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saida, Gadara, Gerasa, Geshur, and Jabesh-Gilead. This names of their respective presidents, are enumerated in 1 tribe' was greatly indebted to the bravery of Jair, who took Kings iv. 7—19. From the produce of these districts every threescore cities, besides several small towns or villages, which one of these officers was to supply the king with provisions he called Havoth-Jair, or the Dwellings of Jair. (iChron. ii. for his household, in his turn, that is, each for one month in 23. Num. xxxii. 41.)
the year. The dominions of Solomon extended from the The remaining nine tribes and a half were settled on the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of western side of the Jordan.
Egypt, they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days The canton of the tribe of JUDAH was bounded on the east of his life. (1 Kings iv, 21.) Hence it appears that the by the Dead Sea ; on the west, by the tribes of Dan and Hebrew monarch reigned over all the provinces from the Simeon, both of which lay between it and the Mediterranean river Euphrates to the land of the Philistines, even to the Sea; on the north, by the canton of the tribe of Benjamin; frontiers of Egypt. The Euphrates was the eastern bounand on the south, by Kadesh-Barnea, and the Desert of Paran dary of his dominions; the Philistines were westward, on or Zin. Judah was reckoned to be the largest and most popu- the Meditterranean Sea; and Egypt was on the south. Sololous of all the twelve tribes; and its inhabitants were the mon therefore had, as his tributaries, the kingdoms of Syria, most valiant; it was also the chief and royal tribe, from Damascus, Moab, and Ammon; and thus he appears to have which, in subsequent times, the whole kingdom was denomi- possessed all the land which God had covenanted with Abranated. The most remarkable places or cities in this tribe ham to give to his posterity. were Adullam, Azekah, Bethlehem, Bethzor, Debir or Kiri- VI. Under this division the Holy Land continued till after ath-sepher, Emmaus, Engedi, Kiriatharba or Hebron, Lib- the death of Solomon, when ten tribes revolted from his son nah, Makkedah, Maon, Massada, Tekoah, and Ziph. Rehoboam, and erected themselves into a separate kingdom
The inheritance of the tribes of Dan and of SIMEON was under Jeroboam, called the KINGDOM OF ISRAEL. The two within the inheritance of the tribe of Judah, or was taken out other tribes of Benjamin and Judah, continuing faithful to of the portion at first allotted to the latter. The boundaries Rehoboam, formed the KINGDOM OF JUDAH. This kingdom of these two tribes are not precisely ascertained ; though comprised all the southern parts of the land, consisting of they are placed by geographers to the north and south-west the allotments of those two tribes, together with so much of of the canton of Judah, and consequently bordered on the the territories of Dan and Simeon as were intermixed with Mediterranean Sea. The principal cities in the tribe of Dan, that of Judah: its royal city or metropolis was Jerusalem, in were Ajalon, Dan or Lesham, Eltekeh, Eshtaol, Gath-rim- the tribe of Benjamín. The kingdom of Israel included all mon, Gibbethon, Hirshemesh, Joppa, Modin, Timnath, and the northern and middle parts of the land, occupied by the Zorah. The chief cities in the tribe of Simeon, were Ain, other ten tribes; and its capital was Samaria, in the tribe of Beersheba, Hormah, and-Ziklag:
Ephraim, situated about thirty miles north-east of Jerusalem. The canton allotted to the tribe of BENJAMIN lay between But this division ceased, on the subversion of the kingdom the tribes of Judah and Joseph, contiguous to Samaria on the of Israel by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, after it had subnorth, to Judah on the south, and to Dan on the west, which sisted two hundred and fifty-four years. last parted it from the Mediterranean. It did not contain VII. The Holy Land fell successively into the hands of many cities and towns, but this defect was abundantly sup- the Syrian kings, the Greeks and Romans. In THE TIME OF plied by its possessing the most considerable, and the metro- Jesus Christ it was divided into five separate provinces, viz. polis of all the city of Jerusalem. The other places of Galilee, Samaria, Judæa, Peræa, and Idumea. note in this tribe were Anathoth, Beth-el, Gibeah, Gibeon, 1. GALILEE.-This portion of the Holy Land is very freGilgal, Hai, Mizpeh, Ophrah, and Jericho.
quently mentioned in the New Testament: its limits seem To the north of the canton of Benjamin lay that allotted to to have varied at different times. It coinprised the country the tribe of Ephraim, and that of the other HALF TRIBE OF formerly occupied by the tribes of Issachar, Naphtali, and MANASSEH. The boundaries of these two districts cannot be Asher, and by part of the tribe of Dan; and is divided by ascertained with precision. The chief places in Ephraim, Josephus into Opper and Lower Galilee. were Bethoron the Nether and Upper, Gezer, Lydda, Mich- Upper Galilee abounded in mountains; and from its vicinity mash, Naioth, Samaria, Shechem, Shiloh, and Timnath- to the cities of Tyre and Sidon, it is called the Coasts of Tyre Serah. After the schism of the ten tribes, the seat of the and Sidon. (Mark vii. 31.) The principal city in this region kingdom of Israel being in Ephraim, this tribe is frequently was Cæsarea Philippi; through which the main road lay to used to signify
the whole kingdom. The chief places in the Damascus, Tyre, and Sidon. half tribe of Manasseh, were Abel-meholath, Bethabara, Lower Galilee was situated in a rich and fertile plain, beBethsham (afterwards called Scythopolis), Bezek, Endor, tween the Mediteranean Sea and the Lake of Gennesareth : Enon, Gath-rimmon, Megiddo, Salim, Ophrah, and Tirzah. according to Josephus, this district was very populous, con
To the north, and more particularly to the north-east of the taining upwards of two hundred cities and towns. The half tribe of Manasseh, lay the canton of Issachar, which principal cities of Lower Galilee, mentioned in the New was bordered by the celebrated plain of Jezreel, and its Testament, are Tiberias, Chorazin, Bethsaida, Nazareth, northern boundary was Mount Tabor. The chief cities of Cana, Capernaum, Nain, Cæsarea of Palestine, and PtoleIssachar, were Aphek, Bethshemesh, Dothan, Kishon, Jez- mais. reel, Naim or Nain, Ramoth, and Shunem.
