I, Humphrey Reynolds of Loughscur, Co. Leitrim, bequeath my body to be buried in ffenagh church.

I leave to my wife Russell Reynolds alias Ware during her life, my Manor of Loughscur and the twenty cartons of land as it was granted to my father and to me by general Letters Patent from His Majesty. She shall have disposal of the rents &c. until the next May after her death and then my son and heir James is to enjoy the said Manor of Loughscur. I leave to my heir the Abbey of Derran in Co. of Roscommon. I give him my parsonage of Manteroly, Co. Leitrim. I give to my son James my interest in the Manor of Laghin as the same was granted to my brother Charles by Letters Patent, except the quarter of Laghin which I leave to my son William Reynolds. My cozen Henry fitzwilliam Reynolds; a daughter Susanna; a daughter Mary; a daughter Katherine 10/- because she married without my consent; my daughter Elizabeth (unmarried). My daughter Susanna's children...(unreadable)...her two daughters and 10£ to her son Owen. My daughter Mary Cefallge. Mary my son John's daughter 100s. when 18 years old. To my son William the quarter of Laghin, and for want of heirs to my son James. I leave to my son Charles the Carton of Edenmore and Dromcroman &c. I leave to my nephew Christopher Reynolds (his father dead) the Carton of Leitrim near Laghin. My wife and my son James to be executors, and my cozen Henry Warren and my Dated cozen Brian Jones to be overseers. the 26 July 1660.

(Signed) H. REYNOLDS. There is no note as to the proving of this will. H.F.R.

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scur Castle, Manor, Town and Lands 124 acres (Irish) unprofitable-Scardan, 244 acres, together with the Loughs, Lakes and Rivulets, called Loughcarton, Dowlagh and Langnamarne, the fishing thereof, and the Islands called Inchentancaflan, Rossin, Ilamohan and the Islands to the said Lands belonging. The Town and Lands of Aghascurr and Dromconga 424 acres. There follow on the names of 48 other properties; including the site, &c., of the Priory or Monastery of the Channyus of Durran alias Durham; the Rectory and Vicarage of Tullagh and Kilbride and all tithes, &c., the tithes, &c., of Towns and Lands of Carrow, Baynagh, Ballycore, Mullamuck, Kiltiege, Clonherke, and Dromdanych belonging to the said Priory; and the Presentation of the Rural Rectory of Munteroles.


The total quantity of land in the confirmatory patent was upwards of 6,661 acres in Leitrim, and upwards of 1,000 acres in Roscommon Counties; while in several other patents of the day were contained savings of his rights in the Co. of Roscommon, as also those of Humphrey Reynolds.

3. The Will of JOHN REYNOLDS of Loughscur (see ante, p. 5, col. 1).

I, John Reynolds of Loughscur in the Co. of Leitrim. My body to be buried in the parish church of ffonach [Fenagh] in the tomb of my ancestors. My farm in ffonach, Ballynoghroch and Kileronnan. To my son John Reynolds. The Lease of the townland of Ballyclare in Co. of Antrim (being part of said wife's portion) to my dear Mother Mrs. Jane Pottinger. The sum of £62 now in the hands of my Mother. Donvalan to pay unto My sister Sandy the sum of £200 sterg. in full discharge of her marriage portion. My executors to sell my blacke cattle horses and sheep with the assistance of John Patton, James Patton and James Reinolds. To Mrs. Katherine Payton and Mrs. Jenny Payton. My cousins James Reinolds and Charles Reinolds. My dear Mother in law Mrs. Jane Pottinger and my wife to be sole executors.


Signed at Carrickfergus 14 Aug., 1699, in the house of his mother-in-law Mrs. Jane Pottinger.

Granted 8 Dec. 1699 to his wife Jane Reynolds alias Pottinger.





orabilia,' cl. 344). The plan referred to as "London" at the reference is evidently that bv Hoefnagel, which was published at Cologne in the first volume of the Civitates Orbis Terrarum,' 1572, the editors being Braun and Hogenberg. is true that the steeple of old St. Paul's, taken down after damage by fire in 1561, is represented as still standing. But Hoefnagel, born of rich parents at Antwerp in 1545, could not possibly have produced this elaborate work at the age of 15. Though he studied art assiduously as a boy and in early manhood, he did not become a professional artist until his father lost nearly everything through the sack and partial destruction of Antwerp, in what was known as the Spanish Fury of 1576. Why in a view of 1572 the steeple of St. Paul's, destroyed eleven years earlier, should be shown, is a problem that I for one cannot solve. It is an interesting fact that the print resembles in several respects the plan of London ascribed to Ralph Agas, which, however, shows St. Paul's without the spire. It is suggested that both plans were founded to some extent on an earlier one no longer in existence.

