amount of "improvement” which of Livy, Cicero, and Virgil, with it may be possible to combine with the whole or nearly so of Horace. the cane, or the birch, or the im- To this at Rugby would be added position, as the case may be. And perhaps two or three plays of some of the masters, in their an- Plautus, and some books of Luswers on the subject, do not venture cretius. It will be his own fault to dispute the theory, but merely if he has not gained a very fair point out the difficulties in the amount of mathematical knowledge practice. Not so Dr Temple. The at the same time. “The whole of question is as to writing out lines Euclid” seems to be not an unof Greek or Latin :

usual point to be reached by a sixth“910. (Lord Clarendon.) It does a form boy at Harrow, who is yet no boy no good ?-It is not intended to do aspirant for mathematical honours anything but punish him. If you com- at the university ; and “nearly half bine a punishment with that which does those who leave the sixth will have him good, you get him to hate that which does him good.”

gone through six books,” and have gained also “

a very fair knowledge As the delinquent negro said to of algebra.” Something less than his Puritan master, who wished to this would be the Rugby mark. combine religious exhortation with In the honours gained at the unithe cow-hide, Massa, if you versities, though Harrow has done preachee, preachee ; if you floggee, fairly well, the balance is largely in floggee; but no preachee and floggee favour of Rugby. Indeed, of the too.” Dr Temple may or may not latter school the Commissioners have heard of a quondam Lower have reported that the list of dismaster of Rugby—a good and zeal- tinctions gained by its scholars ous man—who, in the discharge of “evinces its general teaching in the his duties as flogging-master to the Literæ Humaniores to be absolutely Lower School, took the opportunity unsurpassed ; its training in exact (on Lord Clarendon's principle of scholarship to stand within the first

doing the boy good”) of laying rank; and its practice of composiin what he considered a few words tion not to disentitle it to a very in season between each cut; it had honourable position amongst public the effect of prolonging the punish- schools." Taking the ten years ment, and exasperating the sufferer, from 1852 to 1861 inclusive, Rugby but the moral results in the way of has gained at Oxford in classical reformation were, we believe, not honours no less than 34* first classes distinctly perceptible.

in moderations, and 22 at the final A boy who has taken sufficient examination, as against 10 and 7 advantage of the teaching of either from Harrow; and has three times of these schools to have reached been successful both for the Ireland the Sixth Form, and to have re- and the Hertford university scholmained in it for the last two years arships, which no Harrow man has of his school life, will by that time gained during that period. On the have gone through a pretty wide other hand, some of the best Harrange of classical reading. At Har- row scholars have gone to Camrow he will probably have read, bridge, where they have gained 12 (besides lower books) of the Greek places in the first class of the Clastragedians, the whole of Sophocles, sical Tripos, while Rugby has only with two or three plays each of 6; and have won there a very Æschylus and Euripides; the same large proportion of Greek and Laof Aristophanes; a couple of books tin verse prizes—a test of elegant of Thucydides, with portions of scholarship in which Rugby seems Homer; Herodotus, Demosthenes, not nearly so successful. and Plato. In Latin, a good deal thematical honours the two schools

In ma

* The Report says 35; but Dr Temple's list (App. p. 312) gives only 34.


have been nearly on a level. In reasonable order among the boys of his this respect, though both Harrow house, especially during the evening ;

to assist the master who calls the and Rugby occupy a good place as compared with other public schools, to investigate and to punish any serious

“ bill” in school in maintaining quiet ; our public school training is plainly moral offence, as bullying, drinking, not so successful as it should be. gross language or acts, &c.; or any vioA fact stated by Professor Price, lation of a well-known school rule, as one of the most eminent mathema- smoking, being in a public - house, ticians at Oxford, illustrates this throwing stones in the street, &c.” rather remarkably. The great test Of the advantages of the system of high mathematical proficiency both head-masters speak in the acquired at school is the junior most unhesitating language. Mr of the two university scholarships, Butler says :which can only be competed for up

“As to the general question, whether to the ninth term from matricula- it is desirable that the elder boys in tion. This scholarship, says Mr .

