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But this claim is so repugnant to giving up to a life of idleness, and alreason, so contradictory to the com- most total uselessness in a national mon sense of man, and so palpably view, an enormous multitude of human overthrown by the vicious conduct of beings annually, down to this hour, Popes, and the contemptible quarrels through nearly nine centuries ! of Councils, that, even among the But, to give the true character of Papists, it has been the most dubious this presumptuous contempt of the of all doctrines-some of the Popish Divine will, and of the primal blessing parties placing infallibility in a General of " Increase and multiply, and reCouncil, some in a General Council plenish the earth,” and of the universal united with the Pope, some in the custom of the Jewish covenant, in Universal Church. But those disputes, which the priesthood descended by which no human understanding could families; we should know the solitary ever decide, show only the repugnancy miseries entailed by monastic and of the doctrine itself to the human conventual life, the thousands of intellect. Infallibility was, at length, hearts broken by remorse for those by the mere ignorance of knowing rash bonds, the thousands sunk into where to place it, quietly delivered idiotism and frenzy by the monotony, into the possession of the Pope. He the toilsome trilling, the useless seis now presumed to be the acting verities, and the habitual tyrannies infallibility of the Romish world. of the cloister. Even to those we

Yet, immeasurably absurd as this must add the still darker page of that doctrine is, it is the especial and fa- grossness of vice which, in the ages vourite one on which the Tractarians previous to the Reformation, produced insist, and by which the apostates frequent remonstrances even from the attempt to justify their guilty deser Popes, and perpetual disgust among tion to Rome. Infatuated as they are, the people. they have fixed on the very point The Invocation of Saints.—This where infatuation is most infatuated, doctrine first assumed an acknowand where perversion most degrades ledged form in the seventh century. the character of the understanding. It had been gradually making its way,

The Celibacy of the Clergy.- After since the dangerous homage paid to the several attempts by ambitious Popes, tombs of the martyrs in the third and this doctrine, or ordinance, was estab- fourth centuries. But this invocation lished by the tyrannical Hildebrand, made them, in the estimate of their Gregory the Seventh, in the eleventh worshippers, gods. For the supposicentury. The parochial clergy had tion that they heard and answered generally married, and they protested prayer in every part of the world at long and strongly against abandoning once, necessarily implied Omnitheir wives. But the advantage of presence-an attribute exclusively having the ecclesiastics, in all countries, belonging to Deity. wholly separated from all connexion Transubstantiation.-- This doctrine with their native soil and native in- declares that, when the words of conterests, and the fixture of large bodies secration have been pronounced over of men in every kingdom, wholly the Eucharist, the bread and wine are devoted to the objects of the Popedom, actually transformed into the body overpowered the voice alike of nature, and blood, the soul and divinity of justice, and scripture. “Those whom Christ. This monstrous notion was God had joined together" were put wholly unknown to the Christians of asunder by man.

the first four centuries. In the No act, even of the Papacy, ever eleventh century, it was held that the produced more suffering or more crime. body of Christ was actually present, No act could be politically more injn- without directly affirming in what rious, for it withdrew from the increase manner. It was not until the thirof the population-in times when teenth century (A.D. 1215) that the population was the great want of change of the bread and wine became Europe, and when half the land was an acknowledged doctrine, by the desert — 300,000 parochial priests, Fourth Lateran Council. 300,000 monks and friars, and proba- This doctrine contradicts the conbly upwards of 300,000 nuns; thus ception of a miracle, which consists

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in a visible supernatural change. It prayer for forgiveness, through the contradicts the physical conception of atonement of Christ, and on the debody, which is, that body is local, and termination to sin no more : “ Come of course cannot be in two places at to me all ye that are heavy laden, and once; but the body of Christ is in I will refresh you."-"Repent ye, and Heaven. It also contradicts Scrip. be converted, that your sins may be ture, which pronounces that the taking blotted out." of the bread and wine would be But Auricular Confession, with its wholly profitless, but by the accom- subsequent Absolution, actually inpanying operation of the Holy Spirit creases crime, by disburthening the acting on the faithful partaker of the mind of remorse, and by substituting Sacrament; the language of Christ absolution for repentance. This pracbeing—"The flesh profiteth nothing. tice was established, as a portion of The words that I speak to you, they the acknowledged system of Rome, are spirit.” The whole efficacy is scarcely before the thirteenth century. spiritual.