Galilee was most honoured by our Saviour's presence. On the north and west of Issachar resided the tribe of " Hither Joseph and Mary returned with him out of Egypt, ZEBULỚN. Its chief places were Bethlehem, Cinnereth or and here he resided until his baptism by John. (Matt. ii. 22, Chinnereth, Gath-hepher, Jokneam, Remmon-Methoar, and 23. Luke ii. 39–51. Matt. iii. 13. Luke iii. 21.) Hither he reShimroncheron.
turned after his baptism and temptation (Luké iv. 14.): and, The tribe of Asher was stationed in the district to the after his entrance on his public ministry, though he often north of the half tribe of Manasseh, and west of Zebulun; went into other provinces, yet so frequent were his visits to consequently it was a maritime country. Hence it was said this country, that he was called a Galilean. (Matt. xxvi. 69.) (Judg. v. 17.) that Asher continued on the sea-shore, and abode The population of Galilee being very great, our Lord had in his reeks. Its northern boundary was Mount Libanus or many opportunities of doing good ; and being out of the Lebanon; and on the south it was bounded by Mount Car- power of the priests at Jerusalem, he seems to have preferred mel, and the canton of Issachar. Its principal cities were it as his abode. To this province our Lord commanded his Abdon, Achshaph, Helkath, Mishal, and Rehob. This tribe apostles to come and converse with him after his resurrection never possessed the whole extent of district assigned to it, (Matt. xxviii. 7. 16.): and of this country most, if not the which was to reach to Libanus, to Syria, and Phænicia, and whole, of his apostles were natives, whence they are all styled included the celebrated cities of Tyre and Sidon.
by the angels men of Galilee." (Acts i. 11.) Lastly, the tribe of Napurist or Nephtali occupied that The Galileans spoke an unpolished and corrupt dialect of district in the northern part of the land of Canaan, which lay the Syriac, confounding and using y (ain) or * (aleph), between Mount Lebanon to the north, and the sea of Cinner- (caph) for a (beth), n (tau) for 7 (daleth), and also frequenteth (or Gennesareth) to the south, and between Asher to the ly changed the gutturals. This probably proceeded from west, and the river Jordan to the east. Its chief places were their great communication and intermixture with the neighAbel or Abel-Beth-Maachah, Hammoth-dor, Harosheth of the bouring nations. It was this corrupt dialect that led to the Gentiles, Kedesh, and Kiriathaim.
V. The next remarkable division was made by king Solo- · Well's Geography of the Old and New Testament, vol. ii. p. 137. MON, who divided the kingdom, which he had received from 2 Dr. Lightfoot, to whom we are indebted for the above remark, has his father David, into twelve provinces or districts, each un- ing. One of these is as follows: A certain woman intended to say before
given several instances in Hebrew and English, which are sufficiently amus. der a peculiar officer. These districts, together with the I thë jud Lord, I had a picture, which they stole ; and it was so great VOL. II.
detection of Peter as one of Christ's disciples. (Mark xiv. country of Damascus on the north. It abounded with rocks, 70.) The Galileans are repeatedly mentioned by Josephus which afforded shelter to numerous thieves and robbers. as a turbulent and rebellious people, and upon all occasions (3.) ITURÆA anciently belonged to the half tribe of Maready to disturb the Roman authority. They were particu- nasseh, who settled on the east of Jordan: it stood to the east larly forward in an insurrection against Pilate himself, who of Batanæa and to the south of Trachonitis. Of these two proceeded to a summary mode of punishment, causing a cantons Philip the son of Herod the Great was tetrarch at party of them to be treacherously slain, during one of the the time John the Baptist commenced his ministry, (Luke great festivals, when they came to sacrifice at Jerusalem. iii. 1.) It derived its name from Jetur the son of Ishmael This character of the Galileans explains the expression in (1 Chron. i. 31.), and was also called Auranitis from the city St. Luke's Gospel (xiii. 1.), whose blood Pilate mingled with of Hauran. (Ezek. xlvii. 16. 18.) This region exhibits vesa their sacrifices, and also accounts for his abrupt question, tiges of its former fertility, and is most beautifully wooded when he heard of Galilee, and asked if Jesus were a Galilean and picturesque. The Ituræans are said to have been skil (Luke xxiii. 6.) Our Redeemer was accused before him of ful archers and dexterous robbers. seditious practices, and of exciting the people to revolt; (4.) GAULONITIS was a tract on the east side of the lake of when, therefore, it was stated, among other things, that he Gennesareth and the river Jordan, which derived its name had been in Galilee, Pilate caught at the observation, and in- from Gaulan or Golan the city of Og, king of Bashan quired if he were a Galilean; having been prejudiced against (Josh. xx. 8.) This canton is not mentioned in the New the inhabitants of that district by their frequent commotions, Testament. and being on this account the more ready to receive any (5.) BATANÆA, the ancient kingdom of Bashan, was situatcharge which might be brought against any one of that ob-ed to the north-east of Gaulonitis, and was celebrated for its noxious community.?
