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ROM. v. 12.
Wherefore as by one man sin entered into the world, and Rom. death by sin, and so death passed upon1 all men, for that · διῆλθεν
all have sinned,
6 Mss. sio...
As the best physicians always take great pains to discover the source of diseases, and go to the very fountain of the mischief, so doth the blessed Paul also. Hence after having said that we were justified, and having shewn it from the Patriarch, and from the Spirit, and from the dying of Christ, (for He would not have died unless He intended to justify,) he next confirms from other sources also what he had so demonstrated, and having established his proposition from things opposite, that is, from death and sin, he enquires how, and in what manner, and from what source death came in, and how it prevailed. How then did death come in and prevail? Through the sin of one. But what means; for that all have sinned. This; He having once fallen, even they that had not eaten of the tree did from him, all of them, become mortal.
Ver. 13. For until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed where there is no law.
The phrase till the Law some think he used of the time before the giving of the Law-that of Abel, for instance, or
Proof that all were made mortal by Adam's sin.
HOMIL. of Noah, or of Abraham-till Moses was born. What was X. the sin in those days, at this rate? some say he means that in Paradise. For hitherto it was not done away, (he would say,) but the fruit of it was yet in vigour. For it had borne that death whereof all partake, which prevailed and lorded over us. But how does he proceed? But sin is not imputed when there is no law. It was by way of objection from the Jews, say they who have spoken on our side", in that he laid this position down and said, because if there be no sin without the Law, how came death to consume all those before the Law? But to me it seems that the sense presently to be given has more to be said for it, and suits better with the Apostle's meaning. And what sense is this? In saying, that till the Law sin was in the world, what he seems to me to mean is this, that after the Law was given the sin resulting from the transgression of it prevailed, and prevailed too so long as the Law existed. For sin he says can have no existence if there be no law. If then it was this sin, he means, from the transgression of the Law that brought forth death, how was it that all before the Law died? For if it is in sin that death hath its origin, but when there is no law, sin is not imputed, how came death to prevail? From whence it is clear, that it was not this sin, the transgression, that is, of the Law, but that of Adam's disobedience, which marred all things. Now what is the proof of this? The fact that even before the Law all died.
Ver. 14. Now sin reigned, he says, from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned.
How did it reign? After the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of Him that was to come. Now this is why Adam is a type of Jesus Christ. How a type? it will be said. Why in that, as the former became to those who were sprung from him, although they had not eaten of the tree, the cause of that death which by his eating was introduced; thus also did Christ become to those sprung from Him, even though they had not wrought righteousness, the Provider of that righteousness which through His Cross"
· οἱ τὰ ἡμέτερα εἰρηκότες. The passage is corrupt in Savile. 4 Mss. read Qari and λέγοντα.
b The comparison of the two Trees
very frequent in the Fathers; see S. Cyr. Cat. xiii. §. 19. Tr. p. 152. Tert. adv. Judæos, §. 13.
Much more then may God
save all through One.
He graciously bestowed on us all. For this reason, at every Roм. turn he keeps to the one,' and is continually bringing it 5, 14. before us, when he says, As by one man sin entered into the world—and, If1 through the offence of one many be dead: 12 Mss. and, Not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift; and when he says, The judgment was by one to condemnation : and again, If by one' man's offence death reigned by one'; or, the and, Therefore as by the offence of one. And again, As by one man's disobedience many3 were made sinners. And or, the so he letteth not go of the one, that should the Jew say to thee, How came it, that by the well-doing of this one Person, Christ, the world was saved? thou mightest be able to say to him, How by the disobedience of this one person, Adam, came it to be condemned? And yet sin and grace are not equivalents, death and life are not equivalents, the Devil and God are not equivalents, but there is a boundless space between them. When then as well from the nature of the thing as from the power of Him that transacteth it, and from the very suitableness thereof, (for it suiteth much better with God to save than to punish,) the preeminence and victory is upon this side, what one word have you to say for unbelief, tell me? However, that what had been done was reasonable, he shews in the following words.