Purgatory.- This doctrine was unThe Mass.-Popery declares that in heard of in the first four centuries. the Mass is offered continually the It crept in about the seventh century, actual sacrifice of Christ. This con- the period of the chief corruptions of ception arises from Transubstan- worship. It was not sanctioned by tiation, by which the Host is Christ; any council until the fifteenth cen. and the priest thus continually offer- tury, (A.D. 1438.) Its first establishing the Host is presumed to sacrifice ment was by the Council of Trent. our Lord, in every instance of the This doctrine, which is wholly conoffering !

tradictory to the redemption declared This doctrine is threefold-that the in the Gospel, as resulting from the priest can make God, that flour and sufferings of Christ alone; declares water can be God, and that the wafer, that every sinner must be qualified which is still but flour and water to for redemption in part, by undergoing the senses, is the Christ of whom it sufferings of his own; that he must is declared in Scripture that, “having be personally punished in Purgatory suffered once for all for the sins of for his temporal sins, to be purified men, he sat down for ever at the for Heaven. The doctrine is eviright hand of God.” This monstrous dently borrowed from the Heathen doctrine was long disputed, and, ideas of Tartarus. It has not the though practically adopted, was not slightest ground in Scripture, and is confirmed before the Council of Trent, totally opposed to the whole spirit (A.D. 1563.)

and bearing of Christianity. The Half-communion.-This doc- Indulgences.-This doctrine origitrine originated also in Transubstan- nated in the combination of Purgatory tiation. From pronouncing the and Saintship. It held, that the Eucharist to be actually Christ, merits of the dead might be applied scruples arose as to its chances of to the wants of the living; and that pollution; and as the wine might be these merits, not being required for spilt, it became the custom to give the redemption of the saints, were only the bread to the laity, in whose preserved in the hands of the Church, . mouths it is placed by the priest. to be distributed as remissions from But a mutilated sacrament is none. Penance, in the first instance, and in The consequence of this doctrine is, the next, from the terms of suffering that no Popish layman ever receives in Purgatory. These remissions were the Eucharist, or has received it sold by Rome under the name of during the last four hundred years 1- Indulgences, and were given for any a most awful and terrible result of and every period. These Indulgences human presumption !

extended from a year to ten thousand Auricular Confession. -- By this years. Instances are recorded of doctrine, the forgiveness of sin must their being extended to thirty thoube preceded by confession to a priest. sand years! This was the most In contradiction to the whole tenor of lucrative portion of the traffic of Scripture, which declares the forgive- Rome. It brought in prodigious

of sin to depend on sincere sums to the Roman Treasury.

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Masses for the Dead. This doctrine the shape of a creed to the Popish was connected with those of Purga- world. tory and Indulgences. By it a suc- We are glad to find that the “ Papal cession of solitary masses might be con- Aggression" has awakened the intinually carried on, either to relieve the telligent and important authority of Purgatorial torments, or shorten their the English bar. On all great quesduration. But these masses must be tions of the liberties and rights of the paid for either in money or land. They empire, that authority is of the most formed the vast funds which endowed decisive order; and in this spirit we the great Romish establishments welcome with peculiar gratification a the monasteries, &c. Operating on pamphlet from the well-known and the fears of the dying, the Popish eloquent pen of Mr Warren.* He priesthood rapidly possessed them- commences by this bold and manly selves of enormous wealth, and, in denunciation of the Papal interference England, they were calculated to be with the rights of the Church and the masters of one-third of the land! The privileges of the crown :statute of mortmain alone preserved

“The ascendency of the Protestant the rest. This prodigious grasp was

faith in this country is in danger, notloosened at the Reformation, and the

withstanding the noble movement which monkish institutions were deprived of has been made in its defence. The the wealth gained only by super- position so suddenly taken by the mortal stition.

enemy of that faith, is meant to be perIt is obvious how fatally a doctrine manent; and he is silently intrenching of this order must operate on society. himself in it: regarding all that has If man could clear himself from the been said by this great nation as punishment of a life of profligacy by “sound and fury, signifying--NOTHING.” a bequest on his deathbed, his whole He is infinitely more to be feared than responsibility would be removed at he wishes, at present to be believed ; once. The fear of judgment would be

and though the precipitancy of priestly

ambition may have deranged, for a extinguished throughout his life ; he

moment, the working of his policy, it is could have no restraint but the arm

really profound and comprehensive, as of society. Masses would be his its results will in due time show ; and substitute for morals; and his con- has been accommodated to the political science would be cleared by the acts and ecclesiastical circumstances of the of others, for years after he was country with malignant exactitude and laid in the grave. If Masses could skilfulness. avail, there would be no use in living

