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transaction of other general business, the members sepa- The Society of Arts, desirous to promote the education of rated, well satisfied with the success which has continued the people, had instituted these prizes, that there might to attend the operations of the Society.
be some incentive to study, and he saw no reason why CHELTENHAM.-Courses of lectures have been com- some of those he saw around him should not participate menced, and are fully attended, both at the Literary and in them, if with a vigorous determination they set themPhilosophical Institutions and the Athenæum. Among selves to work to do so.—Some other gentlemen briefly the lecturers engaged are Dr. Lankester, the Rev. H. addressed the meeting, and thanks having been voted to Christmas, F. R. Bennett, Esq., P. L. Simmonds, Esq., the chairman, the meeting broke up. and Mr. Balfour; and gratuitous lectures have also been MAShau. The inauguration of the new building to be delivered by Dr. Humphreys, of the Grammar School, called the Riddell Memorial Mechanics' Institute, took and other friends of educational progress.
place on Monday, the 3rd inst. It contains a well proporHUNTINGDON.-A meeting took place at the Literary tioned class-room, a library and reading-room, besides a and Scientific Institution on Friday evening, the 7th large vestibule, staircase, kitchen, &c., anda lecture-room, inst., for the purpose of elucidating some views tending forty feet by twenty feet, with an elegantly designed roof to advance the education and instruction of the young and pannelled ceiling, a committee-room, an ante-room, men of the town in the useful sciences, in order to qualify a room intended for a museum, &c. The style is plain them to become candidates for the prizes offered by the Italian, and presents three elevations, that in the centre Society of Arts. The chair was taken by Michael with a southern aspect being very handsome. The chair Foster, Esq., the president, who stated the advantages was taken by J. Fisher, Esq., who, after having opened the which were likely to arise to those who would systemati- business of the meeting, read the report of the building cally undertake the studies which would enable them to committee, which congratulates the subscribers on the put themselves in competition with those who were successful accomplishment of their undertaking, in the desirous to obtain appointments to public situations. He completion of the very handsome building in which they remarked that the system of obtaining places by patron- were assembled, for the purpose of inaugurating it as age was now happily on the decrease, and it was by talent a memorial to the memory of their much esteemed vicar, alone that for the future men could hope to attain to offi- the late Rev. Thomas Riddell, who, for a period of nearly cial situations; the East India Company, amongst others, 15 years, had endeared himself to those committed to had thrown their immense patronage open to public com his charge by his exemplary and pious life. Soon after petition, and almost one of their first appointments, his sudden and melancholy death, a strong desire was exunder the new system, worth £1,200 a year, had been pressed by many of his parishioners and friends to pay given to the son of a tradesman of Royston. He saw no some mark of respect to his memory, and at the same reason why the young men of Huntingdon should not time to preserve and hand down to posterity some lasting make the attempt to obtain some of the prizes, which and useful record of him and his connection with the were within the reach of all who had talent and energy parish. As he had in his lifetime taken a very lively into qualify themselves for the ordeal. Mr. Honey, of terest in this Institute from its first establishment until Cowper's House Academy, explained at length the various his death, it was determined to erect to his memory a branches of study in which young men would have to be handsome bulding in Masham for a Mechanics’ Institute, examined—such as chemistry, mathematics, natural phi- to be called “The Riddell Memorial Mechanics' Instilosophy, and other sciences, for which the Society of Arts tute.” The Master and Fellows of Trinity College, offered prizes varying from £25 to £10, besides giving Cambridge, granted the site, and gave a donation of certificates, which carried with them a recommendation £20 towards the building fund. A subscription to almost any situation for which the holder might was set on foot for the erection of the building, become a candidate. For himself, he was ready on the and in a short time it amounted to the sum of £461. formation of the classes to give instruction in any branch The ladies of Masham formed themselves into a comwhich came within his power; and he would say further, mittee and got up a fancy fair and bazaar