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culty 100 sail of the line of battle ships might be riod of twenty-five years, nearly forty ships and built in a year ou this plan; and, if necessary, vessels of war for his majesty's service, he will perhaps without the aid of foreign importation. now leave to the consideration of all whom it may Let the professional reader also consider the concern; they contain a few plain facts, that ready methods to be adopted for procuring small come home to the bosom of every one who is plank timber, kept in a proper state of seasoning, in the least acquainted with such matters ; and and the effectual preservative against the dry whoever will give them a fair and impartial inTot, which may th be obtained, as well as the vestigation will certainly arrive at this important encouragement that may be given to the great conclusion : viz. that a ship may be built, uniting staple article of our iron manufactories. Yet as the greatest possible strength and safety, stow a all'improvements, however beneficial, have to larger cargo, sail faster, and come to less expense contend with ignorance and prejudice, as well in building than is now generally paid for ships ; as clashing interests, I recommend to all who it therefore becomes the interest, as well as the wish for further proof of these statements to duty, of all who have a proper regard for the bring them to a practical demonstration, by mo lives of our seamen, or the property of the coundels made upon a proportionate scale (as for in- try, to adopt the new system.' stance, one on the common and the other on the The following are the most celebrated works new system of ship-building), and they will soon on Naval Architecture that have been published find that what I have stated will fully appear. by the French and Spanish :— Elémens de l'Ar
*The owners of steam-packets, barges, and chitecture Navale, ou Traité Pratique de la Conothers who have occasion to navigate the shoal struction des Vaisseaux, by M. du Hamel du waters, among our inland rivers and canals, Monceau, an excellent work, which possesses where little draught of water is essentially ne
the merit of having been the first to illustrate, in cessary, will find these improvements particu- a satisfactory manner, the theory and practice of larly important to them; and any person may
the art. Traité du Navire de Bouguer, which know that this is not a theory disproved by dwells on the matter scientifically, but is rather practice who will inspect a new ship of 400 tons, deficient in the practice, and on the laws of the city of Rochester, lately built upon
fluids. Théorie complete de la Construction, tern at Rochester, or a sailing barge, navigaied et de la Manæuvre des Vaisseaux, by Euler. upon the Regent's Canal, of sixty tons burden, Scientia Navalis a Mathæo Eulero is a learned that not only draws less water, but carries one and conspicuous work. Essai Géométrique fifth more cargo than other vessels of larger di et Pratique sur l'Architecture Navale, by M. mensions and greater register tonnage.*
Vial du Clairbois. Traité Elémentaire de Con“On the subject of what is termed the dry rotstruction des Vaisseaux, by the same. Manuel in timber used for ship-building, much has been de Construction Pratique, by M. de Lironcourt. said and written, and very heavy expenses been Traité de la Construction des Vaisseaux, by M. incurred by experiments to prevent it, perhiaps to Dumaits de Guimpy. Examen Maritimo, in very little purpose; yet as it may be considered, Spanish, by Don Jorge Juane. This work conin connexion with these improvements, let it be
tains a most excellent theory, founded on expeobserved that all vegetables possess the tendency rience and practice. A Treatise on Naval Archito decay from the first moinent of existence, al- tecture, in Swedish, by Chapman. though it is more rapid in some cases than in
Naval architecture is also inuch indebted to others. Every one knows that if a tree be cut Chevalier de Borda, who was the first founder down in a green state and immediately convert- of the French schools of naval architecture, and ed into the frame of a ship, covered over with applied the principles of Euler to the uniform planking, instead of proper time being given for construction of ships; so that all those of the it to season, that it will become rotten in as French navy might be similar with respect to many months in the first, as it would require sailing. In 1781 Mr. Marmaduke Stalkartt, of years to decay in the latter case. Suppose ihen Deptford, published an excellent Treatise on his majesty's government intended to prepare
Naval Architecture, or the Rudiments and Rules materials, such as oak timber, to build a certain of Ship-Building, which is exemplified in a series number of ships, and required that the timber of draughts and plans, with observations tending should be properly seasoned before it was used ;
to the further improvement of that important art. with how much greater facility would that tim- A second edition was published in 1787. ber be seasoned upon the new system than
In 1794 Mr. William Southerland, shipwright,
upon the old plan of ship-building : the new system &c., published a small book, called the Ship requires two-inch plank, the old plan large loges containing the method of drawing the plans of
Builder's Assistant ; or Naval Architecture : If this large timber were converted into plank, ships, and moulding their timbers; and also the it would season and become fit for use in one practical rules necessary to be observed in buildtenth less time than the log out of which the ing the hulls of all sorts of ships. To which is plank was converted.
