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ENCYCLOPÆDIA PERTHENSIS.

Not only

SA X

SA X SAXONY, the name of two circles of the Gera fer are found beau:iful pearls. This ele&orate is

man empire, an electorate, and duchy. extremely well cultivated and inhabited, and in1. SAXONY, DUCHY OF, or the ELECTORAL cludes about 250 great and small towns, upwards Cilcze of Saxony, is bounded by the circles of of sooo villages, 196 royal manors, and near as Meiffen, Leipzig, and Thuringia, the principality many royal castles, besides, privaté estates, and of Anhalt, the marche of Brandenburg, and Luía. commanderies. The provincial diets confitt of 3 $32

. The principality of Anhalt lies across it, and classes. The first is composed of the prelates, the divides it into two parts. Its greatest length and counts, and lords, and the two universities of breadth is computed to about 40 miles; but though Leipfic and Wittenberg. To the ad belong the it is watered by the Elbe, the Black Elster, and the nobility in general, immediate or mediate, that is, Muide, it is not very fruitful, the foil for the most such as stand immediately under the fief-chancery part consisting of fand. It contains 24 towns, 3 or the aulic judicatories, and such as are immédia boroughs, betwixt 400

and soo villages, 164 noble ately under the jurisdiction of the amtman. The men's estates, 11 superintendencies, 3 inspections, 3d class is formed of the towns in general. The under one confiftory, and 11 prefecturates or dif- general provincial diets are ordinarily held every tries. The present duchy of Saxony is not to be fix years; but there are others, called fele&tion dietá, confound with the old; for the latter was of a convened commonly every two years. much greater extent, and contained in it those these diets, but those in most of the other states of large tracts, ancientlycalled Easphalia, Eugern, and Germany, are at present extremely_inGgnificant Welphalia, of which the electoral circle was no and unimportant, retaining little more than the part

, but was taken by Albert the Bear, margrave madow of their former power and privileges; yet of Salzwedel, from the Vendi. His fon Bernard even the petty princes, though they depend upon obtaining the dignity of duke of Saxony from the their more potent neighbours, and must be careemperor Frederic I. the title of duchy was given to ful not to give them any umbrage, are almost as this country; and the electoral dignity having been absolute in their respective territories as the grand afterwards annexed to the duchy, it acquired feignior bimself. As to religion, it was in this thereby also the name of the electoral circle. country, that the reformation took its rise in the 4. Saxony, ELECTORATE OF, or SAXONY PRO- 16th century, to which it hath ever since adhered, PER, consists of the duchy, No 1, the greatest part according to the doctrines of Luther. The two of the Margraviate of Meiffen, a part of the Vogt. late electors, when they embraced Popery, to qua. land, and the northern half of the landgravate of lify themselves to be elected kings of Poland, Thuringia

. The Lusatias also, and a part of the gave the most folemn assurances to their people country of Henneberg, belong to it, but are no that they would inviolably maintain the establish. part of this circle. The foil of the electoral do. ed religion and its profeffors in the full and free minions lying in this circle is in general exceeding enjoyment of all their ecclefiaftical rights, privie rich and fruitful, yielding corn, fruits, and pulfe leges, and prerogatives whatsoever, in regard to in abundance, together with hops, fax, hemp, churches, worlhip, ceremonies, ulages, univerfi. tobacco , aniseed, wild faffron, wood; and in some ties, schools

, benefices, incomes, profits, jurisdica places wood, wine, coals, porcelain clay, terra tions, and immunities. The electoral families still tigillata, fullers earth, fine shiver, various forts of continue Roman Catholics, though they have lost beautiful marble serpentine ftone, and almost all the crown of Poland, for wbich they at first em the diferent fpecies of precious

fones. Sulphur, braced Popery. As to ecclefiaftical matters, the alum, vitriol, free-ftone, falt springs, amber, turf, country is divided into parishes, and these again cinnabar

, quick filver, antimony, bilmuth, arsenic, into spiritual inspections and confiftories, all subor. cobaki, and other minerals, are found in it: like- dinate to the ecclefiaftical council and upper conwife valuable mines of filver, copper, tin, lead, fiftory of Dresden, in which city and Leipfic the and iron ; and abounds in many places with horn- Calvinifts and Roman Catholics enjoy the free exs ed cattle

, sheep, borfes, and venifon The prin- 'ercise of their religion. Learning flourishes in this cipal rivers are the eile, the Black Elter, the electorate : in which, besides the free schools and Mulle

