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into the holy scriptures, which are the true sayings of the Holy Spirit.' Which forms of citation do not occur in the epistles published by Mr. Wetstein. I omit those common forms, in the same epistle to the Corinthians, It is written, and the scripture says, and the like.' 4. Clement's quotations of texts of scripture, especially of the Old Testament, which are large and numerous, are neat and distinct. But the writer of these two epistles jumbles texts and books together, and quotes in a very confused manner. How Clement quotes may be seen by any, who look into his epistle. Having quoted a passage of scripture, when he proceeds to take another passage out of another book, or out of the same book, he usually says: And in another place,' or the like. I do not deny, thats the writer of these epistles does also sometimes make use of like forms of transition. But oftentimes his quotations are exceedingly jumbled and confused. For instance, Therefore he rightly said to such a genera
tion: "My Spirit shall not always dwell with man, because they are flesh. Every one therefore in whom is not the spirit of Christ, he is not his." As it is written: "The spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit 'from the Lord troubled him." See Gen. vi. 3. Rom. viii. 9. 1 Sam. xvi. 14.
2. Mr. Wetstein, as an instance of agreement between the epistle of Clement, and the epistles published by him, says, that there is a doxology in the middle of one of them. I suppose, that Mr. Wmay refer to the sixth chapter of his second epistle, at the end of which there is an Amen. But I see not there, nor any where else in these epistles, neither in the middle, nor at the endings of them, one doxology. Which therefore leads me to observe another dif ference between these epistles, and the generally received epistle of Clement to the Corinthians. For in that epistle, as has been often observed by learned men, there are at least seven or eight doxologies.
3. THE TIME OF THESE EPISTLES. There are several things in these epistles, which will directly lead us to the time and occasion of writing them, and assure us of their late age.
A passage above cited shows, that when these epistles were written, Gentilism was not extinct in the Roman empire. For I allow, that they were not first written in Syriac,
Λεγει γαρ ἡ γραφη. cap. xxxi. et
Ep. i. cap. 8.
Γεγραπται γαρ. cap. iv.
but in Greek, as Mr. Wetstein well argues. When therefore this author said, as above; we do not read the scriptures to Gentiles;' I reckon it a proof, that Gentilism still subsisted in the country where he lived. Which indeed I imagine to have been somewhere in the eastern part of the Roman empire.
Farther, these epistles were not written until after some ecclesiastics had begun to have with them what were called subintroduced women; nor till after it had been taken notice of and censured. Upon this subject the late learned Mr. Henry Dodwell has a curious dissertation. Bingham' likewise may be consulted. And some notice has been already taken of it in this work, particularly in the history of Paul of Samosata.
There were some unmarried clergymen, who, for the sake of domestic affairs, had women to live with them. Dodwell" says, they were virgins consecrated to God. Bingham says, They were commonly some of the virgins belonging to the church, whom they that entertained, pretended only to 'love as sisters with a chaste love.' It appears from St. Cyprian, that they dwelled together in the same house, and sometimes lodged in the same room, and in the same bed. To the like purpose speaks Jerom. Nevertheless they made solemn declarations of their innocence, and gave such assurances of being unpolluted by carnal commerce, as were satisfactory. So says Mr. Dodwell, upon the authority of a passage of St. Cyprian; which however still declares the
* Diss. Cypr. iii. De flagitio mulierum cum clericis concumbentium, &c. 1 Antiquities of the church. B. 6. ch. 2. sect. 13. vol. II. p. 329-332. m Vol. ii. chap. xliii. num. viii. n Ubi supr. n. i. ii. • As before, p. 331. P Legimus literas tuas, frater carissime,-postulans et desiderans, ut tibi rescriberemus, quid nobis de iis virginibus videatur, quæ cum in statu suo esse, et continentiam firmiter tenere decreverant, detectæ sint postea in eodem lecto pariter mansisse cum masculis; ex quibus unum esse Diaconum dicis; plane easdem quæ se cum viris dormîsse confessæ sint, asseverare se integras essePrimo igitur in loco,-elaborandum est-nec pati virgines cum masculis habitare, non dico simul dormire, sed nec simul vivere. Cyprian. ep. 4. al. 62. Unde in ecclesias Agapetarum pestis introiit! Unde sine nuptiis aliud nomen uxorum !————-Eadem domo, uno cubiculo, sæpe uno tenentur et lectulo, et suspiciosos nos vocant, si aliquid existimamus. Ad. Eustoch. ep. 18. al. 22. T. IV. p. 33.
* Quid deinde illud--quod cum summo animi nostri gemitu et dolore cognovimus, non deesse qui Dei templa et post confessionem sanctificata et illustrata membra turpi et infami concubitu suo plus maculent, cubilia sua cum feminis promiscua jungentes, quando etsi stuprum conscientiæ eorum desit, hoc ipso grande crimen est, quod illorum scandalo in aliorum ruinas exempla nascuntur. [Cypr. ep. 6. al. 7. al. 13.] Constat itaque, qui ita cum mulieribus concumberent, carnis tamen integritatem, servâsse illibatam. Dodwell ubi supra, n. i.
practice to be unreputable and offensive. Leontius, the Arian bishop of Antioch, is censured by Athanasius for cohabiting with a virgin. And he may be reckoned to be one of those, who gave proof of his freedom from carnal
We cannot dispute the truth of what St. Cyprian says, that in Africa some of these ecclesiastics and their virgins lay in the same room, and in the same bed. Nevertheless perhaps there were very few instances of this sort. St. Chrysostom has two homilies or orations upon this subject. One is, against those who had with them subintroduced 'virgins.' The other, that canonical women ought not to dwell [or cohabit] with men.' It may be allowed, that he treats those whom he reproves with a good deal of politeness and tenderness. Nevertheless his argument is very cogent. Nor can any imagine, that John Chrysostom would extenuate the guilt of those whom he blamed, or dissemble any part of their fault. And yet I do not perceive, that he had received any intelligence of those last-mentioned aggravating circumstances. He speaks of their dwelling under the same roof, of their cohabiting together, eating at the same table, sitting together, and discoursing freely and pleasantly in the day-time. But they did not lie together." He plainly supposeth, that they had different apartments, and that there were others, particularly women-servants, in the house with them. In that way of acting it may be reckoned, that their virtue would not be in any immediate danger. However, undoubtedly, notwithstanding such precautions, some would be suspicious; which was enough to render this practice offensive. And therefore the fathers of the council of Nice ordained in one of their canons, " that no bishop, presbyter, or deacon, or any of the clergy, should have an introduced woman, unless she be a mother, or sister, or aunt, or however a person liable to no suspicion.' But I need not enlarge further by way of introduction to my argument.
That this practice is referred to, and censured in these
5 ̔Ο μεν γαρ Λεοντιος διαβαλλομενος, μετα γυναικος τινος νεωτερας, λεγόμενης Ευκολία, και κωλυόμενος συνοικείν αυτη, δι' αυτην ἑαυτον απεκοψεν, ἵν' επ' αδειας Exp diarρißeiv μer' avrne. Apol. de fugâ suâ. p. 335. E. Vid. et. Hist. Arian. ad Monach. p. 360. B. της ὁμοσκηνιας ταύτης. Contr. eos.
&c. T. I. p. 229. B.
-ὁμοσκηνιας ταυτης. Ib. p. 233. B.-Ins συνοικήσεως ταύτης· Ib. D. -VEOC - κορῃ συνοικων παρθενῳ, και συγκαθήμενος, και συνδείπνων και συνδιαλεγόμενος δι ̓ ἡμέρας· των γαρ αλλων δεν προτιθημι - Ib. p. 231. B.-αλλ' ότι την αυτήν έχων οικίαν, και τραπέζης, και λογων κοινωνων, και μετα παρρησιας πολλης. Ib. C. ▾ Ubi supra, p. 241. D. E. p. 254. fin.
w P. 264.
epistles, is manifest from some passages to be now produced. We are persuaded, says the writer, that you will mind these things, which are necessary to your salvation. But we speak as we do, because of the evil fame and report concerning imprudent men, who dwell with virgins under 'a pretence of piety, and put their souls in danger-It is altogether unfit, that they who are christians, and fear God, 'should act thus.'
Setting forth his own conduct, and that of others, whom he represents as exemplary, he says; Wey do not dwell 'with virgins, nor have we any concern with them. We do not eat and drink where a virgin is. Nor do we lie
[sleep] where a virgin lies. Nor do women wash our feet, or anoint us. We never lie [or sleep] where a virgin is, who is unmarried, and fit for marriage. Though she be alone, and in another place, [or part of the house,] we do not spend the night there.'
In another chapter. We that are holy, do not eat and drink with women. Nor do women or virgins minister to us, or wash our fect, or anoint us. Nor do we lie [sleep] 'where women lie, that we may be in all things without ' offence.'
Afterwards in another chapter, Even after the Lord was 'risen from the dead, when Mary came running to the
* sed ita loquimur de iis quæ loquimur, propter famam et rumorem malum de hominibus impudentibus, qui habitant cum virginibus, prætextu pietatis, et conjiciunt animam suam in periculum-Prorsus non decet christianos et timentes Deum ita conversari. Alii autem edunt et bibunt cum virginibus, &c. Ep. i. c. 10. Wetstein.
y Cum virginibus non habitamus, et inter illas nihil habemus negotii. Et cum virginibus nec edimus nec bibimus. Nec lavant mulieres pedes nostros, nec ungunt nos. Et prorsus ubi dormit virgo, quæ viri non est, aut filia nubilis, non dormimus: etiamsi sit in alio loco sola, non pernoctamus ibi. Ep. 2. c. 1. W.
* Nos sancti cum mulieribus nec edimus nec bibimus, nec ministrant nobis mulieres vel virgines. Et mulieres non lavant nobis pedes, nec ungunt nos; et non conveniunt nobis mulieres; neque dormimus, ubi dormiunt mulieres, ut simus sine reprehensione, &c. Ep. 2. c. 3. W.
a Nec hoc solum, sed etiam postquam surrexit Dominus a mortuis, et veniret Maria ad sepulchrum currens, et sedens ad pedes Domini, et adorans eum, et quærens eum apprehendere, ipse dixit ei: "Noli me tangere. Nondum enim adscendi ad patrem meum.' Nonne igitur mirabile est de Domino, quod non permisit Mariæ, mulieri beatæ, ut tangeret pedes ejus; tu autem habitas cum illis, et tibi ministrant mulieres et virgines; et dormis, ubi illæ dormiunt; et lavant tibi pedes, et ungunt te mulieres?-Mulieres autem multæ sanctæ ministrârunt sanctis e possessionibus suis, sicut ministravit Sulamitis Elisæ; sed cum eo non habitavit; et ipse propheta in domo seorsim habitavitDomino Jesu Christo ministrârunt mulieres e possessionibus suis; sed cum illo non habitarunt. Etiam apostolis, etiam Paulo reperimus ministråsse muheres; sed cum illis non habitârunt. Ep. 2. c. 15. W.
sepulchre, and falling down at his feet, and worshipping him, sought to touch him, he said unto her; "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father," John xx. 17. Is it not then wonderful, that the Lord permitted not that blessed woman Mary to touch his feet? And you dwell with them, and women and virgins minister to you, and you lie where they lie; and women wash your feet, and anoint you-Many holy women have ministered to the 'saints out of their substance, as the Shunamite woman 'ministered to Elisha. But she did not dwell with him ; for the prophet dwelt in a house by himself, 2 Kings iv. 8 -10. Women ministered to the Lord Jesus Christ out of their substance, Luke viii. 3, but they did not dwell with him. We also find that women ministered to the other apostles, and to Paul; but they did not dwell with them.' I need not transcribe any more; here is enough, to show the occasion and design of these epistles. However, there is still one thing more to be taken notice of, which will fully determine the point. The people complained of by St. Cyprian, and others, were ecclesiastics and women, who made profession of virginity. So it is here. Both these letters are addressed to virgins. And it is implied, that they were pure in body, or free from carnal pollutions. "Whoever,' says the author, professeth before the Lord, that he will keep his chastity, ought to be clothed with every virtue; and if he has truly crucified his body for the sake of piety, he deprecates that saying, " increase and multiply," and all concupiscence, and all the delights of this world, and shuns all those snares, by which he might 'be endangered.'
And presently afterwards, in the next chapter, For this cause he separates himself from the desires of the body, and not only deprecates that, "increase and multiply,' 'but desires the promised hope, prepared and laid up in heaven, even a better place [or recompense] than that of 'those who have been holy in the state of marriage.'
b Quicumque enim profitetur coram domino, se servaturum castitatem, debet cingi omni virtute sanctâ Dei, et si vere in timore crucifixit corpus suum propter pietatem, deprecatur verbum, dicens, Crescite et multiplicamini,' et totam mentem et cogitationem, et concupiscentiam mundi hujus, et delicias, et ebrietatem, et omnem amorem ejus, et otium ejus- -et exinanitus est ab omni conversatione mundi hujus, et ex laqueis et impedimentis ejus. Ep. i. c. 3. W. • Propterea separat se ab omnibus concupiscentiis corporis; et non solum deprecatur illud, fructificate et multiplicate,' sed desiderat spem promissam et præparatam et positam in cœlis Deo, qui promisit ore, et non mentitur- -locum celebrem in domo Dei excellentiorem filiis et filiabus, et excellentiorem illis, qui conjuges fuerunt in sanctitate. Ibid. c. 4.