in aid that where he was not himself competent, he would of the building fund. This was held, by the kind perundertake to find masters at his own expense. He urged mission of Admiral and Mrs. Danby Vernon Harthe young men to lose no time in taking advantage of court, in Swinton Park, on the 9th of July last, and the boon now offered to them. The Rev. R. C. Black realised the sum of £275, which, with the £461 raised by thought the scheme deserved encouragement; it was too subscription, made the sum of £736 applicable to the often the case that when youths left school they thought erection of the building. In addition to this it should their education was finished; whereas they had in fact be mentioned, that many of the neighbouring farmers only, laid the foundation for that more serious study gratuitously led a great portion of the materials for the which was to aid them if they desired to attain distinc-building. The funds having been thus raised, Messrs. tion in after life.- The Rev. V. H. Millard spoke of the Perkin and Backhouse, architects, of Leeds, kindly great advantage which the plan held out to young men volunteered to present the committee with the design of with any pretensions to ability and perseverance. Some the present edifice. The first stone was laid on the of the most eminent men of the present day had risen 15th of March last, by Admiral Harcourt, of Swintonfrom the lower classes, by that systematic attention to park, in the presence of Timothy Hutton, Esq., of Clifton any particular study for which their minds seemed to be Castle, the Rev. Thos. Hedley, M.A., Vicar of Masham, designed. He instanced Sir Joseph Paxton, who was William Perkin, Esq. (the architect), the officers and originally only a labouring lad in the Duke of Devon- committee of the Institute, and a large concourse of the shire's garden; the late Hugh Miller, the geologist, who inhabitants of Masham and its neighbourhood. The Rev. for many years worked in a quarry, and obtained his first Canon Trevor, of York, in an address of some length, insight into the depths of that science from the circum- moved the adoption of the report, which was seconded by stance of being so placed; but then, when the talent in the Rev. Thos. Hedley, Vicar of Masham ; the Rev. Dr. either case displayed itself, these men read and thought Whiteside, Vicar of Scarborongh, the Rev. S. H. Atkins, and worked hard to attain the proficiency which they of Studley, Barnett Blake, Esq., lecturer to the Yorksubsequently enjoyed. And so it must be with all who shire Union of Mechanics’ Institutes, and the Rev. desired to excel. They must educate the particular talent Phineas Stubbs, Vicar of Well, subsequently addressed with which they were blessed; the muscular arm of the the meeting, which separated after passing several votes brawny smith could never wield the sledge hammer, if of thanks. it were not trained to the occupation; and what that WAKEFIELD.-The Annual Report of the Mechanics' training was to the arm, education was to the mind; it Institution states that the Exhibition and Bazaar held formed it, strengthened it, and enabled it to overcome last year, with a view to paying off the debt upon the all difficulties that stood in the way of its advancement. ' purchase of the building, realised upwards of £1,000.
The number of members at present on the books is 812, PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT. and the average attendance at the Monday evening lec- APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED. tures has been about 300. The lecturers were as follows:
[From Gazette, November 14th, 1856.] -Dr. Cantor, London—The Philosophy of Nutrition;
Dated 15th September, 1856. Physionomy and Temperament. T. Brittain, Esq., 2152. Felix Moreau, 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris—Improvements Manchester— The Microscope applied to Animal Physio
applicable to the tops of omnibuses and other carriages.. logy. Mr. John Cameron-Cram and Culture ; Books, 2290. Pierre Armand le Comte de Fontaine-Moreau, 39, Rue de
Dated 1st October, 1856. and how to read them, illustrated by Readings and Cri- l'Echiquier, Paris-An improved voltaic battery. (A comtical Exposition of Passages; Artistic, Scientific, and munication.) Philosophic Culture. Rev. J. G. Miall, Bradford–The
Dated 3rd October, 1856. History of Transit, Ancient and Modern. Rev. W. H. / 2321. Blanche Palmire Mosqueron, Widow Vilcoq, Paris–An im
proved lamp oil. Channing-On American Slavery. E. H. Durden, Esq., F.C.S., Leeds-New Materials for the Manufacture of 2363. William Stettinius Clark, High Holborn-Improvements in
Dated 9th Ortober, 1856.! Paper. Henry Currer Briggs, Esq.-On the difficulties the construction of churns for producing butter. (A comattending the safe and successful working of Coal Mines. munication.) R. M. Milnes, Esq., M.P.-A Reading from his own
