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met with in my travels, whether on this or on your side of the Atlantic. In respect to finish and elegance of manners, it leaves nothing to be desired, and, what is of more value with people who, like you and me, attach little importance to mere politeness, it swarms with real talent, and that without the alloy of pedantry. In all questions of a common interest, this State always leads. The politics of the other States, except Georgia, are not yet sufficiently of a decided character to justify me in speaking of them. As to Georgia, with pain I must declare to you, that nothing can equal the fury of its factions, unless it be those of Kentucky: in the latter, however, the contention is for principles ; whilst the disputes of Georgia are merely about men. The present governor has pushed matters so far, that the evil is in a fair way of being cured by its very excess.
The other States form the west. Incomparably the largest and richest part of the Union, it will be ere Jong, if it be not already, the most populous; power will follow shortly, as well as luxury, instruction, and the arts, which are its consequences. Their interests are manufacturing and agricultural; the former bearing the chief sway. The character of the people is strongly marked by a rude instinct of robust liberty, degenerating often into licentiousness, a simplicity of morals, and an uncouthness of manners, approaching occasionally to coarseness and cynical independence. These States are too immature to enable me to say much of their politics, which are, for the most part, sour and ignorant. Universities, established everywhere with luxury, afford promise of a generation of better informed politicians, who will have their fathers' faults under their eyes to assist in their own enlightenment.' Murat, pp. 6-15.
We are not sure whether Citizen Murat's moral and political sketch, though a zealous and fervent eulogy, almost throughout, of his adopted country, will not, upon the whole, leave an impression upon many English readers, as unfavourable to the Americans as the ill-natured caricatures furnished by Mrs. Trollope.
The Citizen of the World', who has favoured us with his notions of the Americans, is of the same school in politics as Citizen Murat. His volume is dedicated to La Fayette ; and his object is, to teach us to respect a people, from any individual
of which, the immortal Byron was proud to confess, he valued a 'nod more highly than the gift of a souff-box from an emperor.' Our readers will know what to look for in the opinions of a cosmopolist of this school. In one respect, however, justice requires us to remark, that this Writer differs widely in sentiment from Mr. Achilles Murat. He is not the apologist for slavery, or for the American prejudices respecting the free coloured portion of the population. As his slight and rapid sketch is, in all other respects, complimentary to the people of the United States, his evidence upon this subject must be considered as impartial. We shall therefore extract a paragraph or two, relating to this sad flaw in the social system.
· The African Colonization Society must be looked upon as a wellmeant plan, and as one which, in time, may create a moral revolution in the natives of the districts of Africa contiguous to Liberia, and even of those in the interior provinces ; but, as regards America, its operations seemed rather calculated to perpetuate than to extinguish slavery. The scheme, as far as benefiting Africa, and, perhaps, the individuals removed thither, is a good one; but, viewed as the means of getting rid of the whole black population, which idea is really entertained by many, although not desired by the owners of slaves,—it is chimerical. p. 249.
· As might be supposed, in a community like that of New York, where but yesterday man might be bartered and sold by his brother man, the general feeling towards the blacks is that of persons to a proscribed caste ; and although these unfortunate people are no longer accounted property, and are enabled to stipulate the price of their labour, they are subject to the most degrading treatment.
• No persons of colour, whatever may be their characters, abilities, of condition of life, are allowed to sit in any public assembly, even should it be a court of justice, or the house of God itself, except in the particular quarter set apart for them, and this is generally in the most reniote and worst situation; and, as if the distinction were to be perpetuated for ever, their very bodies are denied the right of sepulture in the cemeteries of the white men.
On the festival (National Jubilee] I have described, the insulting behaviour of many of the coachmen and carters was unblushingly displayed in their driving their vehicles so as to interrupt the progress and order of the procession, although we did not witness a single provocation given by any of its members, whose conduct appeared, throughout, quiet and praiseworthy.
