« ElőzőTovább »
AEGHAL. any undertaking without saying the Fauteheh, or the cursory view of the history of the Afghauns. They in- AFGHAL'ISTAUN. opening verse of the Koran. `In the performance of habited the mountains of Ghore at a very early period, NISCAUN.
their devotions they are extremely regular; their and in the ninth century were established in the northprayers begin before day, and are repeated five times, eastern division, when the majority of the nation were the last of which is a little after the close of the even- subject to the Arabians; but those who dwelt in Ghore ing twilight. The hour of prayer is announced from retained their independence, and were governed by the tops of the minarets, by the shout of Allaho Akbar, kings of their own. This people in the reign of Mal“God is most great." A man who hears the call in mood, of Ghuzni, had a prince named Mahommed, who company, instantly withdraws. Every Mussulman when was taken prisoner after being defeated by that conhe prays turns towards Mecca; the first part of the queror, and his descendants were greatly oppressed till prayer is said standing, the rest sitting on the heels, the twelfth century, when they took up arms, dethroned often bending forward so as to touch the ground with the king of Ghuznee, burnt his capital, and extending the forehead. The pilgrimage to Mecca is of course their conquests by degrees, reduced under their governperformed once in every person's life, as is incumbent ment the whole of the present kingdom of Caubul, on all Mussulmans. The officer, called Mooshtesib, India, Bulkh, Budukhshaun, and a considerable part superintends the public morals, and has the power of of Khorassaun. After this period, different Afghaun inflicting forty blows with a leather strap, and of send- dynasties reigned over India, with slight interruptions, ing offenders round the town on an ass or camel, with for three centuries, but their other conquests were their faces to the tail. The thong is worn in the girdle wrested from them by the king of Khwarizm, from as a mark of office. The Moollahs, and all the reli- whom they were retaken by Jengheez Khaun. During gious, profess great austerity, and will even break the government of the latter, and his son Tamerlane, instruments of gay music. They are numerous in every they maintained their independence in the mountains. class and rank. They have acquired, as a body, the Bauber, the ancestor of the Great Moguls, commenced title of Ulima, or the Learned; to them are entrusted his career by subduing Caubul, which henceforth the education of youth, the practice of the law, and the became his capital. After his death it was subject to administration of justice. Their influence is great, and one of his sons; the other was expelled from India by often beneficially exerted. When two ooloosses are Sheer Shauh, who founded an Afghaun dynasty of about to meet in battle, they will rush between, hold short duration. The house of Timour, the ancestor of out the Koran, repeat Arabic prayers, and exhort each Bauber, was at length established in India, and Afparty to reconciliation, or at least to dispersion, and ghaunistaun was divided between the two empires of seldom without success. In remote places, an injury Hindostan and Persia, the mountains still retaining done to a Moollah, would be sufficient to excite a great their independency. commotion; in such a case they assemble their brethren, About the commencement of the eighteenth century suspend public worship and burial, and excommunicate (1720), the tribes of Ghiljie and Abdaly, rejected the their antagonists. Should this fail, they parade the Persian yoke, and founded an empire which included country with the green standard of the prophet, beat- the whole of Persia, and stretched to the west as far ing ums and proclaiming the war-cry, and announce as the present Russian and Turkish contines. Their all who fall in their cause as martyrs. The common supremacy was not acknowledged however by the people have many superstitious apprehensions, and whole of Afghaunistaun, and Naudir Shauh overthrew many idle tales respecting their power and influence. this dynasty, and in 1737 having conquered the greatTheir real character is hypocritical, bigotted, and ava est part of Afghaunistaun, annexed it to the Persian ricious. Their distinguishing costume is a large loose dominions. At his death the present Afghaun mogown of white, or black cotton, and a very large white narchy was founded. turban, of a peculiar shape. They marry and live in We cannot close this article without acquainting our Alleged other respects like laymen.
