« ElőzőTovább »
? LETTERS FROM ITALY.
learned professors of Universities; and The inconvenience of stylish Travelling
with clerical men from large towns, pot Sketches of Italian Character - Verona-
wanting in good sense and information ; Amphitheutre - Mantuam Fresco Painting
but your regular village curé, is a being - Genius of no School - Reported dangers
who can absolutely do nothing but say in Travelling-Parma --The Works of
mass and take snuff; and who seems as if Correggio--The Plains of Northern Italy
be had never found out the qui bono of Travellers' Lodgings--The Results of the "
any thing else.
In this way did I visit Padua, Vicenza, * Journey as it relates to Art. .
Verona, and Mantua. I staid but little in Whoever would enjoy travelling in the threc first places, though still sufficient Italy, must not be rich, or at any rate, he to see something of their beauties. Padua must give up the character of a rich man has much of early art that is interesting; for the time being, and he shall have Vicenza is remarkable for the splendour of abundance to compensate him for the its inodera architecture, and Verona for its sacrifice. I travelled out to Venice with ancient amphitheatre, the most perfect (I all the rights and privileges of riches, and believe) that exists. By a strange aberwhat did I get by it? all day our tine ration of taste, the modern Veronese bave was spent in quarrelling with hostlers and built a little paltry day-theatre in the inisst postilions ; at night we were lodged in the of its ample arena. At Mantua I made a best inns, apart from the vulgar multi. longer pause, not because it was the birth. tude; we saw nothing of the people, and place of Virgil, but, because in this town little of the country; our only companion Julio Romano spent the best part of his was a rogue of a waiter, or a still greater life, and here are still shown his principal rogue of a valet-de-place; true, we were works. They may say what they will of treated like gentlemen, that is, we were fresco painting, but I delight in it; it has cheated to the tune of about a thousand per many qualities which give it a high rank cent., and got little or nothing after all for amongst the means of making impression our money. Venice once quitted, I was on the imagination, and it possesses one pethrown pellmell amongst the people, and culiar to itself; it cannot be removed; a then, and not till then, did I begin to enjoy palace once decorated by the hand of a travelling. I was cheated sometimes, but great man, preserves its pictures as long as then I made my own bargains, and I had it preserves its walls. There is something my sport for my money. How shall I tell infinitely interesting in seeing works of of the multitude of odd characters, who art on the spot where they were produced, · formed from time to time my travelling and the necessity of going in pilgrimage to
companioos; my first starting was with a this place is no small charm. Julio Ro. 'couple of young scholars from the Univer- mano, though, considered Rafaelle's best sity of Padua, fine ingenuous youths, beau. pupil, was not Rafaelle. The more I see tiful in person, and full of every thing that of art, the more I am convinced how eois interesting in that age of budding man. tirely every thing depends on the mind of hood; they were delighted to have an the individual. They may talk of this Englishman for a companion, and asked a school and tbat school, but a man of real thousand questions respecting the customs, genius is of no‘school; he stands alone; character, and institutions of that country, his own mind is a little world, of which he which seems to be quite the Utopia of the is the all controuling sovereign. I was Italians; they were fresh froin the study of delighted to see in the tapestry of the statistics at College, and were pleased to Polazza del T. tbe two subjects of Rahave their book-learning confirmed by a faelle's, of which the originals are lost, living witness. I next got jumbled up with and which are wanting in our cartoons at a parcel of tradesmen and shopkeepers, Hampton Court. They are the coprersion and bad no small difficulty to understand of Paul, and the stoning of Stephen; both 'their gibberish ; these were succeeded by magnificent compositions, quite on a par parish priests, advocates, professors, mer
with the finest that remain. Quitting chants, in short all classes of people of Mantua, the classical, the interesting the country, whose business carries them Mantha, I started direct for Parma, not from town to town, and whose cconomy without some yearnings for Cremona and compels them to use the ordinary moties Milan, but the objects ( bad undertaken of conveyance. The beings of all the to accomplish, would not admit of such a most doll and stupid, and the least lesir. diversion. All the way to Casalemaggiore, ous of being informed, seem to me the the people with whom I travelled told me country parochial priests. I have net of robberies, and murders, and recent with most intelligent and interesting horrors of every kind; whether these things monks; with high bred and highly had any foundation in truth, or were only
