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best the sea in storm and commotion, with not as a place where the shadows fall as the white horses racing, and the water they would not save for the hills; but the revealing every moment long graves as if explanation is not completely satisfactory. ready for heaps of men. The present Is it possibie that the appreciation of man. writér, for instance, cannot love the sight kind for scenery is, so to speak, a new of the sea when near, with its endless faculty, born only when the mind is ripe, restlessness and sullen roar of menace and a faculty which may exist, or, at all events, discontent; it is, to him, among scenes become general, in one century and not in what a mob is among political phenomena, another, just as sympathy undoubtedly is ? and probably from the same defect of That theory would explain all difficulties, character. It is certainly not from any but it would reduce the love of scenery to want of perception of scenery. It is the the level of a love of Horace, - a pleasindolent - by nature, we mean, not nec. ure not of mankind, but of the cultivated essarily by habit — who love the gentle few. hills and the sequestered valleys, the green upland and the shadowy dell, the changeless glory of the spreading tree, and the sleepy tranquillity of the village on the while there are men, and not the

From The Spectator. worst, to whom no scene is truly satisfying

THE VALUE OF AMENITY. which does not steep their minds in calni. It is a strange and somewhat perplexThey say they admire Salvator Rosa — no- ing fact that the value of amenity in public body ever did it, but the illustration is the life should be so little recognized as it is clearest and really love only Morland. at present. In our habits of life, in our The land of milk and honey is the scene sports and games, amenity is recognized for them, as it was for the Jews, whose as an essential quality. The tendency to poets, bursting as they were with the lofti- give an evenness, a suavity to life, is, inest imagination, have left us in all their deed, apparent everywhere but in politics. poetry no picture of a wild scene, though There alone it seems to have no place, the author of Ruth must have felt most and violence, want of self-restraint, and keenly admiration for the scenes we now vehemence are only looked on as signs of describe as idyllic.

earnestness and resolution. If amenity We should like to know the true expla- in language and conduct had been valued nation of the indubitable fact that the as one might expect it to have been valcommon toilers of a beautiful country, with ued in the House of Commons, a small the rarest exceptions, never perceive its band of Irishmen would never have been beauty, and cannot conceive what it is that able, as they have been able, to change so induces visitors to admire. The Swiss completely, the character of Parliament and the Highlanders are positively drawn within so short a space of time. The Parby their mountains, when they are away nellites have taught men to think that from them, as lovers by their brides; but courtesy and good breeding not only do when present, they do not admire details, not pay, but that their opposites do; and, and are perplexed by those who do. The accordingly, the restraint which existed on Switzer will point out anything as of in the indulgence of the natural taste for terest except the view, unless he has got it violent language among men affected by up from a book, and the Highlander is strong personal interests having disapenraptured with the new house which peared, politicians consider that they need vulgarizes a grand prospect. The popular no longer trouble themselves to keep cool explanation is want of imagination, but under irritation, and, indeed, regard it as the Switzer shows no such want in his a proper part of the Parliamentary game legends, and the Highlander is the most to bandy terms of abuse, and impute the imaginative of mankind. Another expla- basest motives in the plainest language. pation is the deadening effect of custoin ; Observers notice how this demoralization but why does not that affect strangers who has even begun to affect the leaders, and settle amid these scenes, and never lose how the orator once known for the ponthe inner delight the sight of them had derous show of civility with which he originally caused? We presume that vil- made his most vehement attacks, has now lagers see not what strangers expect them adopted instead the tone of a Parliamento see because necessity has compelled tary pugilist who hits below the belt withthem to think first of other things than out respecting any of the courtesies of effect, to treat the glen, for example, as combat. How can it possibly be argued the place where tbey live and work, and that any value is set upon amenity when


