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Dr. Hales objects in this arrangement of Lord Barrington, to Antioch. riod, 4760. the supposition that “helps" answer to“ prophecy," and "goValgar Æra, vernments” to “ discerning of spirits.” 49.
Bishop Horsley bas classed the gifts of the Spirit nearly in the
i. c. expounders of 2. The word of knowledge Prophet the Scriptures of the
Told Testament. 3. Faith
Teachers of Christiauity 4. Miracles
Workers of miracles
Gifted with tongues in vari-
Dr. Doddridge and others, in consequence of the difficulty
This opinion is in some measure defended by Mr. Morgan,
1 Cor. xü. 8-10.
Word of wisdom
Miracles of the
Governments Discerning of Spirits Saints.
Word of knowledge PresbyEdifying ? Prophets Prophecy
Gifts of healing ters Lof Christ.
He that exhorteth 2 Speakers with tongues Kinds of tongues
He that teacheth
Interpretation of tongues He that sheweth mercy The writers in the Critici Sacri are very unsatisfactory on this subject. Though Lord Barrington appears to have given the best explanation, much light will be thrown on the meaning of the various gifts, if we endeavour to ascertain from the Septuagint, the received signification of the words which are used to express them. This version was generally adopted during the apostolic age, and must have been well known by the persons to whom St. Paul addressed the Epistle in wbich these gifts are enumerated.
IN THE CHURCH OF ANTIOCH-CHAP. XI.
Julian Pe. The miraculous gifts enumerated by St. Paul are all described
Antioch. riod, 4760. (1 Cor. xii. 7.) by one term, ý pavépwong ToŨ Tveúparos. The Valgar Æra, word pavépwois is not found in the LXX, but in Jer. xl. 6. of 49.
the division in the Oxford edition of the Septuagint, which
The whole clause of this passage in Jeremiah is ons rebon
The gifts which are thus represented as bestowed for the
but the same Spirit. διαιρέσεις, διακονιών
Julian Pc. which our translators have rendered it. It corresponds with Antioch.
ter word to express the meaning of the apostle than either "dif-
The word xapioja does not occur in the Septuagint. It is
Alakovia does not occur in the Septuagint, but it is found in 1 Maccabees xi, 58. where it is used to describe the service or furniture which Antiochus sent to Jonathan the High Priest, for the service of the temple, in addition to the golden vesselsαπέστειλεν αυτώ χρυσώματα και διακονίαν. Schleusner quotes from Athenæus, lib. v. t. ii. p. 342. a passage in which diakoviat is used to denote the instruments which are in daily use.
In the New Testament the word is repeatedly used to describe the general office or ministry consigned by our Lord to the apostles and teachers of the Church. (Acts i. 17. xx. 24. xxi. 19. Rom. xi. 13.) The services they were commanded to per. form were the appointed means of graco, for the perpetual and common service of the Church.
Evépynua is not to be found in the Old Testament, but in the Apocrypha only, Sir. xvi. 16. see Compl. It is derived from kvepytw, and is well translated by Macknight, In-workings-it is used but twice in the New Testament. Is it not possible as these in-workings are ascribed to God the Father, that they may mcan both those ordinary influences which proceed from the holy Spirit of God, by which we alone can become the children of God, and say Abba, Father, and the right efforts of reasoning and the natural powers of the mind, which God as the Creator has implanted in all human beings. They appear to be different from the xaplouára of the Spirit, and to be distin. guished from them.
It will be observed that the various gifts which build up the Christian Church, though they are all called the gifts of the Spirit, are ascribed in their arrangement by St. Paul, to the three persons of the Holy Trinity. This is done, however, in such a manner, that the character under which each has been revealed lo mankind, is carefully preserved. The Father is the Creator of man, to Him is assigned the internal natural energy or operations which he originally implanted in the human creation, or creature, and upon which, and with which the Spirit of God acts. The Son of God is the Redeemer; to him are ascribed the ministrations or offices which himself established as the appointed means of grace. The Spirit of God is the Sanctifier, to Him are assigned the gifts which produce holiness within, and convince the world of the truth of the Gospel, of righteousness, and judgment. And all these are rightly said to be the gifts of the Spirit, as it is the Spirit of God alone, which by its sacred office, overrules and changes the natural energies of will, understanding, and all the powers of mind which God has given us, and which makes all the means of grace appointed by Christ effectual; and by pouring into the soul of man its own purifying, consoling, peaceful influences, makes us spiritually fit to become for ever the companions of superior beings.
