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the suffering millions who have long been exposed to their ravages, This has been the policy our security demanded: this has been the course to which our glory pointed and this has been the successful end to which the exertions of Lord Wellesley have tended.'
The noble Marquis, however, had not been sent to India on a mission of philanthropy; and no other province had been allotted to him than to administer the functions of the head of the government, within the limits of the powers and instructions with which he had been furnished. Motives of this sort were stated to have led to the partition of Poland, by the benevolent and royal sharers of the spoil.
Speaking of the late Governor-General, the eloquent apologist breaks out into the following panegyric:
In the tranquillity of the native states throughout the Deckan and Hindostan, he traces not merely a more solid security for the preservation of our own power; but in the advantages of peace to them he discerns fresh sources of prosperity to ourselves: the condition of society meliorated- our political relations improved the industry of India reanimated: strife disarmed: jealousy restrained: new channels of commerce opened: the interchange of produce enlarged: the merchants of India journeying in security from one state to another our home manufactures reaching countries where before they never entered an improved revenue to the Company and the state: the vast peninsula of India reposing after the convulsion of centu ries: its rest secured by jud cious alliances, and well poised power: the warlike tribes which cover it, restrained in their predatory habits, and gradually incited by the sweets of peace, to turn their attention to the happier pursuits of commerce and of agriculture, instead of moistening, as heretofore, their plains with the blood of each other; and lastly, the national character and honour exalted, by the sublime result of so generous and elevated a line of policy. These happy ends he traces as a consequence from the principle of establishing, through a system of well distributed power, a durable peace among the different states of India, and more immediately of those composing the Mahratta confederacy. In this way he sees, that individual benefit is general good; that the misery of one state is not the happiness of another, but that the prosperity of each increases the felicity of all. This is the system of Lord Wellesley. It embraces peace, and repudiates war: it denies that partial misery is public good: it disowns the principle that the blood of one nation is a desirable offering to the prosperity of another: it rejects the doctrine that, to foment their intestine divisions and arm them against each other, is a wise or a dignified line of conduct either morally or politically considered; but it admits, as it seeks to establish, that to resist their encroachments, to crush their exactions, to heal their differences, to stifle their wars, to cunb the enlargement of their empire, to balance more justly their power, to uphold the authority of their Peishwah or chief magistrate, and through its stability, to ameliorate equally the condition of the sovereign and the subject, are objects of an enlarged and rational
policy; and that the surest way of increasing the prosperity of British India, of strengthening the affections of its inhabitants, and of ensuring to us the general good-will of the great masses composing the subjects of these different states, is through the medium of a lasting peace guaranteed to them by a commanding power, to make them participate in the tranquillity, security, and happiness, which the Company's possessions enjoy. These are the views of Lord Wellesley, and this is the plan to the completion of which his attention has been directed. It is needless to comment on its quality : its splendour is marked by the shade of its contrast.'
The ears of the hero, who proposes to restore the empire of the West, have, we believe, been saluted with similar sounds; and all these advantages have been depicted as sure to follow from the subjection of the European civilized world, to the paramount influence which already embraces a very considerable portion of it. The resemblance between the acts and proceedings of the personages to whom we here allude, on the several scenes of the continent of Europe and the peninsula of Hindostan, we have before taken the liberty of suggesting; and it is not a little curious, while it is in our opinion corroborative of the similarity, that the advocates and the apologists of the one and the other adopt the same reasoning and have recourse to the same topics.
As those parts of the instructions given to Lord Wellesley, and those clauses of the statutes which affect the political measures of the late Governor-General, are not before us, we are unable to give any opinion on the question whether there be sufficient ground for exhibiting charges against him in the high court of Parliament; and a recent decision of that august tribunal shews that the framing of the accusations to be alleged is a matter of extreme nicety. The inclination of our minds, however, is that the affair of the Mahratta war, though most open to animadversion, would not furnish the basis of a successful impeachment; and it may be thought that the other serious charges are scarcely of sufficient importance to engage the attention of the same jurisdiction, but may more fitly be heard and decided before the tribunal lately created by statute for such purposes.
It is but justice to the noble person who has been lately so much the subject of public attention, to state that nothing mean and sordid is imputed to him,-no peculation, nor any thing bordering on it. If he has done wrong, he has been carried away by ambition, the infirmity of great minds, the vice of high stations; and if he be an offender, he is at least a splendid one. If the display of great ability, perfect success, and some beneficial effects, cannot change the nature of things,
they are sometimes allowed to mitigate and even to avert the infliction of punishment, and they uniformly oblige us to respect while we condemn.
ART. VI. Remarks on the Husbandry and internal Commerce of Bengal. 8vo. pp. 206. 5s. 6d. Boards. Blacks and Parry.
OU UR empire in the East is now so vast and important, that it is most devoutly to be wished that Science should concur with Policy in promoting its stability and advancement. It is to us a circumstance of pleasing contemplation, that, though Commerce is the first object of our connection with the Eastern world, literature is not neglected, and that the number of students of Asiatic learning is continually increasing. We have shewn our rivals, who have affected to regard us as a nation of shop-keepers, that we look into other books besides the Ledger; and that. with our own interest we connect the melioration and comfort of those with whom we maintain intercourse.