excellent breed of cattle, its rich pastures, and for its stately Galilee of the Nations, or of the Gentiles, mentioned in Isa. oaks: the precise limits of this district are not easy to be de ix. 1. and Matt. iv. 15., is by some commentators supposed fined. A part of it is now called the Belka, and affords the to be Upper Galilee, either because it bordered on Tyre and finest pastūrage, being every where shaded with groves of Sidon, or because the Phænicians, Syrians, Arabs, &c. were noble oaks and pistachio trees. It was part of the territory to be found among its inhabitants. Others, however, with given to Herod Antipas, and is not noticed in the New Tes. better reason, suppose that the whole of Galilee is intended, tament. and is so called," because it lay adjacent to idolatrous na- (6.) PERÆA, in its restricted sense, includes the southern tions.3
part of the country beyond Jordan, lying south of Ituræa, 2. SAMARIA.—The division of the Holy Land thus denomi- east of Judæa and Samaria ; and was anciently possessed by nated, derives its name from the city of Samaria, and comprises the two tribes of Reuben and Gad. Its principal place was the tract of country which was originally occupied by the the strong fortress of Machærus, erected for the purpose of two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh within Jordan, lying checking
the predatory incursions of the Arabs. This fortexactly in the middle between Judæa and Galilee; so that it ress, though not specified by name in the New Testament, is was absolutely necessary for persons who were desirous of memorable as the place where John the Baptist was put to going expeditiously from Galilee to Jerusalem, to pass death. (Matt. xiv. 3–12.) through this country. This explains the remark The of DECAPOLIS . iv. v. 20. phus. The three chief places of this district, noticed in the contained, is considered by Reland and other eminent authorScriptures, are Samaria, Sichem, or Schechem, and Anti- ities as part of the region of Peræa. Concerning its limits, patris.
and the names of its ten cities, geographers are by no means 3. JUDÆA.–Of the various districts, into which Palestine agreed; but, according to Josephus (whose intimate knowwas divided, Judæa was the most distinguished. It com- ledge of the country constitutes him an unexceptionable auprised the territories which had formerly belonged to the thority), it contained the cities of Damascus, Otopos, Philatribes of Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, and to part of the tribe delphia, Raphana, Scythopolis (the capital of the district), of Dan; being nearly coextensive with the ancient kingdom Gadara, Hippos, Dios, Pella, and Gerasa. of Judah. Its metropolis was JERUSALEM : and of the other 5. IDUMÆA.—This province was added by the Romans, on towns or villages of note contained in this region, the most their conquest of Palestine. It comprised the extreme southremarkable were Arimathea, Azotus or Ashdod, Bethany, ern part of Judæa, together with some small part of Arabia. Bethlehem, Bethphage, Emmaus, Ephraim, Gaza, Jericho, During the Babylonish captivity, being left destitute of inJoppa, Lydda, and Rama.
habitants, or not sufficiently inhabited by its natives, it seems 4. The district of Perưs comprised the six cantons of to have been seized by the neighbouring Idumæans; and Abilene, Trachonitis, Ituræa, Gaulonitis, Batanes, and Peræa, though they were afterwards subjugated by the powerful strictly so called, to which some geographers have added arms of the Maccabees and Asmonæan princes, and embraced Decapolis.
Judaism, yet the tract of country, of which they had thus (1.) ABILENE was the most northern of these provinces, possessed themselves, continued to retain the appellation of being situated between the mountains of Libanus and Anti- | Idumea in the time of Christ, and, indeed, for a considerable Libanus, and deriving its name from the city Abila, or Abela. subsequent period. Ultimately the Idumæans became minIt is supposed to have been within the borders of the tribe of gled with the Ishmaelites, and they were jointly called NaNaphtali, although it was never subdued by them. This can- bathæans, from Nebaioth, a son of Ishmael. ton or territory had formerly been governed as a kingdom VIII. Of the whole country thus deseribed, JERUSALEM (Bremen) by a certain Lysanias, the son of Ptolemy and was the metropolis during the reigns of David and Solomon : grandson of Mennæus; but he being put to death B.C. 36, after the secession of the ten tribes, it was the capital of through the intrigues of Cleopatra, Augustus placed over it the kingdom of Judah, but during the time of Christ and another Lysanias, a descendant (as it appears) of the former, until the subversion of the Jewish polity, it was the me. with the title of tetrarch. (Luke iii. 1.) The emperor Clau-tropolis of Palestine. dius afterwards made a present of this district to king Agrip- 1. Jerusalem is frequently styled in the Scriptures the pa, or at least confirmed him in the possession of it. Holy City (Isa. xlviii. 2. Dan. ix. 24. Neh. xi. 1. Matt. iv
(2.) TRACHONITIS was bounded by the Desert Arabia on 5. Rev. xi. 2.), because the Lord chose it out of all the tribes the east, Batanæa on the west, Ituræa on the south, and the of Israel to place his name there, his temple and his worship That if you had been placed in it, your feet would not have touched the 6 Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, pp. 408, 409. London, 1821. 4to. Mr. ground. But she so spoiled the business with her propunciation, that, as Burckhardt, who visited this region in the years 1810 and 1812, has de. the glosser interprets it, her words had this sense Sir, slave, I had a scribed its present state, together with the various antiquities which still beam, and they stole thee away; and it was so great, that if they had remain. See his Travels in Syria and the Holy
Land, pp. 51–119. 211–310. hung thee on it, thy feet would not have touched the ground. "Lightfoot's London, 1822. 4to. Chorographical Century of the Land of Israel, ch. lxxxvii. (Works, vol. ii. * For'a copious and interesting illustration of the fulfilment of prophecy p. 79.) See additional examples in Buxtorf's Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmu- concerning idumæa, from the statements of modern travellers, see Mr dicum et Rabbinicum, p. 434.