creatures of their imagination, I know not, name of Europe's garden : here are no but this I know, I got to my journey's pestilential marshes, no malaria, no uneod, without seeing any reason for alarm, healthiness-all is cultiration, and all entered a nice friendly home-like inn, with wears the appearance of smiling plenty. a motherly landlady, and a fine family I know nothing equal to the pleasure of of cbildren all ready to contribute to my wandering alone over such a country as comfort, and quite delighted to wait on an this. In case of sickness or accident, a Inglese who was a sort of raree-show in companion is valuable, but to go alone is this out of the way town. In the morning, the real zest of the thing. People of all before the sun had well illumined the countries are pleased with a stranger glassy surface of the Po, I was called to throwing himself fairly and unsuspiciously pursue my journey; and crossing this on their hospitality. I find, now I have fine river we soon reached the high road, got accustomed to Italy, I can travel with which conducted us in a few hours to much less danger to my health than in Parma. After Venice, Parma was the England. In England the cold damp great object of all my desires. The works beds destroy me. The English notion of of Correggio fully equalled my expectations. good bousewifery is a destructive one to This is anotber genius of the first order. health and comfort. In Italy, instead of He shines out amidst the mass of medi. making the bed up directly you get ont of ocrity that surrounds him, like a sun in it, they tumble it, and hang bed and mat. the midst of moons and planets. No man trass, and blankets and sheets, out of the has ever got a great and lasting repo. window, or across lines in the room when tation without richly deserving it. I have they get thoroughly aired, and when the been disappointed by individual pictures, hour comes for rest, their freshness invites but never by the mass of a great man's you to sleep; in truth, there is nothing to works. Some things have been immensely prevent you sleeping well in Italy, provided overrated; for instance, the Transfiguration you have a good conscience, except bugs, ia the Vatican, and the St. Cecilia, at Bo- fleas, and moschettos; sometiines a lizard logoa, by Rafuelle, and the Peter Martyr, makes bis way into your chamber, or a by Titian, at Venice, are amongst the scorpion is foupil crawling up your bedworks that the modern travellers and ama. clothes, but neither one nor the other teurs have agreed to elevate to the skies. have any real intention to annoy you, and There is an infinite deal of nonsense and are very ready to get out of the way the quackery in all this. If people would moment they find themselves not welcome. trust to their own good sense and feeling. The iron bedsteads of Italy, the English and not allow themselves to be guided by would do well to imitate ; nothing can be ciceroni's and valets-de-place, they would so effective a preservative against vermin. fiod much to admire that is not heard of If so many perils do caviron the man in the common traveller's pbilosophy. who meddles with cold iron," what chance There is a fresco, by Correggio, preserved will a poor bug have in the encounterin the library at Parma, of Christ crown his case must be hopeless. ing the Madonna, which nobody ever You may possibly ask what have I sees, and no critic ever talks about; a gained by all these wanderings ? I will piece of such magic, that the artist who tell you. I have gained knowledge, and has been fortunate enough once to stand the consequence of knowledge, confidence. before it, will have it for ever haunting his I have now seen all that art can do. I imagination, and inspiring his hand. With ain satistied that all the talk about modes Correggio my search after novelty ended. and means is mere cant and nonsenseI had now only to retrace my steps back that our colours, our varnishes, our mateto Bologna and Florence, and so to Rome rials of every kind, are quite as good as and Naples. But I cannot pass over the those used by the Titians and Correggios plain without telling you something of its of other days, and that there exists no character. I had been so long living in a Veneriun secret, that the idea of such a volcanic country, amongst bills, and rocks, thing bas originated with quacks and and yawoing ravines, that the fatness of ima postors. These great men were above the north of Italy presented all the cbarins all secrets. Art, as they painted it, was of novelty and contrast. Imagine verdant the result of a fine inind working on the meadows, luxuriant foliage, in short every great school of nature, by which they were thing that is lovely in England, united to surrounded. Each one thought and acted the cbarm of an Italian climate. Through for himself, and the means were of little the states of Parına and Modena, the vines importance, so the end were produced. are trained in festoone from the branches Correggio, in some of bis best pictures, of fruit trees, and the apple, the pear, the has altered, painted in and out, botched pomegranate, and the grape, are seen grow and bungled, as much as any hero of these ing together, and present to the eye a degenerate days, and yet the whole, when voluptuous mass of 'richness, which rivals done, looks as if it had been accomthe fairy productions of an Arabian plished by “quatre coups de pinceau," as tale. This plain is what has got Italy the the Frenchmen say.