SOUTHEY.-It has been long known that Robert Southey assisted Maria del Occidente (Maria Gowen Brooks) in preparing for the press her epic poem Zóphiël, or the Bride of Seven'-founded on the adventures of the maiden Sara, whose husbands were successively slain by the demon Asmodeus before they could embrace the bride, as one may read in chapters five to seven of the Apocryphal book of Tobit.' Southey went so far as to say a certain song in Mrs. Brooks's poem was not unworthy of Sappho. And Charles Lamb, Poe, Whittier, Griswold, and Prof. Saintsbury have all thought well of Maria, who certainly wrote fifty or more lines of the highest poetry, and much more that is still worth reading, including one of the first psychological novels, Idomen.'




Hoefnagel did much other work for the Civitates Orbis Terrarum,' including various plans and views of English places. It ran to six volumes, and the last volume was not published until 1618. If so it must have come out some years after his death. He had a son, Jakob, who was also an artist and helped in this work. edition of the Civitates,' consisting of five volumes, came out in 1599, and in this the engravings are pleasantly coloured. The plates had perhaps become the worse for wear. I should be glad to know if any of them were coloured before that date. An uncoloured copy of the London plan from the first volume was admirably reproduced for the London Topographical Society in 1882, and is still in print. In the present exhibition at the Burlington Fine Arts Club is the well-known oil picture, which belongs to the Marquis of Salisbury, of a fête at Bermondsey. The exhibition also contains a beautifully executed allegorical miniature, with subsidiary designs. One of them has by way of background to the figure of an old man seated, a sea-coast view with St. Michael's Mount in the distance. It is dated 1571. These are both by Hoefnagel. PHILIP NORMAN.

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Now, it occurred to me that if Southey prepared the work for the press, he might to some extent have shared in its composition. But fortunately this question of authorship can now be settled, very much to Maria del Occidente's credit. The original manuscript of Zóphiël' is now before me that used by the printer, and, to judge from its patched and corrected state, and Mrs. Brooks's known dislike of writing, the only complete MS. ever prepared. Each canto is carefully dated, and all antedate the meeting of the laureate and the lady. The corrections are practically all in the very peculiar hand of the authoress, perhaps for a single word here or there, and one notable exception An a passage of three lines. Southey told Caroline Bowles he had persuaded Mrs. Brooks to tone down certain too daring passages, and he may have caused the cancellation of one or two stanzas. But in one case the major portion of a stanza is crossed out, and new lines. substituted in a hand clearly not Maria's and pretty certainly Southey's.



I here give the 2nd quatrain of the 2nd canto of Zóphiël' as published in 1833, putting in italics the words Mrs. Brooks did not write, which, I believe, Southey did:

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Readers' Queries.


the only person described as esquire." In 1596 his name still appears as the chief landowner, but it is written Ognoll, and he is then described as "gentleman." The name does not occur in Camden's Visitation of Warwickshire, 1619,' nor is it mentioned under Temple Grafton in Dugdale's

Warwickshire.' It is not in Marshall's 'Index of Pedigrees,' and I have nowhere been able to find it. It will be remembered

AMBLING.-The first quotations for this that Temple Grafton is interesting in con

word and its derivatives are from Chaucer. I should be glad if MAJOR FAIRFAX-BLAKEBOROUGH or any other reader learned on the subject of the horse would tell me when horses first were trained to

and it may be of importance to discover who Ongnall was. I do not find him in the wills at Somerset House (P.C.C.) down to 1629. S. O. ADDY.


CEMETERY ACCOUNT BOOKS.-Can any reader inform me who are the present custodians of London Cemetery Account Books of the late eighteenth century (not burial registers), especially of St. Marylebone and St. John's Wood ? H. ST. JOHN DAWSON.

amble, and whether any are still subjected
to training. so for what purpose
is it? If not, when did the practice cease?
I should also be glad to know what methods
the trainer uses; and what is the fastest
pace of an ambler. I suppose it is very
much slower than the natural trot.
R. E. L.