Keith's Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion from Prophecy, pp. Josephus, Antiq. book xviii. c. 3. & 2. and Mr. Whiston's note there. In 172—220. another place. (book xvii. c. 10 $ 2.), after describing a popular tumult, he 8 Besides the authorities incidentally cited in the preceding pages, the says, A great number of these were GALILEANS and Idumaans.
following works have been consulted for this chapter, viz. Relandi PalæstiGilly's Spirit of the Gospel, or the Four Evangelists elucidated, p.
328. na, tom. i. pp. 1–204. (Traj. ad Rhen. 1714); Ancient Universal History, • Kuinöel in loc. Robinson's Greek and English Lexicon to the New vol. ii. pp. 452—465. 476-486. (Lond. 1748); Pritii Introductio ad Lectionem Testament, voce [111*1*.
Novi Testamenti, pp. 497-518.; Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introduction to • Antiq. book xx. c. 5. $1. De Bell. Jud. pook ii. c. 12. $ 3.
the New Testament (Bp. Watson's Collection of Theological Tracts, vol. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiv. c. 13. xv. C. 4. xix. c. 5. Bell. Jud. lib. i. I iii. pp. 262–278.); Pareau, Antiquitas Hebraica breviter descripta, pp. 44 c. 13.
52. ; Spanhemii Introductio ad Geographiam Sacram, pp. 1–81.
(Deut. xii. 5. XIV. 23. xvi. 2. xxvi. 2.); and to be the centre on this mountain; and at its foot he visited an olive ground, of union in religion and government for all the tribes of the always noticed as the garden of Gethsemane. “ This place." commonwealth
of Israel. It is held in the highest veneration says he,“ is, not without reason, shown as the scene of our by Christians for the miraculous and important transactions Saviour's agony the night before his crucifixion (Matt. xxvi. which happened there, and also by the Mohammedans, who Mark xiv. Luke xxii. John xviii.), both from the circum to this day never call it by any other appellation than El stance of the name it still retains, and its situation with reKods,' or El Khoudes, that is, The Holy, sometimes adding gard to the city.” Here he found a grove of olives of imthe epithet Al-Sherif, or The Noble. The most ancient name mense size covered with fruit, almost in a mature state." of the city was Salem, or Peace (Gen. xiv. 18.): the import Between Olivet and the city lies the deep valley of Kedror of Jerusalem is, the vision or inheritance of peace ;? and to through which flows the brook of that name which is noticed this it is not improbable that our Saviour alluded in his beau- in a subsequent page. tiful and pathetíc lamentation over the city. (Luke xix. 41.) On the south side stood the MOUNT OF CORRUPTION, where It was also formerly called Jebus from one of the sons of Solomon, in his declining years, built temples to Moloch, Canaan. (Josh. xviii. 28.) After its capture by, Joshua Chemosh, and Ashtaroth (1 Kings xi. 7. 2 Kings xxiii. 13.) (Josh. x.) it was jointly inhabited both by Jews and Jebus- it was separated from the city by the narrow valley of Hin ites (Josh. xv. 63.) for about five hundred years, until the nom (Josh. xviii. 16. Jer. xix. 2.), where the Israelites burnt time of David; who having expelled the Jebusites, made it their children in the fire to Moloch (Jer. vii. 31. and xxxii. his residence (2 Sam. v. 6–9.), and erected a noble palace 35.): thence made the emblem of hell, GEHENNA, or the there, together with several other magnificent buildings, place of the damned. (Matt. v. 22. xxiii. 33. Mark ́ix. 43.) whence it is sometimes styled the City of David (1 Chron. Towards the north, according to Eusebius and Jerome, and xi. 5.): By the prophet Isaiah (xxix. 1.) Jerusalem is termed without the walls of the city, agreeably to the law of Moses Ariel, or the Lion of God; but the reason of this name, and (Lev. iv.), lay Calvary or GOLGOTHA, that is, the place of its meaning, as applied to Jerusalem, is very obscure and à skull (Matt. xxvii. 33.), so called by some from its fancied doubtful. It may possibly signify the strength of the place, resemblance to a skull, but more probably because criminals by which the inhabitants were enabled to resist and overcome were executed there. Calvary, which now groans beneath their enemies ;- in the same manner as the Persians term the weight of monastic piles, was probably open ground, one of their cities Shirâz, or the Devouring Lion. Being cultivated for gardens (John xix. 41.), at the time when He, situated on the confines of the two tribes of Benjamin and who suffered without the gate (Heb. xiii. 12.), there poured out Judah, Jerusalem sometimes formed a part of the one, and his soul unto death.10 sometimes of the other; but, after Jehovah had appointed it The southern quarter, originally "the city of David,'. to be the place of his habitation and temple, it was consi- built on Mount Zion, Josephus calls the upper city; and dered as the metropolis of the Jewish nation, and the common the house of Millo was what he calls the upper market.12 property of the children of Israel. On this account it was, 3. We have no particulars recorded concerning the nature that the houses were not let, and all strangers of the Jewish of the fortifications of Jerusalem, previously to the time of nation had the liberty of lodging there gratis, by right of the pious and patriotic governor, Nehemiah; though such hospitality. To this custom our Lord probably alludes in there undoubtedly must have been, from the importance and Matt. xxvi. 18. and the parallel passages.5
