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are resolved to die with their expiring people effect the retreat to their asylum. friends. Vigorous and dreadful mea. The siege of this mountain lasts somesures are immediately employed to carry
times for several months. The abodes such rebels along with the others: but of the people are usụally pulled down by when all these fail, they strike off the their enemies ; but this is a matter of beads of such poor sufferers, and then little concern to the Magaginé, for they all the remaining individuals must pass do not think much of the trouble of by and look at them. I am informed building other houses of mud and stones that such a scene makes little impression in place of their former abodes. The on the survivors, except that many are soil in Darbia is very fertile, and remore exasperated against their cruel quires but little labour for obtaining the masters.
enjoyment of its fertility. It is remarkaAccount of the Magaginé,an African Tribe. ble, also, that it snows in Darbia, but the
Mr. Kugler has communicated some snow melts as it falls to the ground. interesting particulars relative to the Nobody claims' a property of soil; and civil and religious state of a Tribe in quarrels about property of land are, of the interior of Africa, which he obtain- course, unknown amongst the Magaginé. ed from an individual belonging to it, he pleases.
Every one cultivates as much ground as during his residence in Egypt. He
Its Government, Customs, and Manners. commences his account with some
The Magaginé are a free people, and Geographical Situation of the Tribe. appreciate liberty as the greatest bless
The African Tribe, concerning which ing: Slavery, therefore, is to them the I have proposed to give you some in- greatest horror and abomination. Their formation, inhabit a place called Darbia, liberty, however, is' not without order and the name of the people is Magaginé. and discipline; but they have good and Darbia is about south-west from Dar- just laws — not many-according to fur, at a distance of 300 English miles. which differences and quarrels are adThere are three considerable rivers in mirably adjusted. The Magaginé have this country: the largest of these is the a Headman, whom they obey and honour (White River) Led; the second Karo as their superior: they have also other (River of Reeds); and the third is called ranks besides that of their Prince; but (the Black River) Gililo. All the hor- nothing raises an individual to a higher sors of the invasions for the Slave-Trade, rank, except bravery and personal merit. already mentioned, trouble the Magaginé Trifling quarrels are never referred in Darbia: they are however so fortunate to the judge, but are settled by the par. as to be in possession of a good asylum; ties themselves in single combat : such not the work of their hands, but the two'competitors cut branches from a tree, work of Him to whom we owe all good and beat each other with them till they things : this is, a very high and steep are satisfied. Whenever jealousy is the mountain, and accessible only in four cause of quarrels, then the single combat places : its name is Surock. This is the always ends in the death of one of the place of refuge for the Magaginé, when party. The elders exert all their authey are so fortunate to spy their ene- thority on such occasions, to bring the mies in good time; but the latter exert parties to terms of reconciliation; and themselves to the utmost to take the such is their authority, as frequently to people by surprise, in order to make a put a stop to quarrels which would cost prey of them. The Magaginé, however, the life of a man without their interhaving once safely reached their asylum ference. Thus we see that wisdom and are secured there from all the terrors good counsel are sought with old age ; and consternation occasioned by these that great honour is conferred on it invasions : the four passages of that amongst the Magaginé; and their elders mountain are well defended by the men therefore are invested with the power of the tribe against their enemies; of judgment. The Prince and the elders so that the people live unmolested in together maintain good order by a regutheir asylum till their enemies retire. lar discipline amongst their people. SinThese people do not suffer from any gular measures are taken in difficult want while on that mountain ; for they suits in which witnesses are wanting. have good fountains and á plentiful pas- The suspected criminals are sought in turage for their cattle, and other neces the following manner, and by these two sary supplies are provided while the 'extraordinary measures. There is a set