2370. John Shaw and Edwin Shaw, Glossop, Derby-Certain im.
provements in pianofortes, organs, harmoniums, and other Poems. S. Wilderspin, Esq.-On Infant Education.
similar keyed musical instruments. Rev. H. V. Palmer, York-Modern Fortification, its
Dated 11th October, 1856. principles familiarly explained and illustrated. E. B. 2385. Anton Bruno Seithen, 12, Alpha-place, Caledonian-roadWheatley, Esq., Hopton-On certain Industrial Schools Improvements in machinery or apparatus for cutting cork in in France.
the process of shaping and making stoppers of cork, and in Frederick Dykes, Esq., Beverley— French
the treatment of cork to be employed in the said processes, Literature in the 12th and 13th Centuries. T. G.
and to be applied to other useful purposes. Wright, Esq., M.D.—The Magnetic Telegraph. Rev.
Dated October 17th, 1856. J. S. Eastmead—The Vicar of Wakefield and its Au-2328. George Wilson, Glasgow --Improvements in power looms.
Daled 20th October, 1856. thor. Mr. Edmund Wheeler, London-Electric Tele- 2456. Robert George Barrow, 15, Wade-street, Poplar–A self-maingraphs for Printing, Writing, and Copying ; Stationary, taining motive power obtained from water, air, or any other Marine, and Locomotive Steam Engines, illustrated by
fluid or liquid. Diagrams and Working Models. Mr. Samuel Braith- 2459. Charles Robert Freeman, Eaton, Norwich, and William Drake
Key, Norwich-Improvements in manufacturing food for waite, Whitby-Jet and its Manufacture. Rev. W. R. animals. Bowditch— The Science of Common Things. Dr. Wil
Daled October 22nd, 1856. liam Alexander, Halifax-The Injuries to Health inci- 2479. Carl Heinrich Julius Wilhem Maximilian Liebmann, Fartown
Huddersfield-An improvement in purifying water. (A dent to certain Mining and Manufacturing Processes. communication). Rev. J. H. Ryland- The Early Life and Writings of
Dated 23rd October, 1856. Milton. Mr. John Newby, Ackworth—The Institution 2486. George Edward Johns, 4, Falcon-street, London—The applica!
tion and adaptation of an optical or stereoscopic arrangement of the Knights Templars. J. B. Greenwood, Esq.,
in the manufacture of boxes. Dewsbury – What are we to do with our Young Thieves?