From this general classification of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, or of the Holy Trinity, we proceed to the particulars.
The first is Móyoc copias, which seems to have been peculiar to the apostles. The word oopia is repeatedly used in the LXX.
IN THE CHURCH AT ANTIOCH-CHAP. XII.
Julian Pe- It corresponds to 743a, Prov. ii. 3. and iii. 5. understanding- Antioch.
should rest upon Christ. In the enumeration in the passage in
Some further light may be thrown upon the meaning of the word oopía, in this passage, if we consider the use of the word nnon, to which it corresponds in Isa. xi. 2. in the description of the Sephiroth of the Jewish Cabbala (a). The learned Vitringa is of opinion, that the Sephiroth was an emblematical description of the Messiah. Whether this hypothesis be tenable, we cannot now stop to inquire. The first of the ten Sephiroth was the ona, or crown, which was placed on the head of the personage, whom Vitringa bas represented as the emblem of the Messiah. The two next were noon and n'a, wisdom and pru. dence, or knowledge,
The word copia is likewise used in the Apocryphal book of “ the Wisdom of Solomon,” to express, as Schleusner conjectores, the art of governing: in wbich sense it is peculiarly ap. plicable to the apstles. Προς υμάς ούν ώ τύραννοι οι λόγοι μου, iva páonte copiar-Unto you, o rulers, my words are addresscd, that ye may learn wisdom. As the word is used in these various siguifications, each of them so peculiarly applicable to the powers and gifts with which the apostles were endued, we may conclude that each sense was intended to be combined by the apostle in the passage before us. The word of wisdom, therefore, would imply all supernatural intelligence, and the highest endowments of mind, by whatever name they may be distinguished; together with the skill, talent, and power of governing as wise men, the Churches they had already planted.
The next gift of the Spirit is yvūois. This is a gift inferior
The third gift of the Spirit is nisis, faith, and it was that
All these we may justly assign to the first teachers of Chris-
Juliao Pe- Dists, in the LXX, corresponds to the word 1DX ; see Deut. Antioch.
constancy and stability. God is called, in Isa. Ixv. 16. Jan vanhx,
Another meaning is given to the word yax, in Nehem. ix.
The fourth of these sacred gifts requires no discussion: the gift of healing was the power of curing diseases; the most common, thongh at the same time not the least wonderful of these mighty powers. Some confusion has been occasioned by the word duvápels, which is used in two different senses, in ver. 28 and 29. But op referring to the Septuagint, it will be seen that the word is there used in the same manner.
It corresponds to no, strength, power, &c. Paral. xxix. 2. 2 Par. xxii. 9. and Esther ji. 18. to nay, a servant. The persons in. vited by the king of Persia to bis banquet, mentioned in this passage, were the great officers of his court; his higher and confidential servants. The officers of the Christian Church were peculiarly honoured, and received the same appellation which designated the companions of a sovereign
The fifth is evidently transposed in the three lists. The word kvepyhua does not occur in the LXX, though it is found in Eccles. xvi. 16. as we have observed. It seems to refer to tho bighest possible enlargement of the natural faculties, by which the teachers of Christianity were enabled to perform wonderful cures. They were supernaturally instructed, perhaps, to anticipate the knowledge and discoveries of a future age ; and to effect likewise wonderful healings of disease, by an agency superior to any efforts of medical science, past, present, or future.
In the next division of the miraculous gifts, prophecy, apopnteia, and the discerning of spirits, are classed together with 'Avrilhveis, “helps,” and Kubepvndeus, “ governments ;? which titles are equivalent, according to the arrangement in the third list, with fluogais dalõvTES, speakers of tongues. This divi. sion, as we may judge from the order, which has hitherto proceeded regularly from the apostles to the lower gradations of the ministry, and the inferior gifts imparted to them, ought to signify something inferior to the gifts and titles which havo been already enumerated. If we may, as we propose, fix the meauing of these muoh controverted words from the LXX, we shall find this opinion most singularly confirmed. The word apoonteia is used in the LXX for the Hebrew min, vision, or ex. stacy, 2 Paral. xxxii. 32. Dan. xi. 14. which was a lower degree of inspiration to that which was given to Moses, who talked with the Divine Leader of Israel “face to face;" and consequently lower than was imparted to the apostles, who were honoured in the same manner by the Sacred Oracle him