10. The Zemarite- Simyra, twenty-four miles south-east of Antaradus.

11. The Hamathite-Epiphania, in Syria.
III. SHEM, representing the central parts of the ancient world.

1. ELAM-Elymais, in Persia.
11. AssHUR-Assyria.
111. ARPAAXAD–Arrhaphachitis, in North Assyria.

1. Salah-Along the eastern banks of the Tigris.
2. Eber-In the west of the T'igris and Euphrates.

a) Peleg-In various parts of Arabia Deserta.
b) Joktan-Kachtan, in the north of Nedsheran.

1. Almodad-In Arabia Deserta.
2. Sheleph- The Salapeni, in Arabia Felix.
3. Hazarmaveth-Hadramaut, in the South of Arabia.
4. Jerah—The coast and mountain of the Moon, near Hadramaut.
5. Hadoram-Likewise adjoining Hadramaut, on the coast.
6. Uzal-Sanaa, the capital of Yemen.
7. Diklah
8. Obal Uncertain.
9. Abimael
10. Sheba—The Sabaeans, in the eastern parts of Arabia.
11. Ophir-On the southern or south-eastern coast of Arabia.
12. Havilah-Near the Persian Gulf.

13. Jobab-In Arabia Deserta.
1v. LUD- The Lydians, originally living in the highlands of Armenia.
V. ARAM.- Aramæa, including Northern Mesopotamia, Syria, and districts of

1. Uz-Ausitis, in the northern parts of Arabia Deserta.
2. Hul-Perhaps Golan, in the east of the Jordan.
3. Gether- Perhaps Geshur, on the Orontes.

4. Mash-The Mysians. We now insert

once the translation of the whole chapter, in order to be enabled to give the general exposition of this important section in a more convenient form.

CHAPTER X. 1. Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah; Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and to them were sons born after the flood.

2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.--3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.-4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.-5. By these the isles of the nations were spread in their lands; every one after its tongue, after their families, in their nations.

6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.—7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah. And the sons of Raainah: Sheba, and Dedan. 8. And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be a mighty man on the earth. 9. He was also a mighty hunter before the Lord: therefore it is said, Like Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord. 10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11. Out of that land he went forth to Asshur, and built Nineveh, and Rehoboth Ir, and Calah, 12. And Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city.13. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, 14. And Pathrusim, and Casluhim (out of whom came Philistim), and Caphtorim. --15. And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, 16. And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 17. And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 18. And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 19. And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon towards Gerar to Gaza; towards Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, to Lasha. 20. These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues in their countries, and in their nations.

21. To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, were children born. 22. The children of Shem are : Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram.-23. And the children of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.-24. And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber. 25. And to Eber two sons were born: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. 26. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 27. And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 28. And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 29. And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. 30. And their abode was from Mesha towards Sephar, to the mount of the east.31. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations spread on the earth after the flood.