Dated 25th October, 1856. Rev. A. Perry, M.D.-On the Human Brain,
considered 2508. William Benson, Four Stones, near Hexham, Northumberland
- Improvements in apparatus for drying grain, seeds, and in some of its relations, physical, intellectual, and mo
other substances. ral. Rev. A. Cassels, Batley-On Shoddy, and its Ma- 2510. Joseph Sexton, Leicester-square-Improvements in the con. nufacture. In addition to the above, a course of ten lec- struction of caustic holders, applicable also to the holding of tures was delivered by the Rev. W. R. Bowditch, " On 2514. Thomas Brown, Fenchurch-street-Improvements in capstans
leads, chalks, and other marking materials. the Scientific Principles of some Common Things,” and and windlasses. one by the Rev. A. J. D’Orsey, on “What to learn, and
Dated 277h October, 1856. how to learn it.” An improvement as to number and 2515. Benjamin Ferrey, Trinity-place, Charing-cross-An improve quality has taken place in the classes, and the subjects 2516. John Birkin, West Bridgeford,
Nottingham-Improvements in taught are reading, writing, and arithmetic, French, dressing and cleaning wheat and other grain. pencil drawing, modelling, chemistry, and natural history. 2517. Hugo Frederick Forbes, Florence, Tuscany-An improved The Practical Art Class, for Free-hand and Mecha- 2519. Thomas Allen, Adelphi-terrace-Improvements in the permanical Drawing, Designing, and Modelling, is conducted nent way of railways. by Mr. J. White, head master of the 'Leeds School 2521. Philipp Schaffer and Frederick Schaffer, Brewer-street-An of Practical Art. This class meets every Tuesday evening,
improved handle for desks, deed and despatch boxes, bags,
furniture, and other articles to which handles are applied. and affords especial advantages to Masons, Builders, Plas- 2522. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improved means terers, Joiners, Cabinet-Makers, Upholsterers, Carvers of economising the waste heat of furnaces or fire-places. (A and Gilders, Painters, Machinists, Ironfounders, and all 2623. Michael Dognin, Lyons, France-Improvements in machinery
communication). whose business requires a knowledge of Drawing, Design
for making lace or net. ing, and Modelling. Such members of the class as are
Dated 28th October, 1856. sufficiently advanced, will be eligible to compete for the 2534. William Brodie, Belhaven, East Lothian- Improvements in prizes and certificates offered by the Society of Arts, at 2525. Edward Thornhill Simpson, Calder Soap Works, Wakefieldthe Examination which is to be held at Huddersfield
Improvements in the manufacture of soap next Whitsuntide.
2526. Adolphe Ernest Ragon, Bernard-street, Ruesell-square-Im
provements in apparatus for indicating and recording the
speed of ships. (A communication.)
2527. William Septimus Losh, Wreay Syke, Cumberland - ImproveMEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
ments in the preparation of size, which may also be used as
a waterproof varnish or coating. Hox. Actuaries, 8.
2528. Jean Louis Marie, Paris-Improvements in raising, propelling, Geographical, 84. I. Lieut. Pim,“ Plan for a further Search and forcing water and other fluids, and in obtaining motive
after the remațns of the Franklin Expedition." II. Letter
from Dr. Vogel, of the Central African Expedition. 2529. William Armand Gilbee, 4, South-street, Finsbury—ImproveTues. Meteorological, 7.
ments in the construction of smoke-consuming furnacesCivil Engineers, 8. Mr. T. T. Jopling “On Recent Im
(A communication.) provements in Water Meters."
2530. Joseph Armstrong, Normanton-Improvements in the permaMed. and Chirurg., 84.
nent way of railways. Zoological, 9.
2531. Samuel Russell, 12, Sheaf-gardens, Sheffield-Improvements WED. Society of Arts, 8. Dr. J. Forbes Royle “On Indian Fibres." in the manufacture of teapot-handles, knobs, door-plates,
finger. plates, razor scales, and knife handles.
2532. James Kinder Cheetham, Rochdale, Lancashire-Improve. Archäological, .
ments in the manufacture of iron and steel. THURS. Antiquaries, 8.
2533. Adolphe Aubril, Newman-street, Oxford-street-The novel Royal, f.
application of a certain root to the manufacture of starch, Sat, Medical, 8.
paper, and cardboard.
Dated 29th October, 1856.
in such or other furnaces or fireplaces, or that escapes from 2535. Richard Hampson, Rochdale, Lancashire-Improvements in
the retorts and other parts of the apparatus used in the lubricating steam engines.
manufacture of gas. 2537. Thomas Eyre Wyche, Camberwell-A method of disengaging
Dated 4th November, 1856. metals from the matrix. (Partly a communication.) 2584. Joshua Murgatroyd, Stockport-Improvements in machinery 2539. Thomas Clutton Salt, Birmingham- A new or improved me- or apparatus for spinning, cleaning, doubling, and throwing thod of coating with glass or enamelling surfaces of cast iron.
silk, part of which improvements are applicable to machinery 2541. Thomas Smith Henzell, South Shields— Improvements in the for roving and doubling cotton and other fibrous substances, construction of ships or vessels.