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a member of the House of Commons de- rat, king of Naples, wished, for reasons clares that unless certain prison rules are of State expediency, to abolish a number altered as he wants them altered, he will, of monasteries, he issued an edict making if he ever suffers under them, bring a pail the alleged misdeeds of monks his excuse, of slops into the House of Commons and and so involving himself in a general quardash them in the face of the chief secre- rel with the Church, his astute master, tary for Ireland, and when a public meet- the great Napoleon, read him a very per. ing allows a member of the Cabinet to be tinent lecture on the value of amenity in described as base, brutal, and bloody such matters, and pointed out how, if he Balfour”?

had pleaded that he made the confisca. Yet, notwithstanding that hard-headed tions in the interests of the Church itself, men who ought to know their own busi. he might have attained his object just as ness, show, by violating every dictate not easily, and yet have managed to give the merely of courtesy but of decency, that minimum of offence. As an example of they set no kind of value on amenity in the positive value of this sort of amenity politics, we are by no means inclined to in politics — that is, of the quality of not think that they are well advised. Let giving offence by the use of hard words a government be as democratic as you and the imputing of motives — may be please, and still amenity of language instanced the position of Lord Hartington and conduct will pay. Amenity means in English public life. Lord Hartington, strength, fairness, tolerance, and comes except strength, has few qualities which so obviously from the desire to get at the would render him attractive to a democreal issue, and not to trouble with the racy but amenity. Yet so valuable is this personal crust which surrounds every po- quality, that he has a firmer hold on the litical question, that the mob understand people of England, taking friends and foes and admire it. The lesson that when two together, than any other statesman. In men are disputing, the one that keeps his one sense, indeed, Lord Hartington is a head, grows cool as his opponent gets hot, more popular man than Mr. Gladstone and refuses to be led into a new quarrel himself, for he has no enemies; whereas because he is called names and has mo- Mr. Gladstone, though his supporters act. tives imputed to him, is the one that will ually worship him, is an object of bitter win, is soon learned and understood by hostility to an enormous part of the popthe most uneducated. The man who does ulation. Mr. Chamberlain, since he has not get angry and does not call names is differed from Mr. Gladstone, has become in every society recognized as the strong the object of the fiercest denunciation man, — and strong men always inspire a among his old friends. Lord Hartington, democracy with respect and admiration. though his opinions ought to cause much Great, however, as is the value of amenity more antipathy among the Gladstonians, in inspiring the sense of strength and con- is always treated by them with perfect fidence, it is almost as great from the fact respect as a man to whom it would be that it does not, like its opposite, make impossible to attribute any motives but enemies. The man who has no amenity the highest. To win this place, Lord in conduct or language is always making Hartington has had not the gifts of enpersonal enemies. Now, for one man who thusiasm, nor of buoyant good-humorwill fight hard where principles are in- like Lord Rosebery — nor of hurning elovolved, there are fifty who will fight to the quence, nor of any skill in the manipuladeath for personal considerations. The tion of public opinion. He is simply a politician, therefore, who cannot keep a sincere, civil-spoken man, who is never civil tongue in his head often finds this frightened or irritated into trying to get out. Examples might be quoted of sharp- the better of his opponents by covering tongued candidates who, to the apparent them with virulent abuse. Certainly his delight of the audience, have night after career is a tribute, if one was needed, to night silenced the askers of awkward ques- the value of amenity in political life. tions by some piece of clever insolence, Yet another value of amenity may be and who, in spite of good prospects, have found in its effect as an immediate weapon found themselves at the bottom of the in political warfare. To answer a violent poll. The man who gets a telling, ill. man with violent language is the very natured score off an opponent, may silence worst way in which to deal with him. To that opponent and expose his ignorance; remain firm with a good grace is just as but he creates for himself the most dan- important as to yield gracefully. There gerous possible form of enemy, an en- is no such effective answer as silence, or emy with a personal grudge. When Mu. 1 else language which shall inake as vio