readers with the opinion which the Afghauns entertain Jewish Besides the regular clergy, are other orders of per- of their own origin, and which by many will be thought
origin. sons, esteemed for their sanctity, as Sijuds, or descend to receive a strong corroboration from the sentiments ants of Mahomet, and the Dervises, Fuheers, &c. of a very distinguished oriental scholar. They trace There is a sect of ascetics who have always been cele- their descent from Afghaun and Usbec, the sons of brated in Afghaunistaun, and filled its histories with Irmia and Berkia, sons of Saul, king of Israel. They legendary tales. The places where they are buried are state, that after the captivity, part of the children of deemed sacred; and when a tribe goes out to battle, Afghaun withdrew to the mountains of Ghore, and part the women are usually placed there as in an asylum, to the neighbourhood of Mecca. Both these divisions where they are free from molestation. They are sup- maintained the knowledge of the true God, and the posed to see visions, and work wonders.
purity of doctrine and worship; and on the appearance The Afghauns universally believe in alchemy and of Mahomet the Afghauns of Ghore listened to the inmagic, in ghosts and divination. Every recess in the vitations of their Arabian brethren, and marched to the mountains they suppose to be inhabited by a lonely aid of the true faith, under the command of Kyse, demon, called the Goule, or Spirit of the Waste, to afterwards surnamed Abdoolresheed. They further whom they attribute a gigantic size and a devouring represent Saul as the forty-fifth in descent from Abraappetite. They have a great reverence for burial grounds, ham, and Kyse the thirty-seventh from Saul. The first which they call by the expressive phrase " cities of the of these genealogies is inconsistent with the Christian silent.” They believe in the power of talismans, and scriptures, and the second allows only thirty-seven in innumerable other superstitions incident to a people generations for a period of sixteen hundred years. In 60 educated and so circumstanced.
this account we may remark the fondness which all History. We shall conclude this account with a rude nations discover for tracing their origin to a very
AFGHAU- high antiquity : and with the small proportion of pos With regard to the argument deduced from the re- AFGHA NISTAUN. sible truth, in their representations, is contained a semblance of the name of Hazareh to Arsareth, the NISTAN
curious mixture of fabulous narrative. For instance, country to which the Jews are stated by Esdras to have they say, that Saul, their great ancestor, was raised retired, it seems completely overturned by the well
AFLOAT from the rank of a shepherd to his princely dignity, attested fact, that it is but recently that the Hazarehs because his stature was exactly equal to the length of have occupied a part of Afghaunistaun, and communia reed which the angel Gabriel gave to the prophet cated their name to it. The next consideration respectSamuel, as the proper measure of that distinguished ing the traditions which are preserved among themindividual whom the divine being had predestined to selves of their Jewish extraction, of which the testimo. occupy the throne of Israel. Afghaun is, moreover, nies of the best Persian historians are alleged to be described as having been possessed of extraordinary confirmatory, it is sufficiently obvious that neither the strength ; so much so as to be capable of striking the traditions nor the historians are to be depended upon. demons and the genii with terror; and was celebrated Nothing is more uncertain than the floating rumours for his frequent adventures in the mountains where his which are put in circulation among an uncultivated posterity afterwards established themselves in a state people, especially as to their chronological accuracy. of independence.
No question the Persian writers founded their state. In the second volume of the Asiatic Researches ments upon these uncertain traditions, and readily (Art. iv.), Sir William Jones pursues this subject in a availed themselves of them in the absence of all authennote, and assigns several reasons in confirmation of the tic information, and for the very natural and common Afghaun narratives. “We learn," he observes, “ from purpose of embellishing their narratives. The Jewish Esdras, that ten tribes, after a wandering journey, came derivation of the names of Afghaun families, and their to a country called Arsareth, where we may suppose studious concealment of their origin from all who are
i they settled: now the Afghauns are said by the best uninitiated into their secrets, are merely said to be Persian historians, to be descended from the Jews : asserted, probably by the Persian writers to whom we they have traditions among themselves of such a have already alluded. But if this similarity of names descent; and it is even asserted that their families are be certain, it may be supposed that they were derived distinguished by the names of Jewish tribes, although from the Arabs, which is the case with all other Mahosince their conversion to Islam, they studiously conceal metan tribes, and the most ancient nimes bear no retheir origin from all whom they admit not to their semblance to those of the Jews. Sir W. Jones mentions secrets. The Pushto language, of which I have seen further, a manifest resemblance between the Pushto and a dictionary, has a manifest resemblance to the Chal- Chaldaic languages, an argument which can only derive daic; and a considerable district under their dominion any degree of evidence from a more detailed and careful is called Hazareh, or Hazaret, which might easily have examination, and which, in the absence of other demonbeen changed into the word used by Esdras.”
strations, can scarcely be deemed sufficient.