2585. Henry Bessemer, Queen-street-place, New Cannon-street--Im2643. William Kopke, Hackney, Middlesex-An improved clasp
provements in the manufacture of rails, or railway bars, and board to hold documents for reference.
axles. 2545. Peter Fairbairn, Leeds, and Robert Newton, Liverpool-Im- 2586. Ethan Campbell, Boston, U.S.--A new and useful or improved provements in machinery for dressing waste silk.
apparatus for propelling a navigable vessel. 2547. John Thomas Way, Welbeck-street-Improvements in obtain- 2587. William Gray and John Tate, Newcastle-on-Tyne- Improveing light by electricity.
ments in apparatus for washing. 2549. Joha Macallum, Kames Gunpowder Mills, Argyle, N.B.-Im- 2588. Joseph Jessop, West Gate, Bradford—Improvements in maprovements in the preparation or refining of saltpetre.
chinery for washing, wringing, and mangleing. Dated 30th October, 1855.
2589. Samuel Cotton, Broughton, near Manchester-An improved 2551. Constantine John Baptist Torassa, Genoa--An apparatus for mode or method of regulating or governing lift, tilt, or other calculating the speed of vessels at sea, as well as obtaining
hammers worked by mechanical power. the extent of their destination caused by the side winds. 2590. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improved ma2553. John Gibbon, Northfieet, Kent-Improvements in chafr-cut- chinery for riming and tapping gas fittings. (A communicating machines.
tion.) 2555. Louis Urion, Nancy, France-Improvements in match boxes or 2591. William Edward Newton, 66, Chancery-lane-Improved maholders.
chinery for sweeping floors, streets, and walks. (A ccm. Dated 31st October, 1856.
munication.). 2556. Charles Augustus Ferguson, Millwall, Poplar—Improvements
Dated 5th November, 1856. in preparing timber for ship-building, mast-making, and 2593. William Weild, Manchester-Improvements in velvet or cut other purposes.
pile fabrics, and in looms or machinery used for weaving such 2557. John Lawson, 2, Morris-place, Glasgow-Improvements in the velvet and other loop pile fabrics. manufacture of pile and other fabrics.
2595. William Edward Wiley, 34, Great Hampton-street, Birming2560. Francis Cook Matthews, Great Driffeld, York-Improvements
ham-- Improvements in pen-holders. in preparing manure.
2597. James Fernihough, Dukintield, Chester, and Robert Farrow, 2561. Samuel Worssam, Chelsea, and John Grist, Islington-Im
Leek, Stafford-A self-acting apparatus for regulating the provements in machinery for cutting and shaping wood.
supply of atmospheric air to furnaces, gas stoves, and other 2562. Henry Hutton, Reading--Improvements in lubricators.
closed vessels used for the consumption of fuel or combustible Dated 1st November, 1856.
gases, by preventing the formation of smoke therefrom, and 2563. Edward Joseph Hughes, Manchester-An improved mode, or
thereby economising such fuel or combustible gases. method of concentrating the colouring matter of certain 2599. William Clissold, Dudbridge, Gloucestershire-Improved apvegetable substances.
paratus for regulating the supply of water to water-wheels. 2564. Joseph Browne, Liverpool-Improvements in the construction 2601. Henry Hill, Stepney-An improvement in locks for bags and and working of ships' windlasses and capstans, part of which
other like articles, improvements are also applicable for steering ships and other 2603. Robert William Sievier, Upper Holloway-An improvement in vessels.
the mode of treating saccharine juices in the manufacture of 2566. Benjamin Stott, Salford, near Manchester-Improvements in
sugar. machinery or apparatus for preparing, spinning, and doubling
cotton, wool, flax, or other fibrous materials. 2567. John Young, Wolverhampton-Improvements in flooring cramps
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. and lifting jacks.