a great school should be formally inPrice, “has never been gained by a trusted with some authority over the young man from the great public younger, I can only state in the most schools ;” but they have gained the emphatic terms my own conviction, that senior scholarship repeatedly, which healthy state without it. The limit of

no great school could long live in a may be supposed rather the result

the authority may vary, and the recogof university training.

nised means of maintaining it may vary The monitorial system exists in according to the traditions of each its full development both at Har- school; but I am satisfied that the only row and Rugby, and is very much

true way to train boys is to train them the same in both, although there

to govern themselves. It is not merely are of course some minor details instances of misconduct more or less

that boys become aware of a thousand which are characteristic of each serious which a master can never detect school. Perhaps the most import- without an amount of surveillance ant difference is that while the which would be fatal to all generous Rugby præpostors are above forty training; but independently of this, the —comprising the whole Sixth Form knowledge on the part of the school at -the Harrow monitors are never

large that a certain portion of their own

body, of which they hope some day to more than fifteen. In both cases

become themselves members, is charged the privilege is attached strictly to to maintain right and to put down place in the school, the reward en- wrong, must have a most powerful tirely of school work, and depend- moral influence in forming manly charing in no way upon age or other acters. They see justice done, and evil qualifications ; excepting that at

discountenanced or punished, by those

who share their sympathies, whose Rugby a boy is not permitted to

standard of right and wrong is not so pass into the Sixth (however quali- much above their own as to seem fictified by attainments) until he is six- tious, and who represent in the main teen, and that as a boy's place in the ability and the physical strength of the Sixth, once obtained, never

the school.” afterwards changes, and he can Dr Temple speaks briefly but deonly rise to the top by his seniors cidedly to the same purport; and leaving school, it is seldom that a he remarks that “the Sixth-Form very young boy can obtain the rank boys, though they are in every way of monitor at Harrow. The powers treated as boys, are considered by and responsibilities are very much their schoolfellows as the natural the same in both schools. Mr But- guardians of the good name of the ler's statement on this head may school.” It may be just observed, stand as well for Rugby as for that while Mr Butler may be supHarrow :

posed to speak somewhat enthu“Without attempting to define accu

siastically in favour of a system rately the duties of a monitor, I may

under which he himself was trained, say that he would be bound to keep Dr Temple's judgment cannot be

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otherwise than impartial, as he was and then you will be able perhaps to not himself a public-school man.

point out where the failure would be. But it may be said, this theory Supposing that boys come out of church of “governing through the upper the streets as the other boys themselves

together, and the monitors are about boys," as one of the Commissioners

are, the other boys are under the eye fairly terms it, is a very fine theory of the monitor, and the monitor is an if you take the masters' view of an obstacle to the boy going into the upper boy's responsibilities : but Tap' without being seen ?" Mr C.what vie do they take of it them

“Then I think this upper boy must selves ? how far, in practice, are

never do such a thing himself.” Mr V. they found equal to these responsi- do such a thing himself, would it not

-“I mean, supposing that he would not bilities, and how far do they main- be an advantage in that respect?” Mr tain the moral discipline which so C.-“In Utopia I think it would.” Mr much depends upon them, and the V.-"Such a thing as a boy in the Sixth good name which they are supposed Form not going into a public-house, to have so much at heart ? Where then, in the apprehension of an Eton will you find the monitor or præ- Mr C. “No, I think that is a very

master, is an Utopian impossibility ?” postor whom you can trust not

hard way of putting it. I think you only to avoid for himself but to cannot insure that a monitor would check in others such