of men among the Magaginé Tribe who entirely neglected by them, though they make it a practice to swallow an immense are not troubled with many complaints. quantity of water; and this strange These people have only natural wants ; practice is repeated till they appear to and artificially refined things being out the people to be masters in their art, of their reach, they satisfy themselves and the preparation for their office is with things which nature yields, and thus finished. When a crime is supposed avoid many troublesome complaints by to have been perpetrated by a man, ap- this reasonable way of living. The woplication is made to a water-drinker. men are the practitioners of physic; and He begins his work with swallowing as are said to possess a good knowledge of large a quantity of water as practicable; botany, which they turn to the best acthe individual suspected to have com count. The roots of the medicinal plants mitted the crime is then called by name; are generally employed by the female and the charge is detailed in the presence physicians, either boiled for making baths, of the water-drinker, who uses every ef or for external local application : they fort for throwing off the water whilst are also taken internally in some shape the charge of the criminal is detailed to or other, and are sometimes used in both him. If the water-drinker succeeds in ways, to insure success. Surgery is very throwing off the water, the person ac properly allotted to men. The strikes cused is cleared; but if his efforts are of scorpions, the bites of poisonous serin vain, the individual accused is de- pents &c. are safely cured, in due time, clared guilty, and is reserved for punish. by the application of the remedies with ment. The second measure is for de. which the female physicians are well tecting unknown female criminals; and acquainted. There is no salt in Darbia, it is this:-water is poured into a pot, but the Magaginé have made nitre a and put to the fire till it boils: the su. substitute for it: it is obtained in the spected female is then called, and is same manner as in Europe. obliged to put her hand into the hot
Religious Notions of the Tribe: water: it is confidently believed that The Magaginé have an idea of God, this hot water only injures the guilty but their knowledge of Him is that of persons. Considering that the Magaginé tradition : they believe that every body have no coin, and that the necessaries receives reward or punishment of God, of life are plentiful with them, it is ob- according to his merits, after this life vious that there cannot be many quar- and they, therefore, believe also in the rels among such a people; and their immortality of the soul. They have a judges have little to do. Adultery is correct notion of the existence of the punished with death, not always by a Devil and his angels; but their idea of regular trial. A person having the small the good angels has a taint of supersti. pox must separate himself from the com. tion. The history of the Deluge is premunity of the people, and live in a tent, served in the tradition of the Magaginé; by himself, during forty days. The re but it is defective, as they believe that lations have to take care of such a pa. every living creature perished in that tient; but nobody dare touch him whilst awful calamity, and that God created in quarantine. The same regulation is altogether new beings after the Deluge. in force for other contagious disorders. Thunder and lightning are considered as The Magaginé are reported to be gene- signs of God's displeasure towards men, rally on good terms with one another : on account of their wickedness; and and, it appears, they live together as they appear to have a deep impression one family, of which each member of the fear of God. Neither figure nor delights in relieving or assisting those image of any kind is to be found among of the community who need support. this interesting people; but they have a The men assist each other in tilling temple, to which they occasionally bring and sowing the ground, and in gather- sacrifices of cattle, for the angels. А ing in the harvest. Hunting is a fa- singular opinion is attached to a correct vourite pursuit among the men: they idea respecting the good angels: the good make use of nets, when they have hunt- angels are considered as the guardians ing parties in the proper season. The of good people, and an individual falling woinen assist each other in arranging the into wickedness is said to have been fordomestic affairs. The Magaginé are saken by his good angel and to be under said to be a very active and industrious the controul of a bad one: they have people. The practice of medicine is not therefore great regard for good angels,
Two instances of this are mentioned Assemanni entered my room for the by Mr. Krusé: he writes concerning purpose of stating to me the causes of his one of them
leaving us, lest I should afterwards think
meanly of him, as having gone away Phares attended the Arabic Service; without a reason. As a principal reason, and, after it was over, he declared his he mentioned, that though six months resolution of returning to Malta, pro had elapsed since he came to us, no vided he should receive the same emolu.
answer to his Letter had arrived from ments as he had in the service of the Mr. Jowett; and it seemed to him, as Pacha, viz. yearly salary, 4800 piastres, though we only retained him till clothes 1000 piastres, asses' food 300 could procure another, and then should piastres ; total, 6100 piastres, or 406 dismiss him ; when he would probably Spanish Dollars a-year. He has, further, not have so favourable an opportunity a daily meal with the Effendi, which, for employment as he was offered now. probably, he first wants to be reckoned Another reason was, the smallness of hiš for ; and has the promise of more, as wages. A poor clerk,” he said, “ who they said to him—" At first a drop falls,
can do nothing more than copy accounts, and then the rain ;” that is to say, the receives from the Pacha 25 to 30 dollars 406 dollars are the drop, and the meal hesides two changes of raiment a-year, with the Effendi is a small part of the food for the ass, &c.; and I,” he added, rain which follows.