Sealed November 14th, 1856. 1977. William Webb. 2568. John Parbery, Northampton-Certain improvements in horse 1138. Uriah Scott.
2051. John Morrison and Samuel collars.
1145. William Evans.
Amphlet. 2569. James Coul Sinclair, Elgin, Moray, N.B.-- Improvements in 1148. William Norris and Robert 2121. John Blythe Robinson. treating, preparing, and drying agricultural produce.
Scaled November 18th, 1856. 2570. Thomas Ainsley Cook, Newcastle-on-Tyne-Improvements in (1149. James Young Simpson and 1191. James Anning Gollop. treating manganese ores.
Wyville Thomson. 1199. Robert Pemberton. 2571. John Warne, Blackfriars-road-Improvements in beer engines. 1151. Robert Foulds and William 1209. Macleroy Neilson. 2572. Josiah Stone, Park Terrace, New Cross, Kent- -- Improve
1220. William Richelieu Hodges. ments in the construction of force pumps.
1159. William Thistlethwaite. 1222. Alexandre Tolhausen. 2573. William Henry Moore, 3, Wenlock-place, City-road - Improve- 1166. Richard Coleman.
1237. John Gedge. ments in railway signals.
1167. David Curwood.
1307. Delia Avery. 2574. William Joseph Curtis, 1, Sebbon-street, Islington-Improve- 1171. Louis Cornides.
1329. Reuben Boyce Wigley. ments in lighting and ventilating railway carriages.
1172. Johan Jacob Meyer. 1345. Duncan Lang. Dated 3rd November, 1856.
1175. Richard Knight.
1375. Richard Archibald Broo2575. John Jobson, Litchurch, Derby-Improvements in the manu- 1187. William Maugham.
man. facture of railway chairs.
1225. Germain Barruel.
1383. Henry Benson James. 2576. Samuel Tearne, and George William Richmond, Birmingham 1261. John Roberts.
1385. William Bayliss. -Certain improvements in producing ornamental designs on 1262. Thomas Charlton and Wil- 1461. George Davies. the surfaces of fancy and other goods made of papier mache,
1506. John Portus. wood, glass, china, earthenware, tin, iron, or other such like ( 1263. James Baird.
1605. Henry Page. materials, the surfaces of which when made up are usually | 1292. Henry Bessemer.
1687. Charles Carey. finished by staining, varnishing, painting, or japanning. 1293. William Gossage.
1807. Constantine John Baptist 2577. James Nasmyth and Robert Wilson, Patricroft, near Man- 1308. James Nasmyth.
Torassa. chester-Improvements in hydraulic pumps and presses for 1507. James Aikman.
1981. Henry Bessemer. packing cotton and other articles of the like nature.
1815. Thomas Wicksteed.
1987. Charles Carey. 2578. Samuel Middleton, 15, Porter-street, Newport-market-Im- 2952. Joseph Crossley and James 2097. John Watson and Charles provements in the manufacture of certain articles of leather Bolton.
Frederic Halle. without seams. 2579. John White, Glasgow-Improvements in preparing for spinning PATENTS ON WHICH THE Tund YEAR'S STAMP DUTY HAS BEEN PAID.
cotton and other fibrous substances. 2581. Ebenezer Erskine Scott, Dundee -- Improvements in stereo
2641. Charles De Bergue. scopes.
2627. William Austin.
November 14th. 2583. John Kirkham, Tonbridge-place, New-road-Improvements in 2682. Moses Poole.
2768. Prix Charles Jean Baptiste the construction of furnaces, ovens, or kilns for drying,
Scchet. baking, or burning pottery, earthenware, bricks, tiles, or 2634. Henry Willis.
November 15th. other similar articles, and in the means of collecting and
2656. David Pratt. condehsing the smokc, gases, or vapours evolved from the fuel 2639. William Smith.
1680. James Melville.
Portable Iron Military Music Stand
Key, Rudall, and Co.
Leonard Hicks John Edward Smith
and the marool yield large quantities of white fibres.