sanctity of the city, as the metropolis of the country, and the 2. The name of the whole mountain, on the several hills seat of the Jewish worship: After the return of the Jews and hollows of which the city stood, was called MORIAH, or from the Babylonish captivity, they rebuilt Jerusalem, which vision; because it was high land, and could be seen afar off, had been destroyed by the Chaldæans; and in the account of especially from the south (Gen. xxii. 2—4.); but afterwards the rebuilding of the wall, under the direction of Nehemiah, that name was appropriated to the most elevated part on ten gates are distinctly enumerated, viz. three on the south, which the temple was erected, and where Jehovah appeared four on the east, and three on the western side of the wall. to David. (2 Chron. iii. 1. 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, 17.) This The three gates on the south side were, 1. The Sheep Gate mountain is a rocky limestone hill, steep. of ascent on every (Neh. iii. 1.), which was probably so called from the vicside, except the north ; and is surrounded on the other sides tims, intended for sacrifice, being conducted through it to the by a group of hills, in the form of an amphitheatre (Psal. second temple. Near this gate stood the totvers of Mesh
2.), which situation rendered it secure from the earth- and Hananeel. The pool of Bethesda was at no great disquakes that appear to have been frequent in the Holy Land tance from this gate, which was also called the Gate of Ben(Psal. xlvi. 2, 3.), and have furnished the prophets with jamin.-2. The Fish Gate (Neh. iii. 3. xii. 39.), which was many elegant allusions. On the east, stands the Mount oF also called the First Gate.-3. The Old Gate, also called the OLIVES, fronting the temple, of which it commanded a noble Corner Gate. (Neh. iii. 6. xii. 39. 2 Kings xiv. 13. Jer. xxxi. prospect (Matt. xxiv. 2, 3. Luke xix. 37—41.), as it does to 38.). this day of the whole city, over whose streets and walls the The gates on the eastern side were, 1. The Water Gate eye roves as if in the survey of a model. This mountain, any machines do, towards overthrowing these towers?!” Josephus, de which is frequently noticed in the evangelical history, stretches Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. (Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 256. from north to south, and is about a mile in length. The London, 1825. 8vo.) olive is still found growing in patches at the foot of this the gardens of Gethsemane were of a miserable description, surrounded
1 Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 365, 366. 8vo. edit. In 1818, however, mountain, to which it gives its name. Its summit commands with a dry stone fence, and provided with a few olive trees,
without either a view as far as the Dead Sea, and the mountains beyond pot-herbs or vegetables of any kind. Richardson's Travels along the Medi. Jordan. On the descent of this mountain our Saviour stood ferranean and Parts adjacent, in 1816-17-18. vol. ii. p. 366. London, 1822.
8vo. Mr. Carne, who visited Palestine a few years later, describes this spot when he beheld the city and wept over it; on this mountain as being " of all gardens the most interesting and hallowed, but how neglected it was that he delivered his prediction concerning the down- and decayed! îi is surrounded by a kind of low hedge, but the soil is bare ; fall of Jerusalem (Luke xix. 41–44.); and the army of Ti- no verdure grows on it, save six fine venerable olive trees, which have stood tus encamped upon the very spot where its destruction had here for
many centuries." Letters from the East, p. 290.
8 To this si. Paul delicately alludes in his Epistle to the Hebrews (xiii. been foretold. 'Dr. Clarke discovered some Pagan remains 12, 13.), where he says that Christ, as a sacrifice for sin, suffered without
· This is a contraction from Medinet-el-KADESS, that is, the Sacred City. without ihe camp, that is, out of Jerusalem, this city being regarded by the Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt, Nubia, &c. p. 177. Burckhardt in his map Jews as the camp of Israel. (Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 156.). terms Jerusalem Khodess.