AFRA, in Geography, a strong fortress on the
Tho was peers ful proude. and putte bem al to werke
Vision of Piers Plouhman, p. 138.
Gay. Past. iv.
For no man at the first stroke
Chaucer. R. of R. fo. 133. col. 3.
He robbede & destrude, hym ne mygte non þyng lette
R. Gloucester, p. 380.
While there is oyle for to fire
Gower. Cor. A. bk, viii.
Surrey. Ænæis, bk. ii.
First Booke of Æneidos, by Thomas Phaer.
AFLIGHT. A word much used by Gower; and also occurring in Sir Thomas More and others: and is applied to the flight of courage; fortitude, presence of mind upon the appearance of danger. See Flight.
Upon this worde hir herte afright
Gower, Con. A. bk. ii. And yet were they all in case safelye to escape: wheras Judas on thother syde which nothing feared at all, but tooke a speciall pleasure to see them so apyghted, lost hys lyfe for euer and that in fewe howres after.
Sir T. More's Works, p. 1389, col. 2.
Now er alle un fiote, God gif pam grace to spede,
R. Brunne, p. 169.
AFLOAT. With which words of King Lewis, the young King Henry was set This prisoner afore the kynge
AFORE. atut, and from that time forward, stuck not openly to oppose his
Was brought : and therupon this thynge Kather.
In audience he was accused, AFORE.
Gower. Con. A. book iii.
AFRESH. When Minos his navy was once afloat, navigators had the sea
For afore the haruest, when the floure is finished, and the frute is more free ; for he expelled the malefactors ont of the islands, and in riping in the floure, the he shal cut downe the bráches with hookes the most of them, planted colonies of his own,
& shal take away and cut of the boughs.
Genova Bible. Is. ch. xviii. v. 5.
He, back returning by the yuorie dore,
Remounted up as light as cheerfull larke,
And on his little winges the dreame he bore
In haste unto his lord, where he himn left afore.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. e. i.
He (Paul Craw) was committed to the secular judge, who con.
demned him to the fire, in the which he was consumed in the said
city of Saint Andrews, about the time afore writien.
Knoa 's llist. of the Reformation.
Those who have gone afore me in that argument have made so that which is in motion or in action.
copious a harvest, that the issue of my gatherings must needs have And thiei sayen hem go awey and manye knewen and thei wenten been but small.
Hales's Golden Remains. a foute fro al citees and runnen thidir and camen bifore hem.
Wiclif. Mark, ch. vi. By frequent consideration of death, and dissolation, a man is
taught not to fear it; he is, as it were, acquainted with it, by often And the people spyed thë when they departed ; & many knewe
preparation for it.
Hale's Contemplations. hem & rane a fote thyther out of all cytyes, ad cam thyther before
Bible, 1339. Id.
While Rodmond, fearful of some neighbouring shore,
Cries ever and anon“ Look out afore !"
AFRESH. In fresh.
Wherefore let vs make our prayer vnto our most piteful saviour
Christ, not echę one for himselfe alone, but enery man for other too,
that we folow not thexaumple of the obstinate traytour Judas, but
without delaye gladly embrasing goddes grace whan it is offered vs, Which I have told thee, of my father's death.
may through our owne repentaunce and his mercye, be renued afreshe
to attayne his endlesse glory.
Sir T. More's Works, p. 1390, col. 1.
But when ye remnat of the wicked shal attempt afresh to raise vp bis brethren Girthe and Leofwine with him, to the ende that in such
again such abhominatiós the Lord shal sodainly without warning fal & common perill and leopardy, no man should once thinke to flie or
vpõ them with his most fearfull tirrible last iudgment.