lent a contrast as possible with the intem- ers possessed of far superior military force. perance of the attack to be be met. If, in either case, artillery could have been When Lord Melbourne answered Lord employed, resistance would have been useBrougham's furious but astonishingly able less. As it could not be used without an attack on his ministry by declaring that impossible expenditure of time and money, "he felt sure their lordships, after the peoples like the Boers and Montenegrins speech they had just heard, would realize have maintained their independence. how many and how grave must be the rea- The new gunpowder, if we are to believe sons which would prevent any adminis- the rumor, will change all this. Ordinary tration from availing themselves of such gunpowder and guncotton explode by extalents,” he was giving a far more effect- panding either simultaneously in all direcive answer to his assailant than if he had tions, or else downwards. In using gunindulged in any invective, however forci- powder, therefore, to propel projectiles ble, in which Brougham's duplicity and from a cannon, the cannon has to be made untrustworthiness had been shown in all of sufficient strength, weight, and thicktheir nakedness. Instances in plenty dess to resist the explosion of the charge. might be produced to emphasize this con- The new gunpowder, which is the discovtention, that courtesy of demeanor and ery of a Russian engineer, and has been language is a very effective weapon. The named “sleetover,” is an explosive which

Burke, for instance, shows it only acts in one direction, — namely, forconclusively. Burke's failure — and since wards. This quality iinmediately does Burke was so great a genius, his life was away with the necessity for solid, heavy one of the greatest of failures - was in a instruments from which to throw the great measure due to his absolute want projectile. It is said, indeed, that ballof amenity. We fear, however, that no cartridges loaded with sleetover have acamount of preaching would make the ex- tually been fired from cardboard tubes treme men listen to reason just now. with complete success, and without damTheir object is to discredit government; aging the tubes in any way: If these and since they imagine that the easiest statements are true, they certainly mean a way to do this is to call names, they will most extraordinary change in the comgo on degrading politics till they find that plexion of modern warfare. Even if it they have at last violated the sense of might not be possible to use paper cannon justice which, though sometimes hidden, in actual war though, of course, paper exists none the less among all classes of could be made quite stiff and tough enough Englishmen.

for the purpose

metals far lighter than steel or brass could in future be used for artillery. That lightest, toughest of metals, aluminium, would serve the purpose

admirably. But if the artillery train for From The Spectator.

an army could consist of tubes of aluminTHE NEW GUNPOWDER.

ium, and a siege train could thus be carIt is rumored in St. Petersburg that a ried on men's shoulders, or, at any rate, new form of gunpowder has been discov. slung between horses, where would be the ered the qualities of which are such as protection of a mountain range? may be expected completely to revolu- canon, quand pourrait-il passer le Sim. tionize modern warfare. If the compound plon ?'” was Napoleon's constant question turns out really to be what it professes, a to the engineers who were building him means of destruction has been discovered the first and best mountain road in the which will do away forever with the chance world, for till he could take his artillery of success always possessed before by a safely and quickly into Italy, he felt that population determined to defend its open he had no real hold on the inountain-walled country, its hills and forests, against inva- peninsula. If sleetover fulfils its promsion, even when confronted with vastly ises, a modern general will have no such superior military force. Hitherto, wild cares; for wherever a trooper can go, and mountainous countries, granted that there can go the guns. Of course, the the inhabitants were of a warlike kind, ammunition and the shells will remain as have been difficult to conquer, in a great heavy as ever; but that, since their bulk, measure because of the impossibility of except in the case of naval artillery, is not making use of artillery. It is the absence excessive, will not really prevent moveof artillery that often gives a population ments of troops over mountains. To get trained to arms say, like the Boers or the cannon across is the real point; that Montenegrins - the advantage over pow. once accomplished, the means for firing

56 Le


it off will follow. The Swiss rely upon guns could be made practicable, the territhe fact that though the'r highlands are ble difficulties encountered by the general now crossed by roads in every direction, who has to find, first his horses and then they could in a very short time, by break their forage, would be very simply got ing down bridges and blowing up rock- over. We may see the time when cycle cuttings and tunnels, render the country batteries will be a feature of every army, as inaccessible for artillery as it was a and when that most striking of sights, the hundred years ago;