; the Saale, the Unstrut, the White Elter, gymnasia in most of the chief towns, are the two and the Pleille. These rivers, as well as the lakes celebrated universities of Wittenberg and Leipzic, and rivulets, abound in fish; and in the White El. in the last of which are also societies for the liberal

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YOL. XX. PART I

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arts and the German language, with booksellers Warsaw, and a member of the confederation of stafel and printers of the greatest eminence. A great the Rhine; but he has not the tenth part of the variety of manufactures is also carried on in this power which he then had; though his states are country. The principal are those of file and rather increased. He is the mere creature of coarse linen, thread, fine lace, paper, fine glasses Bonaparte; and, as he is certainly an unwilling I and mirrors; PORCELAIN, equai, if not fuperior, slave, and known to be so, even his nominal to that of China; iron, brass, and feel wares; power and dignity will probably be of very short

an of You manufactures of gold and silver, cotton, wool and duration. filk; gloves, caps, hats, and tapestry; in which, 3. SALONY, Lower, a circle of the German set, a and the natural productions mentioned above, to- empire, bounded on the S. by the circle of Upper in 1981 gether with dyeing, an important foreign com- Saxony, and a part of the Upper Rhine; on the iMaton merce is carried on. A great addition has been N. by the duchy of Sleswick, belonging to the made since 1918 to the electorial territories, by the king of Denmark, and the Baltic; on the W. by side Rer. extinction of the collateral branches of Zeitz, the circle of Weltphlia and the North Sea; and Merseburg, and Weijenteis, whose dominions on the E. by the circle of Upper Saxony. The tradem devolved to the elder electoral branch, de cended states belonging to it are the duchies and from the margraves of Meiten. The first of these, principalities of Magdeburg and Bremen, Zell, who was elector of Saxony, was Frederick the Grubenhayen, Calenburg, Wolfenbuttle, Hal Marlike, about the beginning of the 15th century. berstadt, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg. Det to the R This elector styled himielt duke of Saxony, Juliers, Gustro, Holstein-Gluckstadt, Holstein-Gottorp, endal Cieves, and Berg, as also of England Westphalia, llildeshein, Saxe-Lauenburg; the archbishopric and arch-marthal and elector of the 'Holy Roman of Lubeck;: the principalities of Schwerin, empire, landgrave in Thuringia, margrave of Ratzeburg, Blankenburg, Ranzau ; the imperial Meiten, and of Upper and Lower Lufatia, cities of Lubeck, Gotzlar, Muhlhausen, Nord. burgrave et Magdeburg, princely count of Henne- haufen, Hamburgh, and Bremen. The dukes of berg, count of La Mark, Ravensberg, Barby, and Bremen and Magdeburg are alternately directore Lanau, and the lord of Ravenstein. But the titles and fummoning princes; but, ever since 1683, the of Juliers and Clevës may now be laid aside, diets which used generally to be held at Brunswick as there countries are now annexed to the French or Lunenburg, have been discontinued. Towards empire. (See there articles.) Among the electors the army of the empire, which, by a decree of the he is reckoned the fixth, 29 great marshal of the empire in 1681, was settled at 40,000 men, this empire, of which he is also ricar during an inter- circle was to furnish 1322 horsemen and 2703 foot; reguum, in all places not subject to the vicariate of and of the 300.000 florins granted to the imperial the count palatine of the Rhine. He is sole director cheft in 1707, its quota s38 35,271 Korins ; both of the circle. His matricular afleflment, on account wbich affefiments are the same with those of of the electorate, is 1984 florins, belides what he Upper Saxony, Burgundy, Suabia, and Westphalia. pays for other districts and territories. To the This circle ai present nominates only two aftesfors chamber courts he contributes cach term the in the chamber judicatory of the empire, of one fum of 1545 rix-dollars, with 83 rix-dollars and 63 of which the eiector of Brunswick Lunenburg has fruitzers on account of the county of Mansfield. the nomination, who must be a Lutheran, and is In this electorate, subordinate to the privy council, the ninth in rank. The inhabitants of this circle are various colleges for the departments of war, are almost all Lutherags. foreign affairs, the finances, fiefs, mines, police, 3. Saxony PROPER. See N° 2. and ecclefiaftical affairs, together with tribunals 4. SAXONY, UPPER, a circle of the German and courts of justice, to which appeals lie from empire, bounded by that of Franconia, the Upper the interior.