THE GENEALOGY OF NATIONS. One couple had been the origin of the human families; one family was preserved to people the earth anew, when the former inhabitants were destroyed; and all the various nations which live scattered in the different parts of the globe, are the descendants of that one family. It was impossible to point with greater force to the beautiful doctrine of the unity of mankind; but such stress was necessary for the injunction of the allimportant principle of universal love; the more so, as this principle stands in direct autagonism with the notions then prevailing among heathens; it destroys at once the fables regarding numberless autochthonic tribes, the direct offspring of their native soil, and regarding each other with pride, contempt, or enmity. According to the Bible, the inhabitants of the different zones form one large family; they are the children of the same patriarch: “ These are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and sons were born to them after the flood.” They proceeded all froin the same centre, whence they spread over the surface of the earth; and for a long time they were, moreover, united by the powerful bond of one universal language (xi. 1). Even the curse of Canaan seems here forgotten; no word reminds the reader, that he was a rejected member in the family of nations; on the contrary, no other tribe is described with such complete detail as that of Canaan (vers. 15--19): nothing dis. turbs the harmony of this grand genealogy. The division into the descendants of the three sons of Noah cannot, therefore, allude to three chief races of mankind, traceable to a different origin; nor even to the obvious variety of colour (black, red, and white or yellow), since the Ethiopians and Assyrians, for instance, are represented az descending from the same branch: it expresses the fact, that although there always remain indications of the common origin of the human family, the various members formed, at their propagation, three great groups of nations, more closely connected with each other by more contiguous abodes, and greater similarity of language; but that this separation is not so complete or decided, that an ultimate re-union of all nations should be impossible. In this one idea alone, the genealogy of our chapter bears the proof of its genuine and independent Hebrew character; it is not borrowed from other historical documents, because the history of no other nation has so distinctly united the beginning and end of human destinies; and because the entire arrangement is so thoroughly systematic, that it is evidently adapted to the context in which it is introduced. It is true, the Hindoos also connected all the nations of which they had the least knowledge, with their own history; but they traced the other nations to illegitimate alliances between different castes, and regarded them all as impure rebels and abominations. Indeed, this list is without a parallel in the whole range of ancient literature. It may be interesting to examine, from what sources the Hebrews derived such extensive geographical knowledge as that embodied in this remarkable list. But this question forms part of a far more comprehensive enquiry on the sources of the Pentateuch, which we must postpone to a future occasion. It is, perhaps, one of the surest signs and of the greatest prerogatives of genius, to be able to combine large philosophical views with completeness and accuracy of detail, and to furnish the proof, that the free creations of the intellect are neither fettered nor impeded by the persevering efforts of industry. The author of the Pentateuch proposed to himself the solution of more than one great philosophical and moral problem; but he felt, that abstract truths, expressed in an abstruse form, would fail to sink deeply into the minds of those whom it was his desire to enlighten; and the more he was penetrated with the importance of an idea, the greater must naturally have been his anxiety to surround it with u distinct and concrete form, by developing it into the fullest possible detail. Now, the Pentateuchi is so designed, that, although tending to describe the history and the laws of the Hebrews, it does not exclude the origin of the other nations, nor does it forget to assign to them their relative position in the history of the world; for this reason partly, it


commences with a cosmogony, and hence it enumerates the whole circle of the nations known or important at that time. However, the form of this composition is again kindred with that employed by other ancient nations for similar ends. The earliest historiography consists almost entirely of genealogies; they are most frequently the medium of explaining the connection and descent of tribes and nations; an ancestor is made the founder of a town, or an empire, and his sons represent the later colonies or depending countries of that power; the first part of Greek history is based upon these principles, and the Hindoo traditions derive from them a great part of their precision. The Dorians and Æolians, the Ionians and Achæans, are traced back to a Dorus and Æolus, an Ion and Achæus; the town of Memphis to a daughter of the Nile bearing that name, the wife of Epaphus; and Libya to her daughter. It may be questioned, whether a son of Canaan was called Sidon (ver. 15); but it is certain, that our author considered the Sidonians as a younger branch of the Canaanites. It is necessary to bear in mind this circumstance; for we see simple proper nouns mixed with collective nouns; the sons of Javan, for instance, were “Elishah and Tarshish, the Kittim and Dodanim" (ver. 4); and we find that names, invariably applied as countries, are here introduced as names of persons; as, Havilah and Ophir (ver. 29).

This list forms an organic part of the composition of Genesis; it is a direct continuation of the preceding section; it alludes repeatedly to the deluge which had just taken place;' and, thus, impresses effectually, that all the present inhabitants of the earth are born under the covenant of grace which God had concluded with Noah for all generations.

I.-THE JAPHETHITES. VERS. 2-5. Although Japheth is the youngest son of Noah, his descendants are introduced first, in order to pass from the genealogy of the eldest son, Shem, at once to the patriarchs who lead to Abraham, the first great founder of monotheism. The three sons are, in all other passages, enumerated in the order of Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and Shem is distinctly called the elder brother of Japheth. The authentic abodes of the Japhethites are, according to the names mentioned in our verses, in the northern and western parts of the ancient world, comprising the countries from the Mediterranean Sea and the European coasts to northern Asia beyond the Taurus.