REPEAL OP THE TEST AND CORPORATION of the General Body, urge upon that ACTS.
Body the necessity of its taking a prompt We are happy to have it in our power and leading part in said application. to call the attention of our readers, at last, " VI. That the Secretary be authorised to certain measures, which are about to to address a letter to the Secretary of the be adopted to procure from the Legislature Dissenting Depaties, and to the Secretary of the country the abolition of those up of the Society for the Protection of Relirighteous Acis, which have so long dis- gious Liberty, stating the opioion of this honoured our free and happy constitution. Board, and requesting to be informed, At present, we only invite them to consi- whether any and what steps are likely to der the tenor of the following resolutions. be adopted by these Bodies, and assuring In our next number, we hope to be able them of its cordial and effective support in to state that some decisive measures have the adoption of such measures as may be been adopted.
deemed necessary for the removal of the “At a General Meeting of the Congrega grievances of which the Dissenters have so tional Board, consisting of the Indepen- long complained. dent Ministers in and about London and “VII. That for the information of our Westminster held at the King's Head brethren in the country, these resolutions, Tavern, on Tuesday, the 13th of March, be inserted in the various religious periothe Rev. John Humphrys, LL.D. in the dical works to which they may gain acChair, it was resolved,
cess. "1. That the Protestant Dissenters of « VIII. That the Committee be charged England are, from principle, devotedly to carry these resolutions into effect." attached to the civil constitution and go. We are happy to state, that a conference vernment of their country; that they have bas been held with the leading members of never distracted its councils, or sought to the several bodies referred to. in conseinjure its interests; but on the contrary,
quence of these resolutions, and that meahave frequently sacrificed their own inte
sures are now in progress, wbich we doubt rests to promote its security and happi
not, will terminate in some vigorous and ness; and in times of difficulty have united efforts to remove an unmerited always proved themselves its warm, sin
stigma from the Dissenting community, cere, and faithful friends.
"'11, That while they are thankful to PARLIAMENTARY DISCUSSion or THE DISAlmigbty God, and to the supremne autho. ABILITIES OF PROTESTANT DISSENTERS. rities of the country, for the measure of
The following debate on Dissenting Disprotection and liberty which, as Dissen
abilities arose in the House of Commons ters, they enjoy, as Christians and Englishmen, they cannot but declare, that
on Friday, March 23, when the annual they consider the existence of the Test and
Indemnity Bill was to be committed, and Corporation Acts a foul blot in the sta
which we consider a most opportune octute-book of their country; the means of
currence, preparatory to a general dis. desecrating one of the most sacred ordi
cussion of the subject. Surely after the nances of Christianity; and an unmerited
noble challenge of Lord Jobu Russell, the
Dissenters must consider it their duty to and disgraceful stigma upon themselves, as conscientious Dissenters from the reli:
renew their claims to a full participation gious establishment of the land.
in the privileges of the constitution. " III. That it is now nearly thirty. The Editors of this Magazine will preseven years since this subject was fully sent to their readers from time to time the brougbt before Parliament ; during which earliest information of the progress of this time the Dissenters have hoped that the subject. Legislature would, of its own accord, have Mr. W. Smith, before the Speaker left rescinded those statutes, as an act of the Chair, observed, that he should not justice to the Dissenters, and as no longer oppose the Bill, though he considered this deemed necessary for the security of the annual measure as an instrument of great state, or of the church by, law esta- injustice to the Protestant Dissenters, of blished.
which body he was himself one. For that • IV. That being disappointed in their reason, he was unable hold any office, hope, it is the opinion of this Meeting, however insignificant, or sit as a Magisthat the present is a suitable and proper trate in any corporation, without violating time for the Dissenting congregations, bis conscience. This was an exclusion throughout the country, to make a firm, hard, unjust, and unnecessary; and when and respectful, and united application to be complained of it, he was told tbat he both Houses of Parliament, praying for found his relief from all bis grievances in the entire abolition of said Acts.
this Bill of Indemnity. This Bill was a " V. That this Board, as a part of the stalking borse, by means of which the Test Dissenting Ministers of the Three Deno- and Corporation Acts had been continued minations in and about London and West- in existence for a century. If this Bill minster, will at the next Annual Meeting had not been passed yearly, both those oppressive Acts must loog' ago have been move the repeal of those' Acts? Hé an-' repealed.