9 Schulzii Archæologia Biblica, p. 23. Relandi Palæstina, tom. ii. p. 80. 2 Relandi Palæstina, tom. ii
833. Schulzii Archäologia Biblica, p. 20. 10 Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. p. 255. : Beausobre and L'Enfant, in Bp. Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 142. 11 When Dr. Richardson visited this sacred spot in 1818, he found one • Bp. Lowth, on Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 206.
part of Mount Zion supporting a crop of barley, another was undergoing Schulzii Archæologia
' Biblica, p. 21. Beausobre and L'Enfant, in Bp. the labour of the plough; and the soil turned up consisted of stone and lime Watson's Tracts, vol. iii. p. 143.
mixed with earth, such as is usually met with in the foundation of ruined 6 Josephus, de Bell
. Jud. lib. vi. c. 5. "It is not difficult to conceive," cities. “It is nearly a inile in circumference, is highest on the west side, says the Rev. W. Jowett, who, in December, 1823, surveyed Jerusalem from and towards the east falls down in broad terraces on the upper part of the this mountain, "observing from this spot the various undulations and slopes mountain, and
narrow ones on the side, as it slopes down towards the brook of the ground, that when Mount Zion, Acra, and Mount Moriah, constituted Kedron. Each terrace is divided from the
one above it by a low
wall of the bulk of the city, with a deep and steep valley surrounding the greater dry stone, built of the ruins of this celebrated spot. The terraces near
the part of it, it must have
by the people of that age as nearly bottom of the hill are still used as gardens, and are watered from the pool impregnable. It stands beautiful for situation! It is, indeed, builded as a of Siloam. They belong chiefly to the small village of Siloa, immediately city that is compact together. (Ps. cxxii . 3.) The kings of the earth, and opposite. We have here another remarkable instance of the special fulfil
. all the inhabitants of the world would not have believed that the adversary ment of prophecy :-Therefore shall Zion for your sakes be plowed as a and the enemy should have entered into the gates of Jerusalem. (Lam. iv. field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps. (Micah iii. 12.)". Dr. Richardson's 12. B. c. 588.) This was said nearly two thousand four hundred years ago. Travels along the Mediterranean, &c. vol. ii. p. 348. "The sides of the
Hin And when, 650 years after, Titus besieged and took this devoted city, he ex: of Zion have a pleasing aspect, as they possess a few olive trees and rude claimed on viewing the vast strength of the place, 'We have certainly had gardens; and a crop of corn was growing there." God for our assistant in this war: and it was no other than God who ejected 19 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 425 429. Josephus, de the Jews out of these fortifications: for what could the hands of men, or
Bell. Jud. lib. v. G. 4.
(Neh. iii. 26.), near which the waters of Etam passed, after to the spot where the fountain of Siloam took its rise. We having been used in the temple service, in their way to the have no account of any gates being erected on the northern brook Kedron, into which they discharged themselves.-2. side.? The Horse Gate (Neh. iii. 28. Jer. xxxi.
40.), which is sup- 4. Previously to the fatal war of the Jews with the Roposed to have been so called, because horses went through'it mans, we learn from Josephus, that the city of Jerusalem in order to be watered.-3. The Prison Gate (xii. 39.), pro- was erected on two hills, opposite to one another, with a valbably so called from its vicinity to the prison.—4. The Gate ley between them, which he subsequently calls the Valley of Miphkad. (Neh. iii. 31.)
the Cheesemongers. The loftiest of these hills contained the The gates on the western side were, 1. The Valley Gate Upper City (s ära zónes); and the other called Acra, contained (Neh. iii. 13.), also termed the Gate of Ephraim, above the Lower City (ń nära Trónes), which seems to have been the which stood the Tower of Furnaces (Neh. iii. 11. xii. 38.); most considerable part of the whole city. Over against this and near it was the Dragon Well (Neh. ii. 13.), which may was a third hill, lower than Acra, and formerly divided from have derived its name from the representation of a dragon, the other by a broad valley ;3 which was filled up with earth out of whose mouth the stream flowed that issued from the during the reign of the Asmonæans or Maccabæan princes, in well.—2. The Dung Gate (Neh. iii. 13.), which is supposed order to join the city to the temple. As population increased, to have received its name from the filth of the beasts that and the city crept beyond its old limits, Agrippa joined were sacrificed, being carried from the temple through this to it a fourth hill (which was situated to the north of the gate.-3. The Gate of the Fountain (Neh. iii. 15.), had its temple), called Bezetha, and thus still further enlarged name either from its proximity to the fountain of Gihon, or Jerusalem.
At this time the city was surrounded by three walls on it, from apprehension of incurring the displeasure of the emsuch parts as were not encompassed with impassable valleys, peror Claudius. His intention was to have erected it with where there was only one wall. The first wall began on stones, twenty cubits in length by ten cubits in breadth ; so the north side, at the tower called Hippicus, whence it ex- that no iron tools or engines could make any impression on tended to the place called the Xistus, and to the council- them. What Agrippa could not accomplish, the Jews subsehouse, and it terminated at the western cloister of the temple. quently attempted: and, when Jerusalem was besieged by But, proceeding westward, in a contrary direction, the histo- the Romans, this wall was twenty cubits high, above which rian says, that it began at the same place, and extended were battlements of two cubits, and turrets of three cubits, through a place called Bethso, to the gate of the Essenes, making in all an altitude of twenty-five cubits. Numerous then taking a turn towards the south, it reached to the place towers, constructed of solid masonry, were erected at certain called Ophlas, where it was joined to the eastern cloister of distances : in the third wall, there were ninety; in the middle the temple. The second wall commenced at the gate Gen- wall, there were forty; and in the old wall, sixty. The nath, and encompassed only the northern quarter of the city, towers of Hippicus, Phasaelus, and Mariamne, erected by as far as the tower Antonia. The third wall began at the Herod the Great, and dedicated to the memories of his friend, tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter his brother, and his wife, were pre-eminent for their height, of the city, passed by the tower Psephinus, till it came to their massive architecture, their beauty, and the conveniences the monument of Helena, queen of Adiabene. Thence it with which they were furnished. According to Josephus the passed by the sepulchres of the kings; and, taking a direc- circumference of Jerusalem, previously to its siege and detion round the south-west corner, passed the Fuller's Monu- struction by the Romans, was thirty-three furlongs, or nearly ment, and joined the old wall at the valley of Kedron. This four miles and a half: and the wall of circumvallation, conthird wall was commenced by Agrippa, to defend the newly structed by order of Titus, he states to have been thirty-nine erected part of the city called Bezetha; but he did not finish furlongs, or four miles eight hundred and seventy-five paces.