Bale's Image, Second Part, R. 5.
Since any man's remembrance, we can skante finde one time, either
Jewel's Defence of the Apologie of the Churche of Englande.
Never was there thing more pitiful than to hear my master blame
the dog for loving his master's murtherer, renewing afresh his coma
plaints with the dumb counsellor, much used in composition; but without effecting any
The faction still defying Edward's might, change of usage in the component words,
Edmond of Woodstock, with the men of Kent, It is applied to precedence in order of time; in order Charging afresh, renew the doubtful fight, of place; and metaphorically to the desires and pur
Upon the barons languishing and spent, suits of the mind.
Drayton. Barons' Wars.
So when the sun to west was far declin'd,
And both afresh in mortal battle join'd,
The strong Emetrius came in Arcite's aid,
And Palamon with odds was overlaid.
Dryden. Palam, and Arcit.
When once we hare attained these ideas by sensation and reflexion,
they may be excited afresh by the use of names, words, signs, or by
No more thy soothing voice my anguish chears,
My hopes to cherish, and allay my fears,
'Tis meet that I should mourn, flow forth afresh my tears.
Gouer. Con. A. book i.
EXTENT.-Africa is one of the four principal Gold coast; and East Guinea, or the Slave coast, con- AFRICA divisions of the earth, the third in magnitude, but taining the kingdoms of Whida, Andra, and Benin. the smallest in importance. It is bounded on the The division of Congo contains Loango, Congo, Angola, north by the Mediterranean sea, by which it is sepa- Metamba, and Benguela. The interior of these counrated from Europe; on the east by the Indian ocean, tries appears to be more populous than the coasts. the Red sea, and part of Asia; on the south by the 5. Central or Interior Africa, comprehending Nigritia, Southern ocean; and on the west by the North Atlantic, or Soudan, which includes an immense tract of country which separates it from America. Its general form is on both sides of the Niger, and stretching almost across triangular, the northern part being the base, and the the continent, embracing the empires of Houssa and southern extremity the vertex. Its length, from Cape Tombuctoo, Agadez, Ludamar, Bondou, Bambouk, Bona, in the Mediterranean, to the Cape of Good Bornou, Darfur, and others, kingdoms as well as rivers, Hope, may be reckoned about 70 degrees of latitude, “ unknown to song;" Nubia, a country between Egypt or four thousand nine hundred and eighty miles; and and Abyssinia, in which are Turkish Nubia, with the in its greatest breadth, it comprehends somewhat more kingdoms of Dongala and Sennaar; and lastly Abysthan four thousand seven hundred and ninety miles, sinia. namely, from Cape Verd in 17°, 33' W. lon. to Cape 6. Islands, of which there are many both in the AtlanGuardafui, in 51°, 20' E. lon.
tic and Indian oceans. They are, however, commonly Name.--A small province in the northern part, to small, and arranged in groups. The most remarkable which the ancients applied the term Africa Propria, groups are the Cape de Verd islands, the Canaries, seems to have imparted its own name to the whole and further to the north, Madeira and Porto Santo. continent. Bochart derives it from a Punie word which Of single islands, the largest is Madagascar, on the signifies an ear of corn,” with a supposed refer- eastern coast, 840 geographical miles in length, and ence to the fertility of the country. Others derive it 220 in breadth. In the Indian ocean lie Pemba, Zanfrom the Phænician word Havarca, or Avreca, the zibar, and Monfia, Bourbon, Mauritius, and others. country of Barca, the most remarkable part. Servius In the Atlantic is situated the island of St. Helena, traces the origin of the general name to the Greek pri- commonly resorted to by the homeward-bound Indiavative a and poin cold, q. d. a burning clime.
men, and rendered remarkable at this moment (1818) General Divisions. It is difficult to classify, as the prison house of one of the greatest of military much more to particularize, the different states of which adventurers, Napoleon Buonaparte ; the isle of AscenAfrica is composed; but the following arrangement ission, the isles of St. Matthew, St. Thomas, and others. probably best adapted for general purposes.
