearless criticism. It was then the piry of the year he had to serve, and to custom to take payment for theatrical

After being imprisoned six. I puffs, but he distincily intimated that no

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such custom would be acted upon by him, his wishes. He had greater trials to bear and he adhered to his determination, de- than the loss of official patronage. The spite a pecuniary loss to the paper. His public was eager for news respecting the father did not approve of his scrupu- wars then raging on the Continent, and lousness; he desired the paper to be inde. he had made arrangements for getting pendent of any person or party, but he exact and early information. His plans did not object to accepting payments were purposely frustrated by order of the which were consecrated by usage, and government, the officials at the outposts which he considered to be a fair remu. being enjoined to stop all the parcels of neration for service rendered.

papers addressed to him. On remonstrat. No London journal at the beginning of ing at the Home Office he was informed this century was strikingly superior to any that if he would accept these packets as a other, nor had any of them a preponderat- favor, which would imply some return on ing circulation aod influence. Four thou- bis part, they would be duly transmitted. sand copies constituted a large circulation He firmly declined even to listen to such for any paper in those days. Whilst conditions, and at a later date, when comColeridge was a contributor to the Morn. plaining of another high-handed act of ing Post that journal attained a circulation subordinate ageots, he expressly refused of seven thousand copies, to the surprise the still milder terms of compromise to of the proprietors as much as of the pub the effect that he should distinctly inti. lic. None was a special favorite with mate which political party he purposed advertisers. A certain class of advertise supporting. The ministry then in office ments would be found in a particular had his support; but he would not make paper; the Morning Post containing any conditions, even with that ministry, most of those relating to horses and car- which might in the smallest degree fetter riages, the Public Ledger of those relat. or seem to affect his independence. It ing to shipping and sales of foreign mer. was sometimes bis good fortune, whilst chandise, the Morning Herald and the rigidly declining any favor, to outstrip the Times of those relating to auctions, and government in the conveyance of intellithe Morning Chronicle of those relating gence; thus he was able to announce the to books. John Walter, jun., tried to capitulation of Flushing forty-eight hours change this by making his paper equally before the news had reached any govern. complete and attractive in every depart. ment office. ment, and, by increasing its circulation, to The manner in which John Walter, jun., render it a favorite with all advertisers, obtained his information from abroad, at whilst rigidly preserving its impartiality a time when regular communication beand upholding its independence.

tween this country and the Continent was He described in the Times for the nith stopped, is practically disclosed in a letter of February, 1810, how many trials he had from him to Mr. Croker. It is written on to encounter in carrying out this policy: the 9th of May, 1811. After setting forth On purely patriotic grounds he supported in it the extraordinary difficulty in getting the administration of Lord Sidmouth. French newspapers, the writer says that When it was succeeded, or rather dis. a smuggler, " who is in collusion with a placed, by Pitt's second administration, French officer near a certain port, is will. the conduct of Lord Melville was strongly ing to exchange this contraband traffic in blamed in the Times, the result being that which he has been hitherto engaged for Mr. Walter, sen., was removed from the one which is perfectly innocent with re. office of printer to the customs, which he spect to its operation upon the public bad filled for eighteen years, while all gov. revenue namely, the conveyance of ernment advertisements were withdrawn French papers only to England.” * He from the Times. The Administration of proposed that, if the Admiralty would give All the Talents, which took office after orders not to seize the vessel while so en. Pitt's death, having been supported by gaged, copies of the papers thus obtained the Times, it was suggested to John Wal. would be forwarded to the government. ter, jun., that he should memorialize the The result is not told; but the ingenious government in the hope of recovering the plan was designed to serve the governpatronage which had been withdrawn. ment as much as the Times. However, not only did he decline to take The conductors of other journals were any part in such an application, but he in. able to collect foreign news from the same timated to those who proposed to make sources as the Times; but the conductor

despite his refusal to sign it — that they were acting in direct opposition to * Croker's Correspondence and Diaries, vol. i., p. 37



of that journal was not satisfied to do that charged his duty with a fidelity and effect which any rival could perform with equal which has seldom been surpassed by the