The sevennes of this clector are as Rhine, and Lower Saxony; and also by the Baltic considerable as those of any prince in the empire, Sea, Prusia, Poland, Silesia, Lusatia, and Bohemia. if we except those of the house of Auftria. They it is of great extent, and contains the following arise from ine ordinary and extraordinary subfidies lates, viz. the electorates of Saxony and Bran

of the feates; his own demesnes, confisting of 72 denburg, Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach, Saxe. bailiwice; the impost on beer, and nine porcelain ; Cobourg, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe.

enths of epro, fruit, wine, &c. his own silver Querfurt, the Hither and farther Pomerania, mines, and the tenths of those that belong to Camin, Anhalt, Qnedlinburg, Gernrode, Walken

others; all which added together, bring in an ried, Schwarsburg, Sonderhausen, Schwarzburg yearly revenue of bet wixt 700,000l, and 800,000l.; Rudolstadt, Mansfield, Stolberg, Barby, the counyet the electorate is at present deeply in debt. The ties of Reutlen, and the counties of Schonberg. regular troops commonly amount to 20,000 men, No diets have been held in this circle fince 1683. exciulive of the militia of the ban, the arriere-ban, The elector of Saxony tras always been the fole aud the body of miners and hunters, who are summoning prince and director of it. Most of obliged in time of war to bear arms. The whole the inhabitants profess the Protestant religion. electorate is divided into circles. The war with When the whole empire furnishes 40,000 men, Prullia in 1806, fec PRUSSIA, Ø 15, and the sub- the quota of this circle is 1322 horse, and 2707 fequent events of the French revolution, fee Re- foot of the 300,000 foris granted by the VOLUTION, bave totally destroyed the Germanic empire in 1907, it contributed only 31,272 conftitution, and altered the names, powers, and forins, 28 kruitzers, being rated no higher than relations of all the princes. The state of Saxony those of Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Suabia, and was, as we have jult described it, ter jears ago. Burgundy, though it is much larger. Agreeable The elector is now king of Saxony and duke of to a resolution and regulation in 1654, this circle

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nominates now only two alleffors of the chamber I have somewhat to say unto thee; and she said, t of the court.

1 Kings. The counci)-table and starSAXTED, a small town of England, in Sussex, chamber hold, as Thucydides said of the Athenjang, near Framlingham.

for honourable that which pleased, and for just abat SAXTHORP, a town of England, in Norfolk, which profited. Clarendon.-The lion here has NW. of Alesham.

taken his right measures, that is to say, he bas ry fart SAXTON, a town of Yorksh. near Aberforth. made a true judgment. L'Elrange.- of fome

Saston's River, a river of Vermont, which propofitions it may be difficult to say whether Germar

runs into the Connecticut, at Weftrainfter. they affirm or deny; as when we say, Plato was * Upper SAKULBY, a small town of England, in Lei- no fool. Watts. 2. In poetry, say is often used cetershire, NW. of Melton Mowbray.

before a question; tel.to tk (3.) SAY, Samuel, an English clergyman and

Say first what cause : W. by

poet

, fecond son of the Rev. Giles Şay, vicar of St Moved our grand parents to fall off? Milton.

Michaels in Southampton, was born in 1695. He Say, Stella, feel you no content, : The

was educated at the academy of the Rev. Thomas Reflecting on a life well fpent? Swift. es and

Rowe, London, about 1692. After acting as And who more blest, who chained his Zelah

chaplain and preacher in Andover and Yarmouth, countrys saj,

he was settled at Lowestoffe for 18 years. He next Or he whole virtue fighed to lose a days Pope. ember

became colleague to the Rev. Samuel Baxter, at SAYA, a town in the ifland of Cuba ; 15 miles ottorp Ipswich for 9 years, and at lat, in 1734, succeeded S$w. of Spiritu &anto.

the celebrated DrEdmund Calamy át Wefminster; SAYAN KIAMEN, a town of Chinese Tartary. bwers

where he died April 12, 1743, aged 68. A volume Lon. 143. 21. E. of Ferro. Lat. 43, 27. N. mp:rid

of tis Poems wag pabljihed in 4to, 1743, with 2 SAYBROOK, a town of Connecticut, in Mid. Nord

Ilays in profe, Ön the Harmony, Variety, and dlesex county, so named after Lord Say and Lord ukese

Power of Numbers; which have been much ad. Brook, whose agent built it about 1630. Its fort irum

prired

. These were published for the benefit of was a security against the Pequot Indians in 1637;
his daughter. He wrote several other tracts.' and was useful during the American war. It is
() *SAV.8. s. [from the verb:] 1. A speech; seated on the W. ade of the mouth of the Con.
what one has to say.--He no fooner fait out his necticut, across which is a bridge bus miles W. of
her

, but up vises a cunning (nap. L'Estrange. 2. New London, and 15 8. of Hadhami
For ajay.1 Sample.