added the Scantling, or Mensuration of Ship’s "These few remarks, from one who has had the Timbers, &c. experience of building by contract, during a pe- published the Elements and Practice of Naval Ar
In 1804 Steel and Co., of Cornhill, London,
chitecture, in one volume, 4to., developing, in a * The ship above-mentioned has now been built clear and familiar manner, the principles of the 5 years ; and has been two long voyages, in one of art, both theoretic and practical
, with all the which she actually got on the rocks near Plymouth, requisite directions for constructing and com-and came off again with very little damage pleting a ship of every class.
IN CASES OF.
SHIP-CARPENTER. A ship-builder. See Car- shore, it would carry thither a string capable of
drawing a cord with which several ropes might SHIPRAH AND Puan, two midwives of Go- be afterwards conveyed to the vessel. Had shen, in Egypt, deservedly celebrated in sacred the discovery of Montgolfier produced no other history, and rewarded by the Almighty himself benefit, it would on this account be of great imfor their humanity, in disobeying the bloody portance. 3d. A sky-rocket, of a large diainandate of the tyrant of Egypt to murder the meter, would be of equal service. It would Hebrew boys at their birth. Exod. i. 15–19. also carry, from the vessel to the shore, a string Some commentators have expressed doubts whe- capable of drawing a rope after it. Lastly. A ther these worthy women were Egyptians or fourth plan for saving the crew of a shipwrecked Hebrews; but we think it hardly admits of a vessel, is that of throwing from the vessel into question that they were Hebrews, as otherwise the sea an empty cask with a cord attached to it. their pagan superstition would have led them to The wind and the waves would drive the cask to comply with the royal mandate, and to think that the shore, and afford the means of establishing at the same time they served their gods, by mur that rope of communication already mentioned dering the children of a race who despised their Mr. John Bell, of the royal artillery, afterdeities.
wards promoted to a lieutenancy, contrived a SHIP-money, was an imposition charged upon similar method of saving persons from stranded the ports, towns, cities, boroughs, and counties ships, in the year 1791, by providing a mortar of this realm, in the reign of king Charles I., by between 500 and 600 weight, with a chamber, writs, commonly called ship writs, under the &c., capable of containing one pound of powder, great seal of England, in the years 1635 and and a bore to admit a leaden ball sixty pounds 1636, for the providing and furnishing of certain or upwards. When a ship is stranded, the ships for the king's service, &c., which was de- mortar is to be elevated about 45°, and a rope clared to be contrary to the laws and statues of or deep-sea line is to be fastened by one end to this realm, the petition of right and liberty of the the ball, while the line itself, being coiled round subject, by stat. 17 Car. I. c. 14. See Black- parallel handspikes, may be easily and rapidly stone's Commentaries, vol. iv. p. 30.