“The political power of the Papacy lies virtue, to any man who was able to

hid under its spiritual pretensions, like

a venomous serpent lurking under lovely pay for them, This doctrine, intolerable in the

foliage and flowers. A leading object of

this Letter, is to explain and illustrate view of common sense, unjust in

that truth, in its practical application to placing an insurmountable distinction

the great question now before the between the rich and the poor, and country, challenging its best energies of wholly contradictory to the spirit of thought and will. It would be fatally the gospel-which commands that fallacious to regard the late act of the " every man shall work out his own Pope as exhibiting only the spasms of salvation with fear and trembling, for weakness. The more it is considered, it is God that worketh in him, both to the greater cause will be developed for will and to do"-was created and

anxious but resolute action. As a precontinued for its vast profits to the

tender to the exercise of direct temporal

power, the Pope seems quite impotent ; priesthood of Rome.

but he is the visible exponent of a The celebrated Council of Trent,

spiritual despotism, founded which, under various forms, sat from

(so we

Protestants believe, or have no right to 1542 till 1563, collected all these be such) as clearly on falsehood and doctrines into a system, and the sub- impiety, as its pretensions and purpose sequent act of Pius IV. gave them in are at once sublime and execrable ; that

* The Queen or the Pope ? The Question considered in its Political, Legal, and Religious Aspects. By SAMUEL WARREN, Esq., Barrister-at-law.

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purpose being to extinguish, and in the nant at this language! But who name of Heaven, the liberties of mankind. can henceforth be deceived ?

" The question then— The Queen or Mr Warren, in reverting to the the Pope ?'-is a momentous one, which character and pretensions of the

Papacy, lays it down as a fundato answer. The whole matter, social,

mental proposition, that “the Pope's political, and religious, is gathered up

P avowed spiritual power is pregnant into those few words ; and posterity will sit in judgment on our mode of

with disavowed political power." He answering that question."

tells us further, “that we have to

tolerate a rival, who condescends to Mr Warren, in taking a lawyer's equality only as an advance to ascen. general view of the subject, strikinglydency." He then gives the memoadverts to the impudence of the rable Florentine canon of 1439, which Papist assertions. It is true that the Romish lawyers regard as conthese assertions have now shrunk taining “ the true doctrine of their into a very small compass; that the church," and for the consequences bravado of “my Lord Cardinal" has deducible from which all Papists are dwindled down into a sort of suppli. answerable. These are its words :cation to be suffered to remain here " Moreover, we define that the on any terms; and that the “prince" Holy Apostolic See, and the Roman has stooped into the pilgrim, gliding Pontiff, have a primacy over the through the filth, vice, and poverty whole world !--and that the Roman of the Irish colony in Westminster, Pontiff is the successor of St Peter, or, as he terms it, the slums-an the chief of the apostles, and true expression of extreme vulgarity, Vicar of Christ and that he is which, Mr Warren justly observes, head of the whole church,' and the does not belong to the English lan father and teacher of all Christians ! guage, and wbich, we may as justly —and to him, in St Peter, was deleobserve, belongs only to the meanest gated by our Lord Jesus Christ full of the rabble.

power to feed, rule, and govern the But the organs of Popery abroad universal church, as also is contained have not submitted to circumstances in the Acts of General Councils, and SO demurely, and they let out the in the holy canons !” In this daring Popish objects with all the easy inso. proclamation of power, we have the lence of the foreigner. Thus Count assumption of an authority obviously le Maistre, in a work translated and incompatible with the peace of any published in London, says, “What pation under heaven, and equally shall we say of Protestantism, and incompatible with the common liberof those who defend it, when it will ties of mankind--for there can be na no longer exist? Let them rather aid liberty where the arbitrary will of a ns in making it disappear. In order stranger is the fountain of the law, to re-establish a religion and a and most especially contradictory to morality in Europe, in order to give that Scripture which declares that to truth the strength which it requires Christ's kingdom is not a kingdom for the conquest it meditates, it is an after the fasbion of this world. indispensable preliminary to efface When the question was contempfrom the European dictionary that thously put by Pilate to our Lord fatal word, Protestantism.L'Univers, himself, “ Art thou a king ?” the the journal of Popery in France, has answer was, that he was not a king no hesitation in pronouncing the in the sense of the Roman; that, if he Protestant faith in England to be were such, "his servants would fight" totally undone, and that Popery is in other words, that he would have only taking its time to make the the troops and attendance of an operation complete.