1. Gomer. Its general position is perfectly certain; for Ezekiel: remarks that the allies of the mighty northern king Gog included Gomer and Togarmah, “at the sides of the north,” and our chapter* mentions Togarmah among the sons of Gomer. We may conclude, from these circumstances, that his descendants dwelt in the most distant northern regions known to the ancient Hebrews; and we may infer from the first place which Gomer occupios in this list, that they were considered as one of the most ancient nations of the north. These conditions are realised if we identify them with the Chomari, a nation in Bactriana, near the Oxus, mentioned by Ptolemy. Bactria is one of the oldest countries which progressed towards a regular political organization; Bactra, its chief town, was generally regarded as one of the oldest cities in the world, and the town Balkh, which is supposed to occupy its site, is still called by the Orientals, “the mother of cities”; it was at an early period known even to distant countries; and Bacchus is said to have visited it; Bactria was, both by the prowess of its inhabitants, and its numerous mountain fastnesses, long protected against subjugation; and repeated attacks of the mighty kings of Babylon and Assyria were fruitless. Even under the Persian kings, Bactria formed an important satrapy, and always distinguished itself by its excellent cavalry. If we consider that not even the earlier Assyrian monarchs proceeded farther to the north than Bactria, we shall find it but natural that in this first ethnographic attempt of the Hebrews,

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it is enumerated among the most northern countries, especially as its dominions extended beyond the range of the Paropamisus or Hindoo Coosh.

1. Ashkenaz. As this tribe is' coupled with Ararat and Minni, who were to join an alliance for the destruction of Babylon, we must seek Ashkenaz in the neiglibourhood of the Caspian sea; and as Josephus identifies its inhabitants with the Rhegines, we have no hesitation in declaring Ashkenaz identical with the great and ancient town Rhagae, one day's journey to the south of the Caspian sea, in the eastern part of Great Media. This situation of Ashkenaz seems, indeed, to have been preserved as a tradition, since the Arabian translator explains, in the passage of Jeremiah, “those who live near the Caspian sea,” and Jonathan renders Adiabene, the Assyrian province. The name itself seems to be of Assyrian origin. The whole territory round Raghae is extremely high and cold; and the elevations extend almost without interruption to Matinne and Armenia, although the valleys are here remarkably fertile and blooming. The aspect of this part of Asia is, therefore, very analogous to that of Parthia, which we have identified with Gomer; and we are, therefore, of opinion that the descendants of Gomer were regarded strictly as the inhabitants of the mountain lands; and were, as such, considered peculiarly warlike, brave, and hardy; they are, in fact, scarcely mentioned in any other but military connection. Rhagae was several times destroyed, but successively rebuilt by Greek and later kings; and at present its ruins are still extant at Rhey, not far from Teheran, and have attracted the attention of many modern travellers.

2. Riphath. The Rhipaean mountains were considered by the ancient geographers as forming the extreme northern border of the earth, covered with eternal snow, containing the caverns from which the icy northern blasts issue, and belonging to the land of the Hyperboreans. But they extend southward to the Caspian sea, run towards the chain of the Caucasus, and are most probably that western branch of the Ural mountains in which the Don (Tanais) rises. The knowledge of the ancients with regard to the extreme boundaries of the earth was very limited; in the want of accurate and scientific researches, they exerted their imagination; and fictions were circulated instead of facts; the columns of Hercules and the gardens of the Hesperides in the far west, the Hyperboreans in the north, and the Anthropophagi in the south, are some features of their fabulous geography. Though Bactria was historically and distinctly known to the Hebrews as the most northern country, they were but dimly acquainted with the Ural mountains by vague traditions and inaccurate accounts of some enterprising travellers who had ventured into those uninviting tracts. If, therefore, Gomer is Bactria, it is more than probable that Riphath designates those regions of the Rhipaean mountains, the inhabitants of which were regarded as colonists of the powerful Bactrian empire. Thus we have again mountain tribes as the descendants of Gomer.

3. Togarmah. To the north and west of the Caspian Sea lived the wild and warlike Sarmatian tribes; they extended their incursions frequently as far as the coast of the Black Sea and the Sea of Asov, but were, on the frontiers of the Tauric Peninsula (the Crimea), bravely opposed by a nation which had from very early times held possession of that region, and who are known under the name of the Tauri, a Scythian tribe. With this Tauric Peninsula we identify the. Togarmah of our text. Except in the corresponding list of the Book of Chronicles, it occurs only in two other passages throughout the Old Testament, but both are so characteristic that they permit distinct inferences and conclasions. It is, on the one hand, mentioned as a well-armed and military nation of the distant north, ready and prepared to join Gomer and other valiant nations in the expeditions of Gog;o and it appears, on the other hand, as a peaceful agricultural tribe, breeding noble horses and mules, and

5 In Jerem. li, 27.

6 Ezek. xxxviii. 6.

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