With aluminium horse artillery coming up at the gallop, guns, however, the obstructions on which will be nothing but a memory. It is not, they think they can rely would be ren- however, in artillery alone that the effect dered absolutely useless. Again, in the of an invention like sleetover would be case of India, the Himalayas, if sleetover felt. One of the great difficulties of the comes into use, will afford by no means repeating rifle is its weight. If, however, the protection against a Russian attack the barrel could be made of sheet tin, or which they would have done in the case aluminium just thick enough to keep its of heavy guns, which could only move shape, the weight saved might be utilized along something in the nature of a road. by adding to the charge in the magazine, The Russian advance by the snowy passes and a rifle that would fire thirty shots in of the Cabul range, the most direct, and, succession might conceivably be proin that sense, easiest route into India, has duced. A curious feature of the new always been regarded as impossible, be explosive is stated to be its cheapness. cause of the difficulty of conveying the The cost of sleetover is said to be only

If now for an army to march one-tenth of that of ordinary gunpowder. “light” means marching with a train of This, however, is not a very important powerful guns, we are certainly placed by consideration, for the money required for the new invention in a far more difficult gunpowder, were it sixty times as expenposition than when the hills still forbade sive as it is, would always be forthcoming. the passage of anything but mule or camel The nature of the new composition is batteries. But though in India the inven- stated to be at present a profound secret. tion might in these ways harm us, in other if it turns out a success, we very much ways it would do us nothing but good. doubt its remaining so. Some workman, Take, for instance, the pacification of or, as it is in Russia, perhaps some high Burmah. If we could be now employing official, will betray it." "If not, a hint will powerful batteries of artillery, which could be traced out by some ingenious chemist be moved anywhere on horses' backs, we anxious to benefit the world. Sooner or should have a far easier task in breaking later, it is sure to come out. It is possi. up the bands of dacoits. In the case, too, ble, of course, that the Russians might of those small expeditions into the hills keep it till the outbreak of a war

-in warwhich are so often occurring on the north. time the secret must be divulged, for some ern and north-western frontiers of India, of the cartridges would certainly be taken where it is necessary to march into a wild or found lying about, and the contents hill country and attack the stockaded hill analyzed – and might gain thereby a great citadel of some small hostile tribe, the advantage. But would any power dare to new invention would indeed prove invalu- enter on a struggle using the new, gunable. If the attacking force could only powder alone? Till tested by actual war, take with them a powerful piece of artil- no one could say positively if it would lery, the difficulties of such expeditions really answer. Probably, therefore, no would vanish.

army would venture beyond an experiPerhaps one of the most efficient ways ment, and a mere experiment would ren. in which guns of paper or very light metal der them no real assistance. New devices might be used, would be by their adapta- in war show about an equal record of suction to tricycles. If two men could propel, cess and failure. The Prussians founded by their own energy, a double tricycle their supremacy on the needle.gun. In fitted with a light aluminium gun, the 1870, the French utterly failed to effect artillery might be made almost indepen- anything with their boasted mitrailleuses. dent of horses. Some recent experiments if sleetover is a reality, it may possibly at Aldershot showed that velocipedes car. turn out like the needle-gun. It is equally rying some twenty or thirty soldiers could possible that it may, for some unforeseen easily be developed into a very useful arm reason, be utterly valueless; but fumors of the service for occasions where very about weapons of war are usually derived rapid marching was required. If cycle from experts by no means credulous.


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Fifth Series, Volamo LX.


No. 2262.- November 5, 1887.


From Beginning,


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London Quarterly Review,
Part XI.,

Good Words,

Fortnightly Review,
Part XXIV.,

Chambers' Journal,

Macmillan's Magazine, VI. SOME ODD NUMBERS, .

Murray's Magazine,

Macmillan's Magazine,

Temple Bar,


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