not do such a thing.”—Evidence, Eton, schoolboy irregularities as smok- 6037-6041. ing, for instance, or going into a It does appear to be insured, public-house? Mr Carter, Lower however, sufficiently for all practimaster of Eton, where, as we have cal purposes, both at Harrow and before shown, the monitorial powers at Rugby, where the Eton master's have fallen into abeyance, is re- Utopia is found in actual existence. markably sceptical on this point. It might be hardly fair to rest this Anything like bad language, or assertion on the sole authority of conduct which would be generally the masters of either school, an held disreputable, would be put earnest and conscientious master down at Eton as much as at Har- may have a tendency (a very row or Rugby ; not indeed by any natural and allowable tendency) to direct authority of the upper boys, see in the moral state of his school but by the general feeling of the rather that which he desires and school. But when Mr Carter, in strives to produce than that which his examination, is pressed about actually exists; and there must certain institutions at Eton known always be in a large school some as “the Tap" and "the Christo- irregularities of which the most pher,” to which the boys are proved watchful master can know nothing. to resort, to say the least, much too It is not, therefore, altogether often (for the mere habit of enter- because Dr Temple and Mr Butler ing a public-house, putting any express their confidence that, as possible excess out of the question, general rule, a Rugby præpostor or is most objectionable), it is suggest- a Harrow monitor would neither ed to him by Mr Commissioner allow a lower boy to smoke or go Vaughan that possibly the moni- into a public-house, nor do such a torial authority (supposing it to be thing himself, that we should feel acknowledged at Eton)"might have satisfied that the exceptions to this the effect of checking bad habits of rule were not more common than such a description.” Mr Carter those gentlemen honestly believe ; answers that he “thinks not;" and but when we have the same asthe following rather remarkable surance from young men whose conversation ensues :

high standing both at school and Mr Vaughan.—“Could you point out college gives weight to their evihow it would fail ?” Mr č. _ I could dence, while they must have had not point out how it would succeed." opportunities of knowing the priMr V.-"I will show you what I mean, vate habits of their schoolfellows


which no master could have, it puts of any offence which would be visited, the fact beyond reasonable doubt. as regards a boy in the forms below the Here is an extract from the exami- Sixth, by any punishment to be adminisnation of Mr Ridley, who left Har- tered by the Sixth, to be committed by

a Sixth-Form boy himself,— what would row as Captain in 1861:

happen ?—There would be a Sixth levy “1530. Do you consider that the mo

called by some fellow in the Sixth, and nitorial system is very beneficial ?-Yes,

they would probably decide to ask the I think that it checks breaches of dis

head-master either to send him away, cipline much more than the power of

or to put him down a certain number of the masters does; at all events certain places. kinds of breaches of discipline. 1531.

1577. (Lord Lyttelton.) Do they What kind of breaches of discipline ? (the boys generally) go to public-houses Such breaches as drinking, immorality,

to drink ?- Very little indeed. 1578.

< and so on. 1532. That is to say, the

That you think was rather discountensort of cases not so likely to be known

anced ?-Yes. 1579. (Mr Thompson.) to the masters as to the monitors ?

Would a monitor stop that ?—Yes. Yes. 1533. Do you think the monitors

“1593. (Lord Clarendon.) The Sixth would be as much disposed to check or

Form would consider themselves bound punish those offences as the masters ?

to interfere in the case of any gross imI have known cases in which perhaps morality ?-Certainly. the monitor might have failed in his

“1598. (Lord Devon.) Take another duty, but I can conscientiously say

offence which is not a moral offence,that the general tone is such that a mo

take smoking : would the Sixth Form nitor who saw an offence committed

interfere to support any prohibition of would consider himself bound to punish the masters with regard to smoking ?the boy who committed it. 1534. And

The Sixth always punished for smoking.

1599. And never smoked themselves ? public opinion would support him in so doing ?-Decidedly. 1535. You think

- I suppose some of them did ; of course the exercise of the monitorial authority Sixth fellow, he would

call a Sixth levy.

if they were discovered smoking by a is not unpopular?-I think that if any monitor is found to neglect his duty he

1600. (Mr Thompson.) They would be is despised by those who are subject to obliged to leave the Sixth in that event ? his authority. 1536. If he neglect his

- They probably would.” duty ?-Yes.