unfolded to its full extent. On the discharge of Shipwreck, Means of PRESERVING Lives, the mortar towards the shore, the ball will carry
In the Philosophical Magazine with it the line or rope, and by burying itself in we have an account of means for preventing that the earth make that end of the rope fast, while loss, when the ship is in danger between 200 or the other end is in the stranded vessel: thus the 300 fathoms of the shore. The only certain rope becomes stretched between the vessel and means of saving the crew of a vessel in such a the shore, and a communication thence estastate is to establish a rope of communication blished by means of rafts. The rafts recomfrom the shore to the ship, by fixing the end of mended by lieutenant Bell are each formed by the rope to a bomb or oannon ball, and extending lashing together with ropes five empty waterthe rope afterwards, in a zig-zag direction, before casks belonging to the ship, and lying above the mortar or cannon, or suspending it on a piece them a seaman's chest, with holes cut in its sides, of wood raised several feet. A rope, so placed, will to prevent its filling, and to allow the person not break by the greatest velocity which can be who rides in it better convenience for taking given to the bomb or ball; and thus the end of hold; pullies are attached to this chest, through it can be sent ashore by a discharge of artillery. which the rope is to run: the raft is also to be The writer prefers the bomb to the cannon ball. ballasted underneath, to prevent its upsetting. He proposes, however, other means to effect his The mortar and necessary balls or shells that benevolent purpose. It ought to be remem would be used on such an occasion might form bered that a vessel is never cast away, or pe a part of the ballast of the vessel; and whenever rishes on the coast, but because it is driven thither a ship is driving or unmanageable near the shore, against the will of the captain, and by the vio- the mortar might be brought on deck, and the lence of the waves and the wind, which almost apparatus prepared. In some cases grapnels always blows from the sea towards the shore, may be advantageously fired from common ordwithout which there would be no danger to be nance to answer the same purpose. apprehended; consequently, in these circum The following is a relation of some trials made stances, the wind comes always from the sea, before a committee of the Society of Arts at Wooleither directly or obliquely, and blows towards wich, in August, 1791. From a boat moored the shore. 1st. A common paper kite, there- about 250 yards from shore, the shell was thrown fore, launched from the vessel and driven by the 150 yards on shore, with the rope attached to it; wind to the shore, would be sufficient to save the the shell was of cast iron, filled with lead; it crew, consisting of 1500 seamen, if such were weighed seventy-five pounds; its diameter eight the number of a ship of war. This kite would inches; the rope in the trial was a deep-sea line, convey to the shore a strong packthread, to the of which 160 yards weighed eighteen pounds; end of which might be affixed a cord, to be the angle of the mortar, from whence the shell drawn on board by means of the string of the was fired, was 45°. By means of the line, lieukite; and with this cord a rope, or as many as
tenant Bell and another man worked themselves should be necessary, might be conveyed to the on shore upon his raft of casks; there were many ship. 2d. A small balloon, of six or seven feet links in the rope, but they were cleared with ease in diameter, and raised by rarified air, would be by lieutenant Bell, with the assistance of his also an excellent means for the like pose: match-blocks. The second trial was repeated in Leing driven by the wind from the vessel io the a similar manner, and with equal success, the
shell falling within a few yards of the former distortion of them in a storm, he had been witplace; the gale of wind was brisk, and the water ness to the loss of several vessels; and, after rough. The direction of the shell was nearly describing the dreadful catastrophe, he very apfrom north to south, and the wind blew nearly propriately observes, that, north-west. In the third trial, the mortar was • The horrors of shipwreck at a distance from elevated to 70°; the rope attached to the shell land, a scene I had unhappily too often witnessed, was an inch and half tarred rope, of which every suggested to me also the benefit that must result fifty yards weighed fourteen pounds and a half
. from enabling a life or pilot-boat to go over a The shell was of the kind above mentioned ; it flat beach, with facility and certainty, to the refell 160 yards from the mortar, and buried itself lief of sufferers. This observation was corroboabout two-thirds in the ground; the line or roperated by the opinions of various residents on the run cut was about 200 yards, and it required coast, whose assurances gave evidence, too conthe force of three men to draw the shell out of clusive, of the many lives and immense property the ground at that distance.
annually lost for the mere want of the means 1 There can be little doubt that, in many cases have hinted at: the chief difficulty was, that no when vessels are stranded near the shore, the boat could be forced over a high and raging surf adoption of the means pointed out by lieutenant without some powerful artificial aid. Ainong Beli would tend to the preservation of many other desiderata that have grown out of my revaluable lives; and since a suitable piece of ord- searches in this ardent and important work, there nance, with a block carriage and leaden balls, is one I presume to think of much worth. Boats, would not cost above eleven or twelve pounds in common, where occasion has required their sterling, the expense furnishes no objection of being launched in cases of shipwreck, have often moment. Indeed, in trading vessels, such a piece failed, owing to their want of buoyancy, and might farther answer the purpose of making sig- other properties of the life-boat. I have devised nals of distress, by filling the chamber with a simple method of giving to every kind of boat powder, and well wadding it, when the report of these advantages, and at a most inconsiderable the firing would be heard to the distance of some expense. Thus every vessel provided with a miles; and, in defence of a ship, such a gun boat so prepared, would possess within herself would be highly useful, on account of the faci- the power of preserving the life of any person lity which its shortness gives to its loading and fallen or washed overboard, in a high wind and firing. The Society of Arts, &c., rewarded Mr. heavy sea; and boats around the coast, by the Bell, at that time a sergeant in the royal artillery, same means, may be converted into life-boats.' with fifty guineas for his invention : they pub From this benevolent idea, this treatise, in lished the particulars in the tenth volume of which captain Manby has reduced theory to their Transactions, and thought it expedient again, practice, has emanated; and we are gratified to in the year 1807, to insert a descriptive engrav- find, that parliament has, “in the most liberal ing that had been omitted at that time, with manner,' been pleased to countenance his undersome farther particulars in the twenty-fifth vo- taking. “And why,' he philanthropically oblume. Models and drawings of the whole appa- serves, ‘may not the glorious cause of humanity ratus are reserved in the society's repository for be fostered on foreign shores? It would be the instruction of the public.