* Observationes Philologicæ ac Geographicæ. Amstelædami, 1747. 8vo. pp. 21-29
- M. D'Anville has elaborately investigated the extent of Jerusalem, as De Bell. Jud. lib. vi..c. 6.
described by Josephus, in his learned "Dissertation sur l'Etendue de l'an. : IA&TEIX Cepugge Soepyouevas äran potepov, are the words of Jose- cienne Jerusalem et de son Temple,” the accuracy of whose details Vis. phus; which Pritius renders alia lata valle anté divisus (Introd. ad Nov. count Chateaubriand has attested in his Itinerary to and from Jerusalem. Test
. p. 522.), " formerly divided by another broad valley." The rendering This very rare dissertation of IV'Anville is reprinted in the Bible de Vence, above given is that of Mr. Whiston.
tom. vi. pp. 43–84. 5th edition.
At present, a late traveller states that the circumference of by God to persons labouring under the most desperate disJerusalem cannot exceed three miles.?
eases.13 5. During the time of Jesus Christ, Jerusalem was adorned (2.) The Pool of Siloam (John ix. 7.) was two-fold, viz. with numerous edifices, both sacred and civil, some of which Upper and Lower. The Upper Reservoir or Pool (Isa. vii
. are mentioned or alluded to in the New Testament. But its 3.), called the King's Pool in Neh. ii. 14., probably watered, chief glory was the temple, described in a subsequent part the king's gardens (Neh. iii. 15.), while the Lower Pool of this volume ; which magnificent structure occupied the seems to have been designed for the use of the inhabitants. northern and lower top of Sion, as we learn from the Psalm- Both these reservoirs were supplied from the fountain of Siist (xlviii, 2.); Beautiful for situation, the joy (or delight) loam : but which of them is to be understood in John ix. 7. of the whole earth, is Mount Sion. On her north side is the city it is now impossible to determine. 14 of the great king. Next to the temple in point of splendour, 6. During the reigns of David and Solomon, Jerusalem was the very superb palace of Herod, which is largely de- was the metropolis of the land of Israel ; but after the defecscribed by Josephus ; it afterwards became the residence of tion of the ten tribes under Jeroboam, it was the capital of the Roman procurators, who for this purpose generally the kings of Judah, during whose government it underwent claimed the royal palaces in those provinces which were sub- various revolutions. It was captured four times without ject to kings. These dwellings of the Roman procurators being demolished, viz. by Shishak, sovereign of Egypt, (2 in the provinces were called Prætoria :4 Herod's palace Chron. xii.), from whose ravages it never recovered its former therefore was Pilate's prætorium (Matt. xxvii, 27. John splendour; by Antiochus Epiphanes, who treated the Jews xviii. 28.): and in some part of this edifice was the armoury with singular barbarity; by Pompey the Great, who rendered or barracks of the Roman soldiers that garrisoned Jerusalem, the Jews tributary to Rome; and by Herod, with the assistwhither Jesus was conducted and mocked by them. (Matt. ance of a Roman force under Sosius. It was first entirely xxvii. 27. Mark xv. 16.) In the front of this palace was the destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, and again by the Emperor tribunal, where Pilate sat in a judicial.capacity to hear and Titus, the repeated insurrections of the turbulent Jews having determine weighty causes ; being a raised pavement of mo-filled up the measure of their iniquities, and drawn down saic work (infospatcr), the evangelist informs us that in the upon them the implacable vengeance of the Romans. Titus Hebrew language it was on this account termed Gabbatha ineffectually endeavoured to save the temple: it was involved (John xix. 13.), i. e. an elevated place. In this tribunal the in the same ruin with the rest of the city, and, after it had procurator Florus sat, A. D. 66; and, in order to punish the been reduced to ashes, the foundations of that sacred edifice Jews for their seditious behaviour, issued orders for his were ploughed up by the Roman soldiers. Thus literally soldiers to plunder the upper market-place in Jerusalem, and was fulfilled the prediction of our Lord, that not one stone to put to death such Jews as they met with ; which com- should be left upon another that should not be thrown down. mands were executed with savage barbarity.