STRAITS, GULPHS, AND SEAS.- Africa has two Straits, 1. North Africa, comprising Egypt and the states straits, the straits of Babel-mandel, uniting the Red gulphs
, e of Barbary, Barca, Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Morocco, sea with the Eastern ocean; and the straits of GibralFez, Tafilet, Biledulgerid and Sahara. These countries ter, which separate it from Europe. It contains also are chiefly inhabited by Moors, descended from Arabs, the gulphs of Sidra and of Goletta, in the Mediterraand blended with various nations who have settled in nean; the gulph of France at the mouth of the Gambia; Africa. The Moors have occupied the habitable parts the gulph of Guinea, south of the Gold coast; and of the desert, and have driven the negroes or aboriginal the gulph of Sofala, near the entrance of the Mozaminhabitants in most cases beyond the great rivers. bique channel on the south. The only sca peculiar to
2. East Africa, comprehending the coasts of Zan- Africa is the Mozambique channel, which flows beguebar, Ajan, and Adel, of which the latter is an ex tween the coast of Mozambique and the island of tensive kingdom. Zanguebar includes the kingdoms of Madagascar. Mozambique, Mongalla, Quiloa, Montbaza, Melinda, Caprs.—Of the capes of Africa, the Cape of Good Capas and the country of the Monæmugi. Ajan contains Hope, which is the southernmost promontory, is the Brava and Magadoxa. The Portuguese have chiefly most celebrated. There are also Cape Bona in the colonized the eastern coast, of which they have afforded kingdom of Tunis, Cape Spartel on the western shore us little information.
of the straits of Gibraltar, Cape Geer on the borders of 3. South Africa, or Caffraria, a region which contains Morocco, from which the ridge of Atlas commences, the country of the Hottentots, and the colony of the Cape Bojador, and Cape Blanc, Cape Verd, east of Cape of Good Hope. On the south-east coast are the the islands of the same name, Cape Guardafui at the kingdoms of Inhambane, Manica, Sabia, Sofata, and eastern extremity, and various others. Monomotapa, or Mocaranga. The inhabitants of this MOUNTAINS. - Africa is distinguished by many very Mountah division are considered inferior to every other in point extensive ranges of mountains; among which the first of civilization, especially in the vicinity of the Cape. rank is due to the mountains of Atlas, which attracted Atlas.
4. West Africa, including an immense extent of the particular attention of the ancients, by whom they coast, and the two great divisions of Guinea and Congo; were fabled to support the firmament. the former comprehending Senegal, or North Guinea, extends from Cape Geer, in a north-east direction, as containing the country of the Foulahs and Jalofs, and far as the gulph of Sidra, and, in its highest elevation, the kingdom of the Mandingoes. South Guinea, com- is upwards of thirteen thousand feet above the level of prising the Pepper coast, the Ivory coast, and the the ocean. According to M. Desfontaines, they are
AFRICA. directed into two principal chains, of which the one vast and barren expanse almost from the Atlantic AFRICA.