The reader of this evidence will • 1523. Would they stop bullying ?Yes; of course I meant to include that

be quite prepared to hear that Dr in the term keeping order. 1524. If Temple, in the course of his exathey observed any boys going into mination, says—“I expelled a boy public-houses, would they report them? in the Sixth Form once for knowing -No, but they would be punished. of something very wrong and not Here, again, is the evidence of from the evidence which has been

stopping it." It seems quite clear, Mr Lee Warner, who was six years quoted, that although instances will at Rugby, and left in 1860 :

occur of bad example or connivance “1515. They (the præpostors] would on the part of the upper boys to consider themselves called upon to in. whom these powers are intrusted, terfere if they saw anything going on the system on the whole works exthat was very wrong, such as going into cellently for the moral discipline of a public-house ?— They would at once interfere, and either send the boy up, indeed from being the Utopian

Harrow and Rugby, and is very far or they have the power of licking him if they prefer it; only that, of course, theory which some Eton authoriis subject to appeal.

ties are disposed to regard it. “1538. With regard to keeping order certainly, when we compare Mr in the house: Suppose there was any Carter's assertion, that “the general card-playing going on in the studies, good conduct of the school has inwould the Sixth take notice of it?

creased in almost exact proportion Certainly. “ 1546. (Lord Devon.) I ask, of

to the decrease of authority placed course, merely the general question; but in the hands of the upper boys,” * supposing the case which is conceivable, with his own evidence as quoted

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* Appendix, p. 121.

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above, and with the complaint of It must be remembered that both another Eton master, that it is “ at Harrow and Rugby

no boy is fashionable thing with the leading bound to take a punishment from boys of the school” to frequent a monitor if he considers it an unsuch places as the Tap and the just one." He has the right of Christopher, and that “very often appeal ; either to the general body

“ a hundred boys go there in the of monitors, or to the head-master. course of a day,”* we readily un- The right, as may be supposed, is derstand how the monitorial autho- very seldom exercised, and the aprity is indeed, as one of the masters peal, when made, has very rarely explains it, foreign to the whole been successful ; it may be fairly spirit of the place; but it is not assumed that, unless the abuse of so easy to understand the further power is very flagrant indeed, the explanation, occurring more than tendency amongst the monitors once in nearly the same words in would be to support a member of the course of the Eton evidence on their own body, and that the this point, that “the exercise of master would also feel that, in the those powers has fallen into de- maintenance of general discipline, suetude from the excellence of the such appeals were not to be enschool discipline and the ease with couraged. The same feeling prewhich it is maintained.” +

vails (and, on the whole, with Perhaps the most reasonable ob- benefit to the service) in courtjection which may be made to the martials and other similarly conexercise by boys of seventeen or stituted tribunals. No captain of eighteen of these disciplinary pow- a ship likes a “sea-lawyer," and a

-, ers is the possible bad effect upon lower boy who is always questionthemselves. There is a risk, no ing the judgment of the præpostors doubt, that, as the Commissioners had better be removed at once from express it, “individual boys may Rugby to Eton. But the right of be rendered by it stiff and priggish, appeal is universally acknowledged or imperious, or” (which seems ,

to exist, and all the evidence goes not so probable) “that they may be to show that, however seldom exoppressed by a responsibility for ercised, it practically serves as a which they are unfitted by charac- check upon the abuse of monitorial ter and disposition.” To this dan- power. Mr Lee Warner, when ger neither the masters of Rugby asked whether, as a lower boy at nor of Harrow are insensible. But Rugby, he ever saw “boys who both masters and boys agree that, habitually abused their powers as practically, the risk of this detri- præpostors,” replies, that he does ment to character is very little. The not think he knows of any such most important autocrat amongst

because we should at once his schoolfellows soon finds his have an appeal to a Sixth levy on level at the university: and the it.” Mr Lang speaks quite as conremark with which the subject is fidently of the temperate exercise dismissed by the Commissioners of these powers at Harrow; on the seems sensible and just, that “per- part of the lower boys, he says, the haps even the slight Pharisaism monitors' discipline is cheerfully which monitorial authority has submitted to “if they think been observed by others to engen- there is anything arbitrary, they der in characters not quite conge- can always appeal.” I nial with their position, may also It is curious to note from these lead sometimes to the gradual, but volumes of evidence how much a real, assumption of good habits.” schoolboy's notion of his indefeas

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* Eton Evidence, 8224, 8225. + Mr S. Hawtrey, Appendix, p. 160. Mr Browning, ib. p. 146. I See Harrow Evidence, 1904, &c.

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