Journal of the Society of Arts. Among the palms, in addition to cocon-nut fibre, we have
the black Ejoo fibre, remarkable as well for strength as for incorruptibility when exposed to wet. As the lime
tree yields Russian bast, so the jute and its congeners of FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1856. the same family are now equally indispensable to our
manufactures. As the leguminous and malvaceous classes
of plants include several groups, of which numerous species SECOND ORDINARY MEETING. abound in fibres, so do also the Asclepiads and the nettles;
combining to afford us any variety of fineness and of WEDNESDAY, Nov. 26, 1856.
strength which we can expect, or I may almost say wish
for in fibres. The climate, moreover, is favourable for The Second Ordinary Meeting of the One the growth of these fibre-yielding plants; for as most Hundred and Third Session was held on Wed- of those to which I have to allude belong to the indinesday, the 26th inst., Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S., genous flora of India, their period of growth is during Chairman of Council, in the chair.
the rainy season, when there is suitable heat and abund
ant moisture ; thus is secured the rapid growth of the The following Candidates were balloted for, parts of vegetation in which almost entirely these fibre and duly elected :
abound. As the rainy season 'comes to an end after Anthony, Charles. Lefevre, George Shaw.
three, or in some parts, four months, there is usually fine weather for the separation and preparation of these
fibres, In these operations, however, I believe the The following Institution has been taken into natives may very profitably be assisted with some cheap Union since the last announcement:
machinery, and be taught improved and yet simple 424. Northowram Mechanics’ Institute.
methods of preparing their fibres for market. There is,
moreover, great abundance of unoccupied land as well as of The following Colonial Institution has been cheap labour, and easy accessibility, either by sea or river taken into Union since the last announcement :- carriage, to the places where the fibres chiefly abound.
It has no doubt been in consequence of the suitableness Natal Agricultural and Horticultural Society.
of all these essentials that the import of fibres from the The following Schools have been taken into East has so rapidly increased. Thus, as I have already Union since the last announcement :
quoted from McCulloch's Conımercial Dictionary :
HEMP I UPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM. Birmingham, Bristol-road School.
1831. Making Place Hall (near Halifax) Academy.
From Russia ..........cwt. 506,803 672,342 The Paper read was :
From British India.. 95,472 590,923 INDIAN FIBRES, BEING A SEQUEL TO OBSER- increase in 1854 and 1855, the imports being :
There was a falling off in 1852 and 1853, but an VATIONS ON INDIAN FIBRES FIT FOR TEXTILE FABRICS, OR FOR ROPE AND
125,951 69,464 PAPER MAKING.”
443,558, By J. FORBES ROYLE, M.D., F.R.S.
963 In proposing to re-introduce the members of the So
569,250 ciety to a subject which they so recently discussed, I feel
594,068 that some apology is necessary, the more particularly as
I am indebted to Sir Emerson Tennant for the folit is not one to which I myself am specially wedded. lowing return:-.. Indeed, in Paris, I promised our Secretary a Paper on the Oils and Fatty Substances of India, a promise which I An Account of the importations of Hemp in the nine months hope yet to be able to redeem. An increased supply of ended 30th September, 1856, distinguishing the Quantities materials for cordage, clothing, and paper-making, is, imported from British Territories in the bart Indies. however, not an unimportant one, as I have endeavoured to show; and though my paper on this subject was written
QUANTITIES IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED
KINGDOX IN TIE NINE MONTHS ENDED at the request of the Council, and that on paper-mate
30TH SEPTEMBER, 1856. rials at the call of the Board of Trade, and both in consequence of the anticipated deficiency of the ordinary sources of supply, I had long before endeavoured to have
gate turned to account the true hemp plant which grows in such abundance in some parts of North-Western India,
Imporand had, at a still earlier period, thought, like so many others, that as India grows and exports such large quantities of linseed, there must be a corresponding production
Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. Cwt. of flax, and, as none was collected, there must be propor- Hemp, dressed
13,618 tionate waste.