toward the desert is called the Great Atlas, and the ocean to the confines of Egypt, and comprehending a other, toward the Mediterranean, the Little Atlas, space of more than forty-five degrees, or two thousand running in a parallel direction from east to west, having five hundred miles in length, by more than seven hunbetween them many intermediate mountains, and many dred in breadth, and completely defying all the arts of fertile vallies, watered with numerous rivers and ri- cultivation. This immense expanse of aridity and devulets. The French mineralogists, from an inspection solation is, however, sprinkled with spots of verdure, of the western extremity, represent the structure as which seem the more beautiful from being so com
granitic and primitive. The range which the ancients pletely insulated in a world of red sand and sand-stone Morstains designated the mountains of the Moon, separate Nigritia rock, and, in fact, suggested to the ancient poets their stax Joon. from Caffraria, to the south of Abyssinia. These un- brilliant pictures of the Hesperian gardens, the Fortunate
questionably contain the sources of many mighty islands, and the islands of the Blest. The principal of these, rivers, and particularly of the Egyptian Nile. Nearly which has hitherto been explored is Fezzan. But Prounder the same parallel, on the opposite side of the vidence has so formed the enduring camel, as to create continent, are the mountains of Kong, stretching from in this animal a link of social intercourse among widely west to east, from the mouth of the Gambia to 23° separated nations; in addition to which, man has E. lon. It is believed that this range connects itself availed himself of his own resources, and by the mer
with the mountains of the Moon, but this has never chants who traverse these districts assembling in large apata, &c. yet been clearly ascertained. The mountains of Lito companies, they adopt the only means of safe trans
pata encircle the kingdom of Mocaranga, forming an portation and commercial interchange across the wildest
probably, a wide wilderness of this nature, between the RIVERS.-A continent so remarkable for its moun. east and west ranges of mountains, pervaded by the tains, may be expected to abound in magnificent rivers. race of people called Jagas, who sometimes are said to Many of them, however, which issue from the range of wander into the vicinity of the Cape. Atlas, are absorbed in the sandy deserts, or very soon Climate.--In a region of such vast extent, it must Climate. attain the ocean. The largest river hitherto discovered be expected that the climate should be considerably is the Nile, which it seems satisfactorily ascertained diversified ; nevertheless, it may be characterized rises in the mountains of the Moon, in a district called generally as sultry. Most of this continent is situated Donga, N. lat. 8°, some hundreds of miles to the south within the tropics, it being nearly divided by the of Darfur. It is at first called Bahr el Abiad or White equator. In the dry season Mr. Park, when lying in River, and about the sixteenth degree of latitude is his hut of reeds, could not hold his hand, without pain, joined by the Bahr el Azreh or the Blue River, which against the current of air which penetrated the crevices although mistaken by the Portuguese writers for the with a scorching heat; and even the negroes, at a time real Nile, was well known as a distinct river by the when the wind blew from the east and north-east, ancients. The course of the Nile may be roughly esti- could not endure to touch the ground with their feet. mated at 2000 miles, thus rivalling some of the most In the southern districts the climate is more temperate, magnificent streams of Asia and of America. It forms and even agreeable in the mornings and evenings. In several considerable cataracts, of which the principal one the north, though sultry, it is not unsuited to Eurois that of Geanadil, in Nubia. The next river which has peans; it is refreshed by the sea breezes along the excited the deepest interest is the Niger, whose source coast, and is still more temperate adjacent to the is now assigned to the mountains of Kong. It flows mountains. Generally speaking, the countries to the from west to east, and after passing through the plains south of the equator are favoured with a milder temof Bambarra, where it receives many tributary streams, perature than those at equal distances to the north. it flows into the depth of central Africa, where the ad. VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS.-- Africa presents some Vegetable
venturous traveller has never yet found his way. The peculiarities in the vegetable kingdom. Its booba, productions. thegal and mountains of Kong give birth also to the Senegal and or calabash tree, possesses extraordinary dimensions.
the Gambia, both of which run in a westerly direction, Some have been found 65, and even 74 feet in and after a considerable course fall into the ocean. circumference, with branches extending in every diThe Zaire or Congo is the next in interest and import- rection horizontally, and as large as the trunks of ordiance, which is greatly distinguished for its rapidity. nary trees. The height is somewhat disproportionate, Other rivers flow into the Indian ocean, as the Zam- being usually from only 60 to 70 feet. The tree called beze, which has been ascended some hundreds of miles; mangrore grows on the banks of rivers, and strikes its the Quillimanci, and the Magnasho, of which the two roots into the bed of the river, forming a sort of nalatter are supposed to arise from the same range of tural arcade below and a platform above. The shea, or mountains that produce the Nile. It is highly proba- vegetable butter tree, is a singular production; and on ble, that some considerable rivers have hitherto entirely the borders of the desert is found the lotus, which has escaped observation.
been well known from the remotest antiquity. Its fruit Deserts.—The immensity of its deserts constitutes, is a berry, which, when prepared in a proper manner, perhaps, the most striking feature of Africa. The resembles sweet gingerbread, and is very nutritious. most remarkable of these is Zaara or Sahara, denomi- Africa, unquestionably, presents a most ample field nated the Desert by way of eminence, stretching its for the researches of the botanist, especially in its