Ver. 15. But not as the offence, so is also the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
For what, he says, is somewhat of this kind. If sin had so extensive effects, and the sin of one man too; how can grace, and that the grace of God, not the Father only, but also the Son, do otherwise than be the more abundant of the two? For the latter is far the more reasonable supposition. For that one man should be punished on account of another does not seem to be much in accordance with reason. But for one to be saved on account of another is at once more suitable and more reasonable. If then the former took place, much more may the latter. Hence he has shewn from these grounds the likelihood and reasonableness of it. For when the former had been made good,
152 Christ atoned for actual sins of men since the Fall.
HOMIL. this would then be readily admitted. But that it is even necessarily so, he makes good from what follows.
Ver. 16. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift. For the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.
And what is this that he is speaking of? It is that sin had power to bring in death and condemnation; but grace did not do away that one sin only, but also those that followed after in its train. Lest then the words 'as' and 'so' might seem to make the measure of the blessings and the evils equal, and that you might not think, upon hearing of Adam, that it was only that sin which he had brought in which was done away with, he says that it was from many offences that an indemnity was brought about. How is this plain? Because after numberless sins, after that in paradise, the matter issued in justification. But where righteousness is, there of necessity follows the life of all, and the countless blessings, as does death where sin was. For righteousness is more than life, since it is even the root of life. That there were several goods then brought in, and that it was not that sin only that was taken away, but all the rest along with it, he points out when he says, that the gift was of many offences unto justification. In which a proof is necessarily included, that death was also torn up by the roots. But since he had said, that the second was greater than the first, he is obliged to give further grounds again for this same thing. For before, he had said that if one man's sin slew all, much more will the grace of One have the power to save. After that he shews that it was not that sin only that was done away by the grace, but all the rest too, and that it was not that the sins were done away only, but that righteousness was given. And Christ did not merely do the same amount of good that Adam did of harm, but far more and greater good. Since then he had made such declarations as these, he wants again here also further confirmation of these. And how does he give this confirmation? He says,
Ver. 17. For if by one man's offence death reigned by one, 14 Mss. much more they which received abundance of grace and of and Sav. the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus
and of Christ.
The Gift of Righteousness more than Pardon.
What he says, amounts to this nearly. What armed death Rom. against the world? The one man's eating from the tree only. If then death attained so great power from one offence, when it is found that certain received a grace and righteousness out of all proportion to that sin, how shall they still be liable to death? And for this cause, he does not here say 'grace,' but superabundance of grace. For it was not as much as we must have to do away the sin only, that we received of His grace, but even far more. For we were at once freed from punishment, and put off all iniquity, and were also born from above, and rose again with the old man buried, and were redeemed, sanctified, led up to adoption, made brothers of the Only-begotten, and of one Body with Him, and counted for His Flesh, and even as a Body with the Head, so were we united unto Him! All these things then Paul calls a superabundance of grace, shewing that it was not a medicine that we received to be a mere countervail of the wound, but even health, and comeliness, and honour, and glory, and dignities far transcending our natural state. And of these each in itself was enough to do away with death, but when all manifestly run together in one, there is not the least vestige of it left, nor can a shadow of it be seen, so entirely is it done away. As then if any one were to cast a person who owed ten mites1 into prison, and ßóλous not the man himself only, but wife and children and servants for his sake; and another were to come and not to pay down the ten mites only, but to give also ten thousand talents of gold, and to lead the prisoner into the king's courts, and to the throne of the highest power, and were to make him partaker of the highest honour and every kind of magnificence, the creditor would not be able to remember the ten mites; so hath our case been. For Christ hath paid down far more than we owe, yea as much more as the illimitable ocean is than a little drop. Do not then, O man, hesitate as thou seest so great a store of blessings, nor enquire how that mere spark of death and sin was done away, when such a sea of gifts was brought in upon it. For this is what Paul intimated by saying, that they who have
xoo but mar. and 4 Mss xvwviv. (3 Paris Mss. besides not collated here.)