heart-cheering indeed to learn, that the invenTo save the lives of shipwrecked persons, and tion of an Englishman had been adopted for the to rescue mariners from a watery grave, seems, salvation of the shipwrecked in every clime, and even in idea, a contemplation so eminently be- on every coast !' nignant, and in its execution, to a warlike, com This work contains representations of the apmercial, and generous nation like this, an under- paratus, with directions for using it in the assistaking so truly benevolent, so extensively phi- tance of persons on board stranded vessels on a lanthropic, that we cannot sufficiently applaud lee-shore, in the day, as well as in a similar the humanity of the inventor of an apparatus to situation at night. save the lives and property of the shipwrecked SHIPWRIGHT. The company of shipwrights mariners in the extremity of danger. As there was instituted in the reign of James I., and con. are few in this great nautical nation that are not sisted of a master, two wardens, and sixteen asdirectly, collaterally, or generally connected with sistants. It appears in the twelfth volume of the marine affairs and marine adventures, the consi- Archæologia, that_Mr. Phineas Pett, who had deration, therefore, takes strong possession of the been educated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, feelings of individuals, and of society at large, and afterwards served his apprenticeship in by the patriotic means of protecting the lives of Deptford dock-yard as a shipwright, was apa class of the most important members of the pointed master-shipwright at Woolwich docklatter, and giving the former, that kind of moral yard, in November 1605. He was elected and security, and, consequently, mental happiness, sworn master of the shipwright's company in which must arise from the perusal of a small April 1606, and their meetings were then held octavo volume, published by captain G. W. at the King's Head, in New Fish Street. That a Manby, of the royal navy, and an honorary new charter was granted in 1612 for incorporating member of the Humane Society.
the shipwrights of England, when Mr. Þett apThe captain informs us, that while he was pears also to have been ordained the first master. stationed at North Yarmouth, in the year 1807, According to Derrick's Memoirs of the Royal a place remarkable for the beautiful features its Navy, he became an assistant commissioner in coasts present in a calm, and for the terrific Februar", 1630, and a principal commissioner
of the navy in December following. In 1637, by appointed to each of his majesty's dock-yards, to order of Charles I., he built the famous ship superintend and direct the building and repairnamed the Sovereign of the Seas, the largest that ing of the different classes of ships, &c. He has had ever been built in England; she was after- the direction and superintendence of nearly the wards cut down and called the Royal Sovereign. whole operative business of the dock-yard to
In Pepy's Naval Minutes it is mentioned which he is appointed; in the execution of that Shipwright's Hall did anciently view and which he is assisted by other subordinate profesapprove of the draught of the ships that were to sional officers, termed · Assistants to the master be built for the king; and by the lord high ad- shipwright;' one of whom is particularly entrustmiral's warrant, dated in April, 1638, carpenters ed with the management and conversion of timwere not to be appointed to ships until they had ber, and is styled timber master,' who has also been examined and licensed at Shipwrights' an assistant for measuring all the timber taken Hall. It appears from Mr. Pett's Manuscript in into the yard. It is likewise his duty to inspect the British Museum, that it was customary, in the quality of all stores received from contractors, his time, to hire and victual the shipwrights and which are used in his department, and to attest caulkers on any emergency, and to discharge their fitness for the service; to survey and value them when the work for which they were em all vessels hired or purchased into his majesty's ployed was performed. It also appears that there navy; to keep an account and certify to the navy was at that time a small permanent establishment board the quantity of all works performed by of artificers for ordinary service in each of the contract in the dock-yard; and to keep an acdockyards. Previous to the year 1691 the mas count of the earnings of the respective artificers ter shipwrights and artificers at our naval ports under his superintendence, and to certify the were borne on board one of his majesty's ships amount from time to time to the clerk of the of war, fitted up purposely for their reception. check. Over the shipwrights and caulkers, an The average number employed in the several assistant is appointed, who conducts and directs dock-yards in the year 1700, were about 1780; the execution of the work, which is also consiand in 1800 the number of shipwrights were dered under the superintendence of the master 3776, an increase by no means proportionate to shipwright. the augmentation of the number of ships and ton THE FOREMAN OF THE SHIPWRIGHTS, is one nage of the navy during that period, which may of a class of officers between the quartermen and be accounted for in some degree by the increased shipwright's assistants, whose duty it is to direct quantity of work that is now performed by any and superintend the building and repairing of given number of artificers in that class, and by ships, and the several works in the docks. There the great saving of labor from the introduction of are also foremen atloat, who are appointed to coppering and copper-bolting of ships, as they do survey and report to the master shipwright the not now require docking near so often as formerly, state and condition of the ships and vessels afloat. in order to have their bottoms cleaned and their Tue SHIPWRIGHTS' APPRENTICES, in his mabolts replaced ; for the copper bolts do not decay jesty's dock-yards, are boys bound to certain as the iron bolts did.