The climate and localities of Asia are indeed so different from those of our own country, that the British farmer can obtain no hints for practice from remarks on the Husbandry of Bengal: but the volume before us will be interesting to the philosopher, both as conveying information to him, and as suggesting an agreeable reflection on the agricultural improvement of a large district of Asia, by the diffusion of European knowlege and skill among its cultivators. It is, we believe, admitted that we surpass all nations in the construction of implements of husbandry; and if we can prevail on the Bengal farmer to adopt an English pleugh, we shall enable him to perform his work with more facility as well as more perfectly, thus increasing to him the produce of the soil. Sufficient evidence is given in this work, to prove that Agriculture in Bengal, though it furnishes a great variety of crops, is scarcely intitled to the appellation of a science, and that it admits of amendments which our enlightened farmers could easily specify. Perhaps the state of society, and the habits of the country, where the cultivator and manufacturer are constantly united, (to say nothing of tenure and occupancy,) must prevent any very extensive alterations for the better: but a considerable effect would be ensured by the single circumstance of substituting a plough that will turn over the soil, for one that only scratches it.
In a commercial view, the state of our Eastern possessions is capable of great amelioration. They would furnish, by proper management, at a low price, various objects of exportation
with which we are supplied from other countries. We have in our Asiatic empire a mine of wealth which has not yet been sufficiently explored; and which, if judiciously worked, would not more contribute to our own opulence than to the prosperity of the natives. The subject is copious and interesting; and the present volume must be regarded rather as a sketch or outline than a satisfactory representation of it.
The author, indeed, calls this an unfinished treatise: yet we are disposed to regard it with indulgence; and, while merit is due to him for the report which he has given, we trust that the magnitude of the object will induce others of our countrymen to follow him in the same track. The present remarks formed part of a work written by several gentlemen, and printed for private circulation several years ago at Calcutta and they are now published by themselves, in consequence of the death of the gentlemen by whom the chief part of the remainder was written, which had never received the corrections of the author.-The volume contains accounts of the aspect, climate, soil, and inhabitants of Bengal; of its population, husbandry, and tenures; of the profits of husbandry, and of its internal commerce; and of the several objects of exportation. A tolerable idea is given of the climate and soil of Bengal, in the subsequent extract:
" The seasons of Bengal conform with the changes of the prevailing winds. They are commonly distinguished by the terms of cold, hot and rainy; but the natives, on the result of closer ob servation, subdivide them, and reckon six seasons, each containing two months.
The spring and the dry season occupy four months, during which the heat progressively increases until it becomes almost intole rable even to the natives themselves. In the middle parts of Bengal, however, the extreme sultriness of the weather is moderated by occasional thunder-storms, accompanied by rain or hail, and driven by sudden gusts of north west wind. In the eastern districts, milder showers of rain are still more frequent and refresh the heated atmo sphere. But, in Bihar, and in districts contiguous to it, a parching wind from the westward prevails during a large portion of the hot season. It blows with great strength during the day, but is commonly succeeded at night by a cool breeze in the contrary direction; and it sometimes ceases for days or weeks, giving way to easterly gales, Beyond the limits of Bihar, the parching winds are still more prevalent; refreshing breezes, or cooling showers of rain and hail, more
• At length the scorched inhabitants are relieved by the rainy season; which, in general, commences nearly at the same time throughout the whole province. During the two first months, according to the usual course of seasons, the rain is heavy and continual; in this period an intermission of many successive days is rare, and the rain'
pours with such force and continuance, that three, four, and even five, inches of water have fallen in a single day. In the two subsequent months, the intermissions are more frequent and of longer dura. tion; and the heat and closeness of the weather has entitled this season to the name of sultry. The rivers and the Ganges especially, which had begun to rise even before the commencement of the rainy season, continue to increase during the two first months of it, and the Ganges reaches its greatest height in the third. By this time all the rivers of Bengal are swoln, and the Delta of the Ganges is overflowed; other portions of Bengal are indeed exempted from annual inundation; but they sometimes experience it as a calamity, in years when a sudden and uncommon fall of rain swells the rivers beyond the level which they usually attain. This temporary variation in the quantity of water does not much affect the general average of the year for, the annual fall of rain, in the lower parts of Bengal, is seldom short of seventy inches and as seldom exceeds eighty.
At the approach of winter, the rivers begin to decrease, showers cease to fall, and the inundation gradually drains off or evaporates. Fogs, the natural consequences of such evaporation in cold weather, are frequent in most parts of Bengal proper Dew, at this season, is every where abundant and penetrating; and, in the higher latitudes of India, as well as in the mountainous tracts of it, frost and extreme cold are experienced. Even in the flat country, ice is obtained by the simple artifice of assisting evaporation in porous vessels, although the atmosphere be much warmer than the freezing temperature; and a blighting frost is sometimes deplored in Bihar and Benares. The natives do therefore not improperly distinguish the winter into two seasons, the frosty and the dewy. It must, however, be remarked, that dews are copious in Bengal throughout the whole winter, and greatly assist vegetation, affording nearly as much moisture as corn requires in a soil so loose, though retentive, as that which is most prevalent throughout the province.
The general soil of Bengal is clay, with a considerable proportion of siliceous sand, fertilised by various salts, and by decayed substances, animal and vegetable. In the flat country, sand is every where the basis of this stratum of productive earth; it indicates an accession of soil on land which has been gained by the dereliction of water. The progress of this operation of nature presents itself to the view in the deviations of the great rivers of Bengal, where changes are often sudden and their dates remembered. A period of thirty years scarcely covers the barren sand with soil sufficient to fit it for rewarding the labours of the husbandman; the lapse of a century does not remove it half a span from the surface. In tracts, which are annually inundated, the progress is more rapid; and that, for obvious reasons, which equally explain why such tracts exhibit a greater depth of productive soil and a larger proportion of clay than other regions. compound of calcareous and siliceous earth assumes, in many places, a firm texture and forms a stone named Kunkur. In some parts, iron ore enters into the composition and gives it a still firmer texture. A similar accretion of sand and clay bears the same appellation. Sili ceous stones of various kinds, which have fallen from the hills, che•.