swered, that undoubtedly he would ; but he Mr. D. IV. Harvey expressed his sur- added, that it was a question for ibem to prise bow the advocates of the Catholic consider what was the proper time for claims, resting their argument in support that purpose, and' in whose hands they of them on the broad ground of religious would place it. A noble friend of his in liberty, could continually overlook the the other House båd, in like manner, claims of the Protestant Dissenters. Yet always stated his readiness to bring fornearly forty years had elapsed since any ward the question; when the aggrieved serious view had been taken of the pe- body deemed it expedient and politic to pallies and disabilities to which Protestant have it discussed. His Honourable Friend Disscoters were liable. They, too, might (Mr. W. Smith) could testify to that fact. talk of their millions, and with some jus. Having given those assurances, why were tice of their moral character--though they they to be taunted with party designs, and were by law excluded from every place fáctious views, in bringing forward the under Government, and from every station claims of the Catholics? What interest in the Corporations. What could be more had they but in the general prosperity of preposterous or intolerable, than that two the empire ? Yet it was'urged as a charge millions of Protestant Dissenters should against them, that they brought forward be precluded by law from · holding any the question, which, having the name public office in the towns in which they'popery attached to it, was exposed to pre-, had realised, and were expending their judice; while, it was said, they neglected fortunes, and in which they had set the the cause of the Protestant Dissenters, very best examples in upholding the prin against which the same prejudice did not ciples of social order? He trusted, there exist. What reason could they have for fore, that before the Honourable Gentle following the course imputed to them? men to whoin he alluded again pressed the They could bring forward the claims of claims of the Catholics upon the attention the Dissenters at any time without excitof the House, they would take some steps ing any angry feelings or reviving any an. for emancipating the Protestant Dissenters cient prejudices; but there were not the from their thraldom. Considering their same urgent reasons, as in the case of the peacefulness of demeanour, sobriety of Catholics. The Tests exacted by law from character, and uniform virtuousness of the Dissenters against the national reliconduct, how much higher were their gion, he was free to admit, were the most claims on the justice of Parliament, than absurd, the most odious, and the most tbose that were urged upon it more with disgusting that were exacted by any Legisthe terror of numbers, and with the awe ture. One instance he would cite-- that wbich they were calculated to inspire, than of requiring them to take the sacrament with reference to any practical inconve. against every feeling of their conscience, nience that might be produced from the which, he would not hesitate to declare at actual state of things ? The seven millions once an act of mistaken policy, and a proof Irish Catholics, of whose numbers the fanation of religion itself. Yet he would House was perpetually reminded, had been, say, that the grievances of the Protestaot since 1779, eligible to offices in corpora. Dissenters were not practically so great tions, from which Protestant Dissenters as those of the Catholics. The proof of were exclnded.
this fact was before him. All the CathoLord John Russell rose to defend himselflics in the kingdom were excluded from and the great portion of his friends from Parliament, while bis Honourable Friend the imputation made upon them by the (Mr. W. Smith) was able, though a DisHonourable Gentleman who had just re- senter, to take his seat. The law, indeed, sumed his seat-that, for the purposes of was founded on principles of persecution, party, they brought forward the question but the annual Bill of indemnity, in fact, of Catholic emancipation, while they did gave that relief to the Protestant Dissennot equally insist on the restoration of ters which was denied to the Catholics. freedom to the Protestant Dissenters. He S ir Robert Wilson said, the Honourable was ready to declare, for one, and on be- Gentleman (Mr. D W. Harrey) had put half of the great body of his friends, thut, the saddle on the wrong horse.' The reas on the principle of general religious liberty, son why the claims of the Disserters bad without any compromise or exception in not been discussed was, that they irad not favour of any one sect, he would give his asked for relief. If they had been pracsupport to any question that might come tically excluded from the pale of the Conbefore the House. He would further state, stitution, there would have been as many that, on the subject of the Test and Cor- petitions from them as from the Catholics. poration Acts, some very respectable per- He confessed, however, that he thought it sons, Protestant Dissenters, had applied nogenerous in the Dissenters to withdraw to him-an humble individual, undoubt their auxiliary support of the Catholics. edly, in that House - to bring it forward. The main body of the Dissenters were He was asked whether he was ready to certainly more opposed to the Catholic claims than even the members of the made in that House, that he was a sinEstablished Church. The exceptions, becere friend to civil and religious liberty, knew, were many and honourable, but he and that he was willing to concede every believed he had spoken correctly of the thing that could be fairly asked for to the great body. The Honourable Gentleman Catholics, short of political power--he closed his observations by remarking, that would give bis support to a measure for what he called the Government opposition the total repeal of the Test and Corporato the Catholic claims, rested dot so much tion Acts ?. on the fear of the admission of Catholics Mr. Secretary Peel observed, that in the to that House, as on the fear that the debate on the Catholic Question, he had concession to the Dissenters of all their not said one word on the subject of Prorights and privileges would be a necessary testant Dissenters. He had stated that he consequence of the Bill of Emancipation discharged a painful duty in opposing the to the Catholics.