(Matt. xxiv. 2.). On his return to Rome, Titus was honoured On a steep rock adjoining the north-west corner of the with a triumph, and to commemorate his conquest of Judæa, temple stood the Tower of Antonia, on the site of a citadel a triumphal arch was erected, which is still in existence. Nuthat had been erected by Antiochus Epiphanes? in order to merous medals of Judæa vanquished were struck in honour annoy the Jews; and which, after being destroyed by them, of the same event. The Emperor Adrain erected a city on was rebuilt by the Maccabæan prince John Hyrcanus, B. C. part of the former site of Jerusalem, which he called Ælia 135.9 Herod the Great repaired it with great splendour, uniting Capitolina: it was afterwards greatly enlarged and beautified in its interior all the conveniences of a magnificent palace, with by Constantine the Great, who restored its ancient name. ample accommodations for soldiers. This citadel (in which During that emperor's reign the Jews made various efforts to a Roman legion was always quartered) overlooked the two rebuild their temple; whích, however, were always frustratouter courts of the temple, and communicated with its clois- ed : nor did better success attend the attempt made, A. p. 363, ters by means of secret passages, through which the military by the apostate emperor Julian. An earthquake, a whirlwind, could descend and quelf any tumult that might arise during and a fiery eruption, compelled the workmen to abandon the great festivals. This was the guard to which Pilate al- their design. luded, as already noticed. (Matt. xxvii. 65.) The tower of From the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans to the Antonia was thus named by Herod, in honour of his friend present time, that city has remained, for the most part, in a Mark Antony: and this citadel is "the castle” into which state of ruin and desolation ; " and has never been under the St. Paul was conducted (Acts xxi. 34, 35.), and of which government of the Jews themselves, but oppressed and mention is made in Acts xxii. 24. As the temple was a fort- broken down by a succession of foreign masters—the Roress that guarded the whole city of Jerusalem, so the tower mans, the Saracens, the Franks, the Mamelukes, and last by of Antonia was a fortress that entirely commanded the the Turks, to whom it is still subject. It is not, therefore, temple.10
only in the history of Josephus, and in other ancient writers, Besides the preceding edifices, Josephus mentions a house that we are to look for the accomplishment of our Lord's or palace at the extremity of the upper city, which had been predictions: we see them verified at this moment before our erected by the princes of the Asmonaan family, from whom eyes, in the desolate state of the once celebrated city and it was subsequently called the Asmonæan Palace. It ap- temple of Jerusalem, and in the present condition of the pears to have been the residence of the princes of the Hero-Jewish people, not collected together into any one country, dian family (after the Romans had reduced Judæa into a pro- into one political society, and under one form of government, vince of the empire), whenever they went up to Jerusalem. į but dispersed over every region of the globe, and every where
In this palace, Josephus mentions Berenice and Agrippa as treated with contumely and scorn.”10 , residing, and it is not improbable that it was the residence 7. The modern city of Jerusalem contains within its walls
of Herod the tetrarch of Galilce when he went to keep the several of the hills, on which the ancient city is supposed to solemn festivals at that city; and that it was here that our have stood; but these are only perceptible by the ascent and Saviour was exposed to the wanton mockery of the soldiers, descent of the streets. When seen from the Mount of Olives, who had accompanied Herod thither, either as a guard to his on the other side of the valley of Jehoshaphat, it presents an person, or from ostentation. (Luke xxiii. 7–11.)12 inclined plane, descending from west to east. An embattled
There were several pools at Jerusalem (reaupa Bir Sp.28), two wall, fortified with towers and a Gothic castle, encompasses of which are mentioned in the New Testament, viz. the city all round, excluding, however, part of Mount Sion,
(1.) The Pool of Bethesda, which was situated near the which it formerly enclosed. Notwithstanding its seemingly sheep-gate or sheep-market (John v. 2.), not far from the strong position, it is incapable of sustaining a severe assault, temple. It had five porticoes, for the reception of the sick; because, on account of the topography of the land, it has no and it was most probably called Bethesda, or the house of means of preventing the approaches of an enemy; and, on mercy, from the miraculous cures there mercifully
vouchsafed the other hand, it is commanded, at the distance of a gun
shot, by the Djebel Tor, or the Mount of Olives, from which 1 Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 103.
Antiq. Jud. lib. xv. c. 9. $ 3. De Bell. Jud. lib. i. c. 21. $ 1. et lib. v. c. 4. $ 3.
13 Parkhurst's Lexicon voce. Bp. Pearce (and after him, Dr. Booth. Cicero contra Verrem, action. ii. lib. v. c. 12. (op. tom. iv. p. 96. ed. royd), Jahn, Rosenınüller, Kuinöel, and other modern commentators, have Bipont.)
supposed the pool of Bethesda to have been a medicinal bath. The reader Ibid. lib. v. c. 35. et 41. (tom. iv.
will find a brief statement, and satisfactory refutation of this notion in Dr. • Compare Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. v. c. 15. 5 5. c. 17. & 8.
Bloomfield's Annotations on the New Testament, vol. iii. pp. 148–156. • Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 14. $8.
14 Robinson's Gr. Lexicon to the New Test. voce £12.09. * Ibid. Ant. Jud. lib. xii. c. 5. $4. 8 Ibid. lib. xiii. c. 6. $ 6.
16 For a full view of the predictions of Jesus Christ concerning the de• Ibid. lib. xv. c. 11. $ 4.
10 De Bell. Jud. lib. y. c. 5. $ 8. struction of Jerusalem and their literal fulfilment, see vol. i. Appendix,
No. VI. chap. ii. sect. iii. 12 Schulzii Archäologia Biblica, pp. 27-30.
16 Bp. Porteus's Lectures on the Gospel of Saint Matthew, vol. ii. p. 215
11 De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 15. $ 1. and c. 16. $ 3.