• Such were the indignities offered by men who are ready to sacrifice their lives to secure the blessings of liberty for their white brethren -to those whose misfortune is, that Heaven has thought fit to create them of a darker hué; and so prevalent is the want of Christian feeling in this respect in America, the legacy of the accursed system of slavery, that I but speak the truth when I state, that the majority of the Americans, like the white inhabitants of every country where the evil exists, or has only lately been extinguished, would as readily sit at table or associate with a felon, as with a person of colour.
• It will be some consolation to the friends of humanity, however, to be told that, despite of the existing temper, exertions are making by enlightened individuals to raise the character of the coloured population, by the only legitimate means, whether as regards blacks or whites,--the establishment of schools.
• The foremost in this work of religion are the members of the sect of Friends, who, in the New as well as in the Old World, whatever may be their peculiarities, are always found in the steps of their Great Master, going about doing good.
Already hundreds of black children in New York are regularly instructed in the rudiments of knowledge ; and churches, in which black ministers of the Episcopal, Independent, and Methodist persuasions officiate, are attended by crowded congregations of the same
VOL. IX.- N.S.
colour, whose attention and respectful behaviour afford abundant proof that the lessons of wisdom are not preached in vain.
May we hope, that as this so long neglected family of man rises in the scale of being, so will the antichristian treatment yield to that of philanthropy ; and although physical distinction of race will naturally be a bar to a closer union, may the Americans, as well as others, cease to look upon their darker fellow creatures otherwise than as brethren, and children of the same Almighty Father.' pp. 310–313.
We now turn with pleasure to Mr. Stuart's volumes. This gentleman is by far the most candid and intelligent observer of American manners and customs, and institutions, that we have fallen in with, since Mr. Hodgson and Mr. Duncan, whose works on America are honourably distinguished by their spirit and intelligence from the mass of letters and tours which have been put forth respecting the United States by superficial or prejudiced writers. Without Captain Basil Hall's patrician horror of de
mocrasy', or his egotism, Mr. Stuart has quite as much shrewdness; and though he has not eked out his volumes by lengthy dissertations, he has enhanced their value by availing himself of information drawn from native sources; acknowledging his obligations in particular to Darby's View of the United States, and Flint's Geography of the Western States, as well as Count Marbois's instructive History of Louisiana.
Mr. Stuart sailed from Liverpool for New York in July 1828, and arrived there after a voyage of five weeks. The first twelve letters are occupied with a description of the city and state of New York, including a voyage up the Hudson, a visit to Niagara and Lake Ontario, and an excursion to Saratoga Springs. He thence proceeded to Boston, where he passed the winter of 1828-9; and in April, returned to New York, by way of Providence, Hartford, Newhaven, and Long Island Sound. In May, he made an excursion to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, which occupies a chapter. The last two chapters of the first volume, as well as the first two of the second volume, are devoted to further details relating to the State of New York, which, in point of commercial wealth and importance, is the leading State, and comprises within its territory some of the most picturesque scenery in the Union. As it happens to be that part, however, which has been the most frequently and fully described, there is less novelty in this part of Mr. Stuart's work, than in his description of the Southern and Western States, which occupies the remainder of the work.
Our Traveller visited of course the Auburn Penitentiary, and he has given (as Captain Hall had done before him) some interesting details respecting the system adopted there, which is making rapid progress in the United States. We pass over the subject at present, intending to advert to our Author's statements
and remarks, in noticing some recent publications, now on our table, upon the important topic of Secondary Punishments. Mr. Stuart was much struck with the general liberality of the American clergy, and their freedom from sectarian prejudice.
. During my residence in the United States subsequent to this period, I was frequently witness to the good understanding which generally, though, doubtless, not universally, prevails among clergymen professing different opinions on church forms, and doctrinal points, in this country; and I occasionally observed notices in the newspapers to the same purpose. The two following I have preserved : -_-" The corner-stone of a new Baptist Church was laid at Savannah in Georgia, and the ceremonial services were performed by the clergymen of the Methodist, German, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopal, and Baptist Churches. The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered in the Reverend Mr. Post's church, (Presbyterian Church at Washington,) and, as usual, all members of other churches in regular standing were invited to unite with the members of that church, in testifying their faith in, and love to, their Lord and Saviour. The invited guests assembled around the table; and it so happened, that Mr. Grundy, a senator from Tenessee, and two Cherokee Indians, were seated side by side.”