Catholic claims, but that he was perfectly Mr. Van Homrigh then addressed the willing to assent to every privilege to Speaker, but for some time the impatience which the Catholics were entitled by law, of the House rendered him inaudible, provided their qualifications were equal He complained of this inattention. He to those of Protestants in point of moral remarked, that he might have made a few character and professional skill. He had observations to the House before, but this said notbiog of Protestant Dissenters in was the first time be had formally ad. the debate on the Catholic claims, for, in dressed them. He was sure more loyal his opinion, sufficient unto the day was subjects than the Catholics of Ireland the vote thereof; but he was now ready could not be found, and they had been so to give his vote for the measure annually from the earliest days of antiquity. At passed for the relief of Protestant Dissenthe time of the Revolution, they had ters. He certaioly felt a little surprised sworn allegiance to a King to whom they at hearing the Hon. Member for South. faithfully adhered. He (Mr. Van Hom wark (Sir Robert Wilson), assert that the righ) had since seen the descendants of Protestant Dissenters were not entitled to those men assembled, on the very spot on this annual measure of relief, because they which the battle of the Boyne had been had not petitioned Parliament in behalf fought, under the eyes of his present Ma- of the Roman Catholics. It was unnejesty, and he was sure that his Majesty, cessary on the present. occasion to enter if he was asked, would say, that he never into the question, whether it would be saw more cordiality and loyalty in his life expedient io repeal the Corporation and than on that occasion--never since he Test Acts altogether. The Noble Lord came to the throne. The Catholics would opposite had intimated bis intention of he satisfied if they, like the Protestant bringing the general measure under disDissenters, had an annual bill passed in cussion; and whenever the subject was their favour; but as they were excluded brought forward, he should be prepared from every privilege of ihe constitution, to give an answer to the question which it was impossible they should be content. the Honourable Member for Aberdeen bad If, said tbe Honourable and Learned Gen- administered to hiin. tleman, I may judge of the feelings of Mr. D. Harvey obserred, in explanation, the Catholics by my own, I should say, that the great body of his constituents that if I were a Catholic, I would never be were Protestant Dissenters, and that they be satisfied until my rights were given to were opposed to the Catholic claims, beme.
canse they were friends to religious liMr. IVarburton said, the arguments of berty. They felt that concession to the the Honourable Member for Colchester claims of the Catholics would be incom(Mr. D. W. Harvey) were peculiarly un- patible with the maintenance of religious fair, as they had been applied.
liberty. The House then resolved itself into a Sir R. Wilson, in explanation, denied Committee.
that he was opposed to the annual meaMr. W. Smith entreated, that the repre. sure for indemnifying Protestant Dissensentation of the Protestant Dissenters iny ters. the Honourable Member for Southwark Lord Rancliffe said, that the Protestant (Sir R. Wilson), might not be taken as a just Dissepters who had given him their votes representation of the opinions of the Dis- in the last three Parliaments were fasenters. He could not bear to sit still vourable to religious liberty, and that they and bear them represented in a point of had never called upon him to say, whether view wbicb, be believed in his conscience, he should support or oppose the Catholic was not deserved.
claims. Mr. Hume, seeing the Right Honourable Lord J. Russell expressed his readiness Secretary for the Home Department so to bring forward, at any time, a general attentive to the debate which was now measure for the repeal of the Test and going on, wished to ask him whether, Corporation Acts, provided the Protestant in consistency with the declaration he had Dissenters of this country should think it