persons under the direction of government, for a Under the description of shipwrights are in- term of seven years, who, in the course of their cluded the persons employed in the occupations apprenticeship, are instructed by some of the of mast-making and boat-building, which in pri- deserving shipwrights, in the art of building, vate concerns are generally considered as separate caulking, and repairing ships and vessels. They branches: but in our dock-yards, the execution are now divided into two classes, viz. the supeof such work is under the direction of distinct rior and inferior. officers, denominated master mast-maker, and Superior class. By the king's order in master boat-builder. The shipwrights are formed council, September 201h, 1809, a superior class into gangs or companies, over whom officers, of shipwrights' apprentices, consisting of twentycalled quartermen, are placed; each of those five young men of liberal education, has been gargs, according to the directions of the Navy established at the royal navy college in PortsBoard, should consist of twenty men and six mouth dock-yard : and on the 5th of November, apprentices: but the apprentices depend on the 1810, the principal officers and commissioners of proportion they bear to the working shipwrights. his Majesty's navy, gave notice that a plan of The quartermen have the selection of their re education had been established for the!n. The spective companies ; each, according to his seni- number of students in this class was at first liority, nominating one man in turn, beginning mited to twelve, but have gradually increased to with those who have apprentices.
twenty-five. The artificers and laborers in our dock-yards, The period of apprenticeship is seven years, when hurt in his majesty's service, are attended by but for a student who may have previously the surgeons, and are allowed 2s. 1d. per day, served in an inferior class of apprentices in his whatever class they belong to, for six weeks, unless majesty's yards for the space of two years, it is they are able to resume their labor at a shorter only six years, and only five years for a student period. There is likewise an establishment of who may have previously served in the said superannuation for the different classes, to which class for the space of three years. An instructor they are adınitted, if rendered incapable of labor in the theory of naval architecture is added to from hurts received, or after an uninterrupted the present establishment of the Royal Naval service of thirty years.
College, to assist particularly in the instruction A Master ŠuipwRIGHT is a superior officer of the superior class of apprentices.
SHIRA, a river of Scotland, in Argyllshire, SHIRL, or cockle, in mineralogy. See which rises in the mountains behind Inverary, Cockle. and after forming a small lake called Loch Dub SHIRLEY (Selina), countess of Huntingdon. falls into Loch Fyne, near Inverary. It gives See HUNTINGDON. name to the valley of Glenshira, through which SHIRLEY (Henry), an English dramatic writer it runs. Its name, in the Gaelic, is Sio-reidh, of the seventeenth century, who wrote a number i. e. always smooth, the opposite of Ao-reidh, of plays, but only one of them seems to have i. e. never smooth. See AO-REIDH.
