explain to them that the city's welfare does not mean simply following one of these improvements, but all of them. These suggestions may also be put upon the blackboard: Clean streets, fresh air recreation places, tree planting, fountain and statue erecting, flower gardens and window boxes, playgrounds connected with the schoolhouse, and best of all, individual obedience of law and loyalty to the officials who carry out the law.

Friendship is not only a beautiful thing for a man, but the realization of it is also the ideal for the State: for if citizens be friends, the justice which is the great concern of all organized societies is more than secured.



to each little libroad river be together that

“Like rills from the mountain together that run,
And make the broad river below;
So each little life, and the work of each one
To one common current shall flow:
And down on its bosom, like ships on the tide,
The hopes of mankind shall move on;
Nor in vain have we lived, nor in vain have we died
If we live in the work we have done."




Government may be said to be the voice of all the people speaking to each one of us. Laws tell us what is right and what is wrong. Government tells us what is

1 By permission of the author. 2 From English for Foreigners, Book II, Houghton Mifflin Co.

best for each and all, and then simply asks us to respect and obey the law. That is not asking much of us in return for all it gives.

In this country respect for the law is as necessary as obedience to the law. A man shows his respect for the law by respecting the officers of the law. He shows his respect in another way, and that is by obeying the laws of the different city departments which carry out the work of government. For these rules or regulations, as well as all other laws, are meant for the protection and welfare of the whole community. Whenever a man breaks one of these laws, therefore, either through ignorance or with evil intent, he hurts not only himself but all others.

There is an old fable which tells the story of two foolish goats. They met on a very narrow foot-bridge which crossed a deep stream of water. Neither goat would let the other pass. There is a law which demands in such cases that each should turn to the right. Perhaps the goats did not know about this law; or perhaps they refused to obey it. However, they locked horns and fought for the right of way. As they might have expected, both fell into the water and were drowned.

This fable teaches that justice and right are never obtained by force or quarreling, or by breaking law. It is true that under a free government like ours, mistakes in government may sometimes happen. That fact, however, does not give a man the right to take the law into his own hands. The people need no other means for correcting such mistakes than those of free speech and free vote.

All reforms must come through law and by peaceful methods. The people who try to change the government by force or by such rough means as raising riots, mobs, or by using weapons, are sure to fail and to receive severe punishment.

In the United States, law means liberty because the law is the free will of the people. Then that man alone is truly free who is able to rule himself and to submit his own will to the higher authority, the authority of the law.





The central purpose of this year's work is to help children to know, to love, and to serve their country, and through knowing, loving, and serving it, to sympathize with what love of country means at all times and in every land. Patriotism is narrow if it comes to mean: My country against yours. The patriot is true to his cause when, through devoted love for his own country, he learns to understand and honor the love of other races for theirs. Therefore, I have tried to bring out the love of country expressed by many nationalities.

Our country is made up of many States, each with its own contribution of good gifts to the whole; each with its problems; each with its needs. The teacher has an exhilarating chance to bring before her class the life of each State and its place in the whole.

Through geography the children are learning the character and the products, the principal cities, rivers, and mountains of our land. What do these facts stand for in their contribution to citizenship? What can California bring to New York and Texas to Maine? What means the freedom between our States and the laws governing the relation of each to all?

Within our great nation are many newcomers from the Old World. All of us are Americans. Yet, from its vary. ing past, each race has something of its own to offer as a special gift to the fatherland. This idea can be brought out in enriching detail.

Throughout the year lessons in citizenship must go hand in hand with the concrete practice of citizenship. There should be no emotion without action. When our feelings are stirred by the heroic virtues of early settlers, we would fain do something hard and helpful. In every lesson, something we can do to serve in our special way should be brought out. The last month, as in part a review of the year, is given entirely to the topic: How we can serve our country.

Among the best available books for this year's work are: An American Book of Golden Deeds, James Baldwin.

American Book Co. Poems Every Child Should Know, Mary E. Burt. Double

day, Page & Co. Ethics for Children, Ella Lyman Cabot. Houghton

Mifflin Co. Heroes of Everyday Life, Fanny E. Coe. Ginn & Co. The Friendship of Nations, Lucile Gulliver. Ginn & Co. The School Speaker and Reader, William De Witt Hyde.

Ginn & Co. A Message to Garcia, Elbert Hubbard. Roycroft Press. The Man Without a Country, Edward E. Hale. Little,

Brown & Co. Lessons for Junior Citizens, Mabel Hill. Ginn & Co. Good Citizenship, Richman and Wallach. American

Book Co. Our Country in Poem and Prose, Persons. American

Book Co.

« ElőzőTovább »