SAYCOCK, an island of Japan, feparated from
So good a "say invites the eye.

Sidney. Niphon, by a narrow channel, The Dutch 7 per

Thy tongue some 'say of breeding breathes, factors reside in the isand of Dimia, which lies

By rule of knighthood I disdain. Shak. on the w. side of Saycock. Lon. 132. 28. E. Die a

Trial by a fample. This gentleman having Lat. 34. 0. N. brought that eartb to the public say malters, and SAYD. See SIDON, upon their being unable to bring it to fufion, or SAYDA, a town of Germany, in Upper make it fly away, he had procured a little of it, Saxony, and circle of Erzgeburg ; 14 miles SSE. and with a peculiar flux feparated a third part of of Freyberg. pure gold. Boyle. 4. (Soie, Fr.) Silk. Obsolete: SAYE. "See SAY, N° 3. S. A kind of woollen stuff.

SAYING, N, s. [from say ] Expression; words; (3.

) Say, or Sove, in commerce, a kind of opinion sententiously delivered.Serge much used abroad for linings, and by the Thou has proved Lucilius saying true. Shak. religious for hirts ; with us it is ufed for aprons by -Moses fled at this faying. A&5:Several forts of artificers, being usually dyed green. Many are the sayings of the wife, Milton.

(1.) * To Say. v. a. preter. said. (secgan, Sax. :--Others try to divert the troubles of other men BRIN, Dutch.] 1. To speak ; to utter in words; by pretty and plausible sayings, such as this, that to tell.

if evits are long, they are but light. Tillotfon.com Say it ought Diggon, whatever it hight. Speris. We poetic folks, who must restrain - Lo this dumbery agitation what have you heard Our measured sngings in an equal chain, ter say? Shak.–Speak unto Solomon; for he will Have troubles utterly unknown to those not say thee nay. 1 Kings.--Say nothing to any

Who let their fancy loose in rambling profe. man. Mark. 2. To allege by way of argument.

Prior. ---After all can be said against a thing, this

-The sacred fundion can never be hurt by their will fill be true, that many things poffible are sayings, if not firit reproached by our doings. Pilefonia In vain fhall we attempt to justify our Atterbury felves

, as the rich young man in the gospel did, (1.) SAYN, a river of Germany, now in the by appealing to the great duties of the law, unless French empire, and department of the Sarre, we can say somewbat more. Atterbury. 3. To tell which runs into Rhine, about five miles below

Coblentz.
Messenger with letters which bis message said. (2.) SAYN, a town of the French empire, in the

Fairy Queen. dep. of the Sarre, and late electorate of Treves, . To repeat; to rehearse; as, to say a part; to feated on the Sayo; 6 miles N. of Coblenız, and saya letion. S. To pronounce without finging. 6 Ę. of Andernach. Then shall be said or fung as follows. Common (3.) SAYN, a county of Germany, in the circle

of Westphalia ; thus divided. 1. To speak; to pro

i. SAYN-ALTENKIRCHEN is invested in the nounce; to utter; to relate. - He said moreover, margraviate of Anspach:

ii. SAYN

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11. SAYN-HACHENBACH lies in the Wefterwald, under the 48th order, Aggregate. The common And is intermixed with the territories of Heffe. calyx is polyphyllous; the proper one is double Darmstadt.

Laperior; the receptacle is paleaceous or naked. SAYPAN, one of the MARIANA ISLANDS, in The most remarkable species are, che E. Indian Ocean, about 20 miles in circum- 1. SCABIOSA ARVENSIS, the meadow fcabious, ference. Except Guam, it is the largest and most grows naturally in many places of Britain. It populous of all these iNands. Its soil is fertile, hath a strong, thick, fibrous root, sending out and climate ferene; and it abounds in all the new many branching ítalks, 'which rise to the beight ceffaries of life. Lon. from 140° to 150° E. Lat. of three feet; the lower leaves are sometimes al14° 30 to 15° 22' N.

molt entire, and at others they are cut into many SAZA, a town of Spain, in the province of segments almost to the midrib. The flowers are Arragon: 6 miles SW. of Ainfa.

produced upon naked footftalks at the end of the SBIRRI, n. f. [Ital.] Halberdeers. See Rome, branches; they are of a purple colour, and bave crime $ 99.

a faint odour. SBROGLIAVACCA, a town of Auftria, in Fri. 2. SCABIOSA SUCCISA, or devil's bit, grows uli; 8 miles from Concordia.

naturally in woods and moist places. This has a chalasie (1.) * SCAB. n. f. [fcæb, Saxon; scabbia, Ita- short tap-root, the end of which appears lian; schabbe, Dutch ; Scabies, Latin.] 1. An in- was bitten or cut off, whence the plant has taken crustation-formed over a sore by dried matter. ite name. The leaves are open and spear-shaped,

What's the matter, you diflentious rogues, and smooth; the stalks are single, about two feet That rubbing the poor itch of your opinion, high, garnished with two leaves at each joints Make yourselves scabs?