37,777 209 342,165 380,151 My attention has been directed to these fibrous sub- tow, or codilla of
10,095 10,095 stances in a greater degree than to some other Indian
16,311 546,128 products, because India appears to me to be pre-eminently Other vegetable a country for fibres, and because I believe that a great
substances of the na
1,431 ture and quality of un
1,876 4,200 mass of valuable material, which now yearly runs to waste, dressed hemp may more readily than almost anything else be turned to profitable account. In the first place, the vegetation
569,080 1,431 209 383,472 954,192 of the country is characterised by a teeming abundance in species of plants known to abound in fibres. Thus, Office of the Inspector-General of Imports and Exports, without enumerating the gigantic grasses, the plantain Custom-house, London, Nov. 22nd, 1856.
The soil and climate are also favourable to the other • See Journal of Society of Arts, vol. ii., p. 366. plants which have been introduced from other countries;
po on 520,741
sive of Singa-
JOHN A. MESSENGER.
thus, the pine-apple now abounds in Assam and in the little or no knowledge of what is of value in the foreign Indian islands, also in Pegu : the agave or American market. Any one of the points of this circle of connections aloe is quite at home in the comparatively dry climates being omitted is sufficient, as has often been experienced, of the Deccan and of Mysore. The flax plant is itself to put a stop to progress in a new course. Such inextensively cultivated in the plains, but only on account quiries are, moreover, of especial utility if carried on in of its linseed, as also the true hemp plant ; the latter connection with a Society like the present, where every for the intoxicating secretions of its leaves.
subject has the advantage of being submitted to the examiBy some it may be asked, why, if so favourable to the nation of men who, by their scientific attainments and production of fibre, does not India produce larger quan- practical knowledge, are the best qualified to form a cortities, or a better quality of cotton. The question might rect judgment on the value of unknown products or of the be answered by stating that cotton is not fibrous but new inventions brought before them. For, as I before cellular tissue. But a more proper answer would be, that stated, it is only by the union of scientific principles cotton is a production of the fruit and not of the stem or with practical knowledge that any great results are, in leaves of a plant; and it does not follow that a climate the present day, to be obtained. For, if we rely upon which promotes the growth of certain parts of vegetation the latter only, we may, sometime, when apparently prois also favourable for the maturation of fruit; indeed, the ceeding at railway speed, be brought to a sudden, and converse is not unfrequently the case. Therefore, though occasionally disastrous termination by the neglect of the seasons may be well suited for all the purposes of some single point; while, if we rely upon scientific indigenous species, they may not be so for those which principles only, we may often be shunted off, though we are foreign to the soil. This is the case with the American can avail ourselves of legitimate modes for returning to cotton plant; for it is not the short-stapled Indian cotton the course we were wishing to pursue. which our manufacturers require, but American cotton Having on a previous occasion, as well as in a separate grown in India. Though this grows vigorously in most work, dwelt on the great variety of Indian fibres, of parts of India during the rainy season, it is unable, with which we now have a very extended display, it is not my its short roots and broad expanded leaves, to bear the intention either to enumerate or to describe the great transition from the moisture of the rains to the compara- variety of fibres which are, and may be, produced in tive dryness at their conclusion. Failure has therefore India. But I propose rather to dwell upon those which ensued in many places, but in others, as the district of are at present most worthy of attention, because possessed Dharwar, there are 60,000 acres under cultivation with of superior qualities, or procurable in larger quantities, American cotton; but there the plant has the advantage or because they are wanted by manufacturers in Europe of the influence of the two monsoons. I believe it will for particular purposes. Therefore, I shall arrange my be possible in other districts, as the irrigation canals observations under the heads of the purposes to which come fully into operation, so to moderate the transition different fibres are applicable, rather than under the from moisture to dryness as to allow of the full ripening names of each particular fibre,—thus :of the fruit, and, therefore, of the formation of good 1. Basts and