VINCENTIO LAURIOLA.-Can any light be thrown on this person, who is named in Webster's 'Duchess of Malfi' (IV. i. 110) as a famous worker in wax, and sculptor of the effigies of Antonio and her children which are used to torment the Duchess? Or, if he is an imaginary figure, what suggested the name? I can only conjecture that Webster's eye caught the name of the Cardinal Vincentio Laureus or Lauro (1523 -92) in de Thou's history, where it occurs close to an account of the life of Vittoria Accoramboni, the heroine of Webster's other great tragedy. But this is, of course, extremely problematic: and I should welcome something more definite.

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F. L. LUCAS. CHAFF IN EGYPT.—In Overbury's' Character" of 'An Ingrosser of Corne' (1615) occurs the statement that he winnowes his corne in the night, lest, as the chaffe throwne upon the water, shew'd plenty in Egypt; so his (carried by the winde) should proclaime his abundance." What is the allusion to chaff in Egypt? I can find nothing in the Bible or in classical literature.



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King's College, Cambridge.

GEORGE ONGNALL, ESQUIRE, 1586.In a Subsidy Roll of this year this man appears at the head of the list as the chief landowner in Temple Grafton, and he is

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TIN IN CORNWALL.-What is the source of the statement of Southey (in The Doctor'): Are there ten men in Cornwall who know that Medacritus was the name of the first man who carried tin from that part of the world? In giving an account of the early history of tin in Cornwall it would add interest to name with authority the


first man who carried this metal beyond the sea, and more so if it were possible to give the approximate time when this took place.


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USE OF STONE-COAL.-Engaged in gathering data about the earliest use of stone-coal I came across the following statements:


(1) In some old English coal mines stone implements have been found, from which it seems that the knowledge and use of coal preceded that of iron." (Meyer's Konv. Lexikon,' 1895.


(2) "Coal appears to have been discovered contemporaneously in China and in Europe, Roman authors refer to impure coal in the 2nd cent. B.C. In China a kind of stone which could be burnt like brush wood (ch'ai ho) is mentioned as having been known during the Han dynasty (B.C. 206 A.D. 23.)." (Encyclopedia Sinica,' Shanghai, 1917.).

I would be grateful if any of your readers could amplify this information by stating: 1. Which are the English coal-mines in which have been found stone implements antedating the use of iron implements; and 2.

Who are the Roman authors referring to coal; and what are the exact Latin words which have been rendered as impure coal."




MADONNA AT NOTRE DAME, BRUGES.-Can anyone inform me if there is foundation for a statement made to me in

Around a circular design with lilies are engraved the following letters: MAGN SIGILLUM RAROLI DEI GRATIA FRANCORUM REGIS IN ABSENTIA.

1877 that the statue of Our Lady INSCRIPTION ON BRASS BOWL.and the Holy Child by Michelangelo in the Church of Notre Dame at Bruges was originally intended for the Priory of Our Lady of Walsingham? It was affirmed that the vessel conveying the statue being chased by pirates ran aground on the Flanders coast, and the statue was placed, as a temporary measure, in a church near this spot; in the mean time news came that the Augustinian Priory of Walsingham had been desecrated and dissolved by Henry VIII. The Augustinian Canons Regular of Notre Dame at Bruges claimed the statue as belonging to their order, and removed it to the place it now occupies in their church.

Raroli may be a mistake for Caroli, and the reference seems to be to a French King Charles in exile. It would be interesting to know the exact circumstances of time and place. W. J. HARDING.

The statue represents the traditional pose of the Walsingham Madonna and Child.

I have also come across this statement, or one somewhat identical, in an old guide book, but do not recollect where.

E. M.





Hardy, in Tess of the D'Urbervilles,' writes of Angel Clare having ascended in Dorsetshire to the untoward solitude of Cross-in-Hand," and he calls it an unholy stone." The only Cross-in-Hand that I know is a post-office in the neighbourhood of Tunbridge Wells, in Sussex, on the mainroad between Lewes, Sussex, and Ashford, Kent. Is that on the site of an unholy stone, and what is the legend attached thereto? Is there a Cross-in-Hand in Dorsetshire?