earthly king, that he would have The Popish organ here has been resisted and made war. “But now equally plain-spoken, and pronounced, is my kingdom not of this world.” in the most dashing style, the triumph But what is the Papacy, with its of Rome, and the return of all Pro. princes and pageantries, its armies testants under its yoke, on pain of and intrigues, its cabinets and allidamnation! Who but must be indig. ances? In what does all this com

plicated and systematic mixture in pleasing to the caprices, insolence, and the affairs of the world differ from the ignorance of a coterie of monks in the kingdoms of this world ? except per- Vatican ? haps in its deeper intrigue, in its If the legitimate and noble boast of more perpetual artifice, in its more the Englishman is, that his house is insatiable craving for power, and in his castle, what is the house of the its more habitual gratification of Italian Papist, but bis dungeon ? If every daring and dangerous passion the Irish or the English Papist deof man.

mands “Religious Liberty," let him And it has felt the consequences. demand it of his master the Pope. If Of all the kingdoms of this world, the Papist desires it, let him break the since the fall of Rome, the Popedom Popish fetter, and emancipate himself. has been the most marked by calamity. Till then, we must look upon his claim There has been no nation whose as lawlessness instead of liberty, and sovereign has been so often flung from hypocrisy instead of religion. his throne; whose throne has been so But, before the Papist requires more often contested with bloody dissen- than toleration, must he not show sion, whose sovereign has been so that at least he tolerates? If, in the often a prisoner in foreign lands, Popish kingdoms of the Continent, whose capital bas been so often fear or policy has produced some sacked, whose provinces have been degree of Protestant toleration, what so often in foreign possession, whose is the condition of Protestantism in population is so miserable, and whose the capital of Popery ; and, in its rassalage has been so palpable, so most important point, freedom of bumiliating, and so wretched.

worship? To this day, no English But need we look to the past, Protestant is suffered to worship when we see the Papacy at this hour? within the walls of Rome. Need we dig up ancient fields of battle, The Americans, with a sense of to see how often its armies have been national right, of which it is a scandal buried ; or dive into its dungeons, to to England not to have adopted the see how many centuries of fetters are example, have insisted on having a recorded there against its presump- chapel-a solitary chapel -in Rome; tion? Need we break up its tombs while the English have been forced to see its shattered crosiers and to run from one lodging to another, tarnished tiaras, when we see the to hide in holes and corners, and to living figure that sitz in mock majesty exbibit to the Roman rabble the sight in the Vatican, with a French garri- of Protestants sneaking to a worship son in the Castle of St Angelo ? indebted only to connivance for its

But the Papist demands religious being suffered to exist at all! From liberty. The words, in Papist lips, are 1815, the year in which we gave liberty jargon. He has never had it in any to the Pope, their worship was held country on earth. Has he it in only in private rooms for the ten fol. Rome? Can the man have the lowing years, even to which the absurdity to call himself a freeman, English were prohibited from going in when the priest may tear the Bible carriages. They must go on foot ! out of his hand; when, without a From 1826, the condition of their license, he cannot look into the Book worship is thus stated on the authority of Life ?-when, with or without a of the chaplain : license, he cannot exercise his own “In that year, the English congreunderstanding upon its sacred truths, gation migrated to a granary outside but must refuse even to think, except the Flaminian Gate. In the upper part as the priest commands ?-when, for of this huge building, a space, large daring to have an opinion on the enough for a congregation, was hired. most essential of all things—his own It was reduced into shape by lath and salvation-he is branded as a heretic; plaster; it had a ceiling of canvass to and when, for uttering that opinion, hide the rafters and cobwebs, and he is cast into the dungeon ?-when carpets laid over straw, for covering the priest, with the Index Expurgato. the mud floor. The rats and mice ran rius in his hand, may walk into his races over the canvass above the heads house, and strip it of every book dis- of the worshippers; the pigs, in great

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