Nothing is more astounding in the stage-coach intercourse with the people of this country, as well as in the bar-rooms, where travellers meet, than the freedom, and apparent sincerity of their remarks, and the perfect feeling of equality with which the conversation is maintained, especially on religious matters. I have heard the most opposite creeds maintained without any thing like acrimonious discussion, or sarcastic remark, by persons in the same stage, professing themselves undisguisedly Calvinists, Episcopalians, Methodists, and Unitarians. On one occasion, I recollect the father of a family unhesitatingly avow in a considerable party of people in his own house, that he was a free-thinker, and never went to a church; while at the same time his daughters, who were young women, had brought my wife for perusal Calvinistical religious tracts, of which she understood them to express their approval. It would perhaps be quite as well, if hypocrisy in religious matters were an unfashionable vice in other countries as well as this. Lord Byron would have found, if he had been there, that it does not always require to be chanted by a “forty parson power."' Vol. I. pp. 130-132.
It would appear from this statement, that the red men are admitted to Christian fellowship, at least in New York, although the blacks and the mulattoes are excluded. In the steam-boat, in which Mr. Stuart ascended the magnificent Hudson, the waiters at the dinner-table were men of colour, clean-looking, * clever, and active,-evidently picked men in point of appear"ance.'
• We had observed on deck', adds Mr. S., 'a very handsome woman of colour, as well dressed and as like a female of education as
any of those on board. My wife, who had some conversation with her, asked her, when she found that she had not dined with us, why she had not been in the cabin. She replied very modestly, that the people of this country did not eat with the people of colour. The manners and appearance of this lady were interesting, and would have distinguished her any where.' Vol. I. p. 43.
Mr. Stuart speaks in high terms of the hotels on the road from Albany to Boston. We were not shewn into a parlour', he says,
in any of the stage-houses where we stopped, in which there was not a very tolerable library in history, philosophy, religion, and novels.' Paley, Rollin, Sir Walter Scott, Dr. Robertson, and Cooper *, are almost always on the shelves of a book-case, and there is a piano in the room much oftener than in Britain.' The following description of a country town in New England, tempts citation.
• The next place of note where we stopped was Northampton, in the western part of the state of Massachusetts, and between fifty and sixty miles from Albany, and which, whether taking it alone, or in conjunction with the neighbouring country, is decidedly the most beautiful village that I have seen in this country. The only place at all to be compared with it is Canandaigua. "The villages of New England are proverbial for their neatness and cleanness. Cooper, the well-known American writer, says truly : “New England may justly glory in her villages,-in space, freshness, and an air of neatness and of comfort, they far exceed any thing I have ever seen even in the Mother country. I have passed in one day six or seven of these beautiful hamlets, for not one of which I have been able to recollect an equal in the course of all my European travelling." It is, in fact, hardly possible to figure a handsomer country town than Northampton, or a more charming country than that in its neighbourhood; but the town is not more remarkable for neatness and cleanness, and for hand, some and suitable buildings, and houses and gardens, than for beauty of situation and the delightful scenery in its vicinity. No mere traveller who comes to this country will do justice to it, if he does not visit Northampton. If a traveller in Britain were to stumble upon such a place as this, he would not fail to inquire whose great estate was in the neighbourhood, and attribute the decorations of shrubs, flowers, &c. which adorn even the smallest habitations here, to the taste of a wealthy neighbour, or to his being obliged to make them to promote electioneering views. Here, every thing is done by the people spontaneously, and if any authority is exerted, it is by officers appointed by themselves.
The population of Northampton amounts to between 3000 or 4000, and there is only one great broad street, with a few fine trees, in which are situated the churches and court-house--buildings deci. dedly ornamental, and of considerable size. But the beauty of the
* Query, Cowper? or the American Cooper ?