He determined to have foreign in most daring and brilliant of his successors. telligence from an agent of his own, and He lived to a great age, dying in his for his exclusive use -in other words, he ninety-fourth year; and those who, like resolved to employ on the Continent a myself, had the pleasure of his personal special correspondent. The gentleman on acquaintance during his later years, found whom his choice fell, and who fully merited his lively and most interesting, spoken the confidence reposed in him, was Henry reminiscences even more fascinating than Crabb Robbinson. He was the forerun- the printed pages which have been given ner of many distinguished men, who have to the world under the skilled editorship given a new impulse and new character to of Dr. Sadler. Of John Walter, jun., journalism. Their names are known as whose friendship he retained till death, well as honored : other contributors to the Crabb Robinson always wrote and spoke press are as little known to the reading in terms of the warmest admiration. public as “Junius ; " but every one is ac- Whilst the conductor of the Times was quainted with the names as well as the gradually but surely rendering it the lead. achievements of such men, amongst many ing journal, he was suddenly confronted others, as Dr. Russell and Wingrove with a danger which threatened to shipCooke, of Mr. Gallenga and Mr. McGahan, wreck the result of his incessant labor and of Mr. Archibald Forbes and Mr. G. A. to mar the fruition of his cherished hopes. Henty, of Mr. Beatty-Kingston and Mr. Towards the end of May, 1810, the pressHilary Skinner, of Mr. Sala and Captain men in his office made a demand for inCameron.

creased wages. These men supplied the Crabb Robinson notes in his diary manual labor for working the printinghow, in January, 1807, he received, through presses, and their services were indispenshis friend J. D. Collier, a proposal that he able. At the same time the compositors should proceed to Altona and reside there combined to demand not only higher as the Times correspondent. He had re- wages, but the disuse of a new size of turned from a stay in Germany, where he type which had been then introduced. studied at the University of Jena. He The men bound themselves by an oath to had not only become well versed in the be united and firm in demands to which German language and literature, but be they considered that resistance was hopehad made the personal acquaintance of less. John Walter, jun., had a private the most eminent Germans of the day, intimation of the strike a few hours before Goethe and Schiller being numbered it took place on a Saturday morning; amongst them. Later in life he enjoyed Hastily collecting a few apprentices and the friendship of the chief Englishmen of unemployed compositors, he worked con. his time, and he was the most intimate tinuously for thirty-six hours along with friend, perhaps, that Wordsworth ever them in preparing the Monday's issue, had. Crabb Robinson sent to the Times which, to the astonishment of the worka series of letters from “the banks of men on strike, appeared in the usual the Elbe,” wherein he set forth the condi- course. During several months the busition of things in Germany during the agi. ness of printing the journal was conducted tated period which closed with the fall of under difficulties, the workmen on strike Dantziy, the battle of Friedland, and the molesting those employed in the office. treaty of Tilsit. On returning home, after The lives of the latter were often in peril having had several parrow escapes from during the struggle. At length it was capture and imprisonment, he acted as resolved to prosecute the men on strike the foreign editor of the Times, and in for conspiracy, as well as for illegal comthe year 1808 he was despatched to Co-bination, the result being that twenty-one runda, there to act again as special corre. were put on their trial at the Old Bailey spondent. The letters which he wrote on the 8th of November, 1810, that nine. during this mission were dated from "the teen were found guilty of conspiracy, that sbores of the Bay of Biscay” and “Co. two ringleaders were sentenced to impris. runna," and they appeared between the onment for two years, three others for gth of August, 1808, and the 20th of Jan. eighteen months, three for twelve months, uary, 1809. Crabb Robinson was a wor. and eleven for nine months. thy representative of the class which has Not long after having successfully renow become famous; he had all the activ sisted this attempt to wreck the Times, ity requisite for performing the onerous its conductor lost his father, who died at task which he undertook, and he dis. Teddington on the 16th of November,

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