"give instruction in the school in Reading The other instance mentioned by
and Writing, Grammar, &c.; and, besides Mr. Krusé is as follows:
the school, I translate, and am never idle
for a moment-nor can or will I be Some days ago, Phares came again, just without labour, for I love to work.” I before the Sermon; and on my in. now declared to him the whole natter; viting him to attend it, he consented to but he again brought objections: finally, come with Luigi Assemanni. While I I succeeded so far, that he agreed to stay, went before them, thinking they fol. in case I should make terms with him lowed me, Phares said to L. Assemanni, to his convenience. He would not de
I have for three years past attended mand so much as he was promised by such Service, but God has not given mé the Pacha, because he deemed our bumoney”—and went away and left L. siness much nobler than the Pacha's. Assemanni alone : such a man is not Having found, in the course of our conworth seeking after. Phares has now versation, that he estimated the food at so far influenced L. Assemanni, as to in our table too low, though I cannot duce him to take up his abode with him, reckon it at less than 15 dollars a-month, and to be discontent with his wages. and that he liked to provide for himAssemanni has got 10 dollars a-month, self best, I was obliged to make quite besides board and lodging: a fortnight a new arrangement with him: hence ago, he, on a sudden, said that he could
we finally agreed to pay him 30 dollars not stay longer than seven days, as an monthly, out of which he will provide employment had been offered to him by himself with board and lodging. We the Pacha, in a paper-mill which has cannot indeed be surprised that he looks recently been erected and is now di for more money, if we consider that rected by people of the Levant, which Joseph, who went for a converted Chriswould secure to him a permanent em tian, was not content, though he was ployment and a salary of 33 dollars per not able to write a line without error, month, besides board with the Super. and would never have found employintendant, who is also a Levantine. ment with the Pacha because he unWhat course had I to take ? I was in derstood nothing. After all, Luigi Asthe greatest perplexity, and in anxiety semanni has not much more now than for my school, which had scarcely reco he had before, including food and lodging, vered from the injury it had received by especially in the present dearth of all Joseph's removal. I requested Br. Lie- provisions which prevails this year. der to speak with him, and to hear the The artal of corn, which two years ago reasons for which he would leave us, and was 24 piastres, is now from 40 to 45 to see whether we could agree together piastres, and the same is the ease with in some way ; but Mr. Lieder could not all other things: eight days ago, I effect any thing, and gave me no hopes bought corn for 16 dolars, for our poor of his remaining. Two days after, L. scholars, baking the bread at present in
our own house, as the dearth is daily How can this work be effected, except increasing: a few days since, it rose we ourselves put our hand to it? From again 5 piastres. The water which we a Mahomedan Government from mowant, for drinking and cooking alone, rally-degraded and superstitious Chriscosts every month three dollars, and for tian Churches from a people, among the school nearly one more.
whom truth and love, knowledge and Importance of a Seminary for the Prepa despised ; and hypocrisy and hatred, ig
virtue, are universally estranged and ration of Native Teachers.
norance and vice, are frequent—we canThe difficulty of obtaining suitable not expect efforts for such purposes. PaTeachers has suggested to the Mis- rents know not their duty towards their sionaries the value of a Seminary for children, nor are they possessed of the the preparation of Native Youths for necessary qualifications for instructing the work of Education; though the them; and many of them would know expense of the Establishment, in the ing up camels and wild Nubian horses
better and find more pleasure in trainpresent state of the Society's finances, than their children. To us, therefore, and other local circumstances, throw
to our Society especially, which has the difficulties in the way of such an spiritual welfare of Egypt at heart, it undertaking. On this subject Mr. belongs to procure Schoolmasters and Schlienz writes :
other means by which we are able to The Brethren seem to agree in opi- bring the totally-neglected children, and nion, that an Institution for the educa- through them also more of the adults of tion of Schoolmasters for Egypt should
the different Christian Denominations in be established by our Society. It will Egypt, to the knowledge and love of our be observed in their different Letters,
Lord Jesus Christ. that they found with the greatest diffi Mr. Schlienz adds :culty a man whom they could employ in their present school ; and even that
Difficulties will certainly attend such one, whom they have got, does not seem
an undertaking ; several of which might at all to meet their approbation. They perhaps be comprised in questions like also mention, that the want of a suitable these-Where can we establish such an Schoolmaster was one of the principal Institution? Where find a suitable reasons which influenced them not to Teacher or Teachers for it? How can it establish a school at Damietta ; which, it be placed on the most advantageous seems, could have been done with con
footing in general ?-As to the first of siderable advantage. Of course, to the
these questions, the answer might be dif
ferent. ignorant and to the blind they cannot en.
Some would say in Egypt : trust the teaching of children ; and yet some, in Malta. If it be in Egypt, I fear the Schoolmasters they can find at pre
we should always hear of assaults and sent in Egypt have, besides other defi
excommunications from the side of the ciencies, especially those of ignorance and
blind Clergy: and if it be in Malta, the blindness. It is therefore plain, that if oriental customs of the Youths, the prethe Brethren ought to yield effectual judice of the people as if we had politiassistance to the Youth of the Egyptian
cal intentions, the expenses which their Christians, and, through them, to the carriage occasions, might make us diffiwhole mass, suitable Teachers must first
culties. The advantages which such an be procured, by giving
to promising Institution might enjuy, if established in Youths Christian Education.
Malta, have been mentioned on former
occasions: if undertaken in Egypt, it proOn the means of effecting so desira- mises many benefits for Egypt, Ethiopia, ble an object, Mr. Schlienz remarks- and Palestine.
CEYLON MISSION. While the Society had extended its the East, the Island of Ceylon, where operations to the Continent of India, the favourable disposition of the Goin the Bengal and Madras Presiden- vernment, and the abolition of Slavery, cies, its attention was directed to afforded many facilities for comanother part of the British Empire in mencing a Mission. The population