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HUGH RONALDS, d. 1788.-Hugh Ronalds of Isleworth, whose will was proved March 3, 1788, left" to my son Hugh my white cornelian seal with the cypher and crest, and to my son Henry Clarke Ronalds my red cornelian seal with coat of arms.

cross crosslet

These seals are believed to have borne upon them respectively, A castle proper, and Quarterly. 1st: A lion rampant gules, and langued or. 2nd: Or, a dexter hand couped in fesse, holding a fetched in pale gules. 3rd: Or, a galley, her oars erected in saltire in a sea waved, in base proper a salmon naiant argent. 4th: Argent, an oak tree proper growing out of the base surmounted of an eagle or.

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If any reader can give me any information as to the fate of these two seals or their present ownership, I should be most grate




AND K.H.-This officer of H.M. 9th

Light Dragoons, who commanded the 2nd
Cavalry Brigade at the battle of Sobraon,
died in England on March 23, 1850. Was
he the son of Richard Campbell, Esq., of
Helentonmains, St. Quivox, Ayrshire, who
was born on Aug. 25, 1788?
V. H.

VOLKOW: VOLKOV.-I should be glad
of biographical details of the following,
and also references to other published works
by them:

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artist engraved an 1807 8vo. edition of Boswell's Tour in the Hebrides with Dr. Johnson,' having Sir Joshua Reynolds's illustration. Can any reader state other books engraved by Evans, also where and when born, and year of demise.


"STEW HOUSES": "HOT HOUSES."-I am trying to trace references to bathing in England. I find in the National Geographical Magazine for May, 1926, in the article on London from a Bus Top,' the following:-Sir William Walworth, once Mayor of London, owned "stew houses "" in Bankside, that being the euphonious early Eng

lish name for bath houses. Is this correct? There is also a reference in Pepys's Diary, Feb. 21, 1663-4: My wife being very busy in going with her woman to a hot house to bathe herself."


To what does "hot house refer? Were there public baths in London after the Res toration, or were these Turkish baths? I shall be much obliged for any information on the subject.

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record I find that on June 16, 1621, Sir Francis Michel was degraded from his knighthood. Who was this person, and for what offence was he degraded ? H. ASKEW.



In the Antiquary,' chapter xi, Scott makes Mr. Oldbuck quote the lines:

When courtiers galloped o'er four counties The ball's fair partner to behold,

And humbly hope she caught no cold.

The same lines appear, with differences, in collection. the Memoir of Jane Austen':


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(cl. 442; cli. 15.)

BLONDIN was born at St. Omer Pas de

Calais on 28 Feb., 1824, his father, an old soldier in Napoleon's army, dying before his His first public son was nine years old. appearance, at the age of four, exhibited such extraordinary nerve and courage that he was placed in L'Ecole de Gymnase at Lyons, and soon became a leading feature at the French theatres. Coming to America in 1855 he spent three years with the famous Ravel family.

for the first time, being On June 3, 1859, he crossed Niagara Falls killed" and "buried " by some of his rivals (Cassell's Family Mag., 1896, pp. 55-63), going over again six times in that year, and carrying and on Sept. 14, 1860, in the presence of the a man across on his back in July, 1860, Prince of Wales (Golden Penny, Mar. 13, 1897, p. 257). The practice of being carried across the rope by Blondin became quite fashionable, a fee of £5 and advance bookings being required.

His first appearance in England was at the Crystal Palace on June 1, 1861. While here he made twenty-six ascents in four months, besides appearing elsewhere. At the Palace he introduced his bicycle trick (Illustrated Times, June 8, 1861, and Examiner, June 22). His first appearance in London was at St. James's Hall on Nov. 18, 1862; another appearance was at Saunder's Assembly Rooms, 4, Portsmouth Street, Clare Market. The bill for Wednesday, October 23, of that year is in my

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At the Zoological Gardens, Liverpool, a lion Tom Sayers was wheeled across. Blondin lost his savings by an unlucky speculation in the wine trade, and late in life he returned to his profession, appearing at the World's Fair, Agricultural Hall, in 1893. I remember him at Hengler's Circus, Dublin, in the early 'nineties.

He lived for some years at Niagara Villa, Finchley Road, St. John's Wood, moving to Niagara House, South Ealing, where he died February, 1897. I shall be glad_to have the inscription on his grave. His medals, decorations, and other relics were sold by Debenham, Storr and Sons, in April, 1903, and Sotheby in November, 1906.

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