been printed, viz.The Martyred Soldier, in SHIRAZ, the capital of Fars, a noted city of 1631. Persia, esteemed the second in the kingdom, is SHIRLEY (James), another eminent English situated near the ruins of the ancient Persepolis. dramatic writer, said to be elder brother to Henry. The distant view is rather pleasing than grand, He was born in London, in 1594, and educated although much enriched by the lofty domes of the at Merchant Tailor's school, whence he removed mosques, seen among the trees : on entering the to St. John's College, Oxford. He published town the bouses are found to be small and the thirty-nine plays at different times; à volume streets narrow, and the stranger is impressed of Poems in 8vo. 1656; and three Treatises on with but a mean idea of the place which was Grammar. He died in 1666. long esteemed the second city in the empire. It SHIRT, n. s. & v. a. / Sax. rcyrc, scynic; was the residence of Kurim Khan, and bears SHIRT'LESS, adj. Dan, shiert ; Goth. and evident marks of his munificence. It enjoys a Swed. skut. The under linen garment of a man: salubrious climate, and its environs have been to cover with a shirt: wanting this useful garcelebrated by several eminent men, among whom ment. was Hafiz, the Anacreon of the east, who was a
Shift a shirt : the violence of action hath made you native of this city, and whose tomb is about half reek as a sacrifice. Shakspeare. Cymbeline. a mile from it. Without the city are several
I take but two shirts out with me, and I mean not avenues, leading to beautiful gardens, perfumed to sweat extraordinarily. Id. Henry IV. with flowers, and refreshed by fountains. The
When we lay next us what we hold most dear, population is about 40,000, and the commerce Like Hercules, envenomed shirts we wear, exteusive. It has increased of late years, and is And cleaving mischiefs.
Dryden. principally carried on with Busbire, Yezd, and
Ah! for so many souls, as but this morn İspahan. Its mosques and other public build- Were clothed with flesh, and warmed with vital ings are more numerous than those of Teheran ;
blood, and the great bazaar, built by Kurim Khan, is a But naked now, or shirted but with air. Id. noble structure, in which the different trades of
Linsey-woolsey brothers, the city have their respective stations assigned Grave mummers ! sleeveless some, and shirtless them. See PERSEPOLIS.
Pope. SHIRE, n. s. Sax. scir, from sciran, to di Several persons in December had nothing over vide. A division of the kingdom ; a county; so
their shoulders but their shirts. Addison on Italy. much of the kingdom as is under one sheriff. SHIRVAN, a province in the north of Persia,
His blazing eyes, like two bright shining shields, the largest and most important division of Did burn with wrath, and sparkled living fire ;
southern Caucasus. It is a triangular peninsula, As two broad beacons, set in open fields, the point of which stretches into the Caspian; Send forth their flames far off to every shire.
varying extremely in breadth, which, at the exFaerie Queene.
tremity of the peninsula, is scarcely sixteen The noble youths from distant shires resort. Prior.
miles, while in the interior part it amounts to Surre is the same with county. See County. 160. It is bounded on the north and east by County, comitatus, is plainly derived from Georgia and Daghestan : on the south by the comes, the count of the ancient Franks; that is, Kur, which separates it frons Ghilan and Aderthe earl or alderman (as the Saxons called him) bijan. The northern part consists of an extenof the shire, to whom the government of it was sive plain, enclosed by the mountains that extend entrusted. This he usually exercised by his de- towards the sea near Derbend. Numerous puty, still called in Latin vice-comes (whence streams from the mountains contribute towards viscount), and in English the sheriff, or shire the fertility of this plain, at the same time that reeve, signifying the officer of the shire; upon they render the passage of an army difficult. wbom, in process of time, the civil administra- The plain is interspersed with small woods and tion of it totally devolved. See Sheriff. In clumps of bushes, and the villages surrounded some counties there is an intermediate division with crchards, vineyards, and mulberry plantabetween the shire and the hundred; as lathes tions. The second division of Shirvan extends in Kent and rapes in Sussex, each of them con- from the coast to the plain watered by the Kur, taining about 300 or 400 a piece. These had and is bounded by a higher range of mountains, formerly their lathe-reeves and rape-reeves, act which run in a south-east course through the ing in subordination to the shire-reeve. Where province. The higher districts are here the most county is divided into three of these interme- fertile. The plain along the Kur is about 140 diate jurisdictions, they are called trithings, miles in length, and from forty to fifty in breadth. which were anciently governed by a trithing- It is in a great degree surrounded with moun
These trithings still subsist in the large tains, and being exposed to frequent inundation, county of York, where, by an easy corruption, is greatly orergrown with rushes. The most they are denominated ridings; the north, the
elevated tract in Shirvan is that which extends east, and the west riding.
towards Lesghistan. It is intersected by narrow