Shak. they generally send out two short foot talks from Clear from scabs produc'd by freezing air. their upper joint, standing oppofiter wbich are

ia like Dryden. terminated by purple flowers.--Both these bave

Taste borbe 2. The itch or mange of horses. 3. A paltry fel. been recommended as aperient, fudorific, and low, so named from the itch often incident to expectorant; but the present practice bas do de degligent poverty. I would make thee the loath- pendence on them. fomest scab in Greece. Shak.-Well said, Wart, (r.) * SCABIOUS. adj. [fcabiosus, Lat.) Itchy; thou art a good fcab. Shak.-A head man of the leprous.—In the spring Scabious, eruptions upon city took it in dudgeon to be ranked, cheek by the kin were epidemical, from the acidity of the joul, with a scab of a carrier. L'Estrange.

blood. Arbuthnot. This vapäring feab must needs devile

(2.) * SCABIOUS. 15. S. (fcabicuse, Fr. scabiosa, To ape the thunder of the skies. Swift. Lat.) A plant. (2.) SCAB. See ITCH and MEDICINE, Index. (3.) SCABIOUS, in botany. See SCABIOSA. (3.) SCAB, in sheep. See SHEEP.

(4.) SCABIOUS, SHEEP's. See JASIONE. * ŚCABBARD. nif. I Schap, German, Yunius.] SCABRITA, 'in botany, a genus of the monoThe sheath of a sword.

gynia order, belonging to the tetrandria class of Nor in thy

scabbard fheath that famous blade, plants. The corolla is monopetalous, and Silver 'Till settled be thy kingdom and ekare. Fairf. haped; there are two feeds emarginated superior; What eyes ! you do well to keep 'em veil'd; the calyx is truncated. they are too harp to be trusted out o' the scab- * SCABROUS. adj. ( fcabreux, Fr. scaber, Lat.) bard. Dryden.

1. Rough; rugged ; pointed on the surface.-U. * SCABBED. adj. [from fcab.) 1. Covered rine, black and bloody, is occafioned by something or diseased with scabs.-The briar fruit makes sharp or scabrous wounding the small blood vessels. those that eat them fcabbed. Bacon. 2. Paltry; Arbuthnot. 2. Harsh ; upmusical.-Lucretius is forry; vile; worthleis.--

fcabrous and rough in these ; he seeks them, as To you such scabb'd harsh fruit is gir'n, as some do Chaucerisms. Ben Jonfon.

* SCABROUSNESS. n. š. (from feabrow.) Young soldiers at their exercisings gnaw. Dryd. Roughness; ruggedness.

SCABBEDNESS. n. f. [from scabbed.] The (1.) * SCABWORT. 1. s. (helenium.) A plant. State of being scabbed.

Ainsworth. * SCABBINESS. n. f. [from feabby.) The qua- (2.) Scabwort. See SCABIOSA. lity of being scabby,

* SCAD. misi A kind of fish. Probably the * SCABBY. adj. [from scab.l Diseased with fame with food.- Of round fish there are sprat, (cabs.

barn, smelts, and scad. Carew. Her writhled skin, as rough as maple rind, SCAER, a town of Fraace, in the dep. of FiSo scabby was, that 'twould have loathed all nisterre, 101 miles NNE. of Quimperlé, and is womankind.

Fairy Queen. E. of Quimper. A scabby tetter on their pelts will tick. Dryd. (1.) SCÆVOLA, in botany, a genus of the If the grazier should bring me one wedder fat monogynia order, belonging to the pentandria and well Merced, and expect the same price for a class of plants. The corolla

is monopetalous; the whole bundred, without giving me fecurity to tube fit longitudinally; the border quinquefid refore my money for those that were lean, fhorn, and lateral. The fruit is a plum inferior and mo. or fcabby, I would be none of his customer. Swift, nospermous; the nucleus bilocular. į SCABIOSA, SCABIOS, in botany, a genus of (24-4.) SCAVOLA. See MUTIUS, N° 1-3. the monogynia order, belonging to the tetrandria (1.) * ŚCAFFOLD. n. S. {efchafaut, Fr. Jebavoso cals of plants; and in the natural method ranking Dutch ; from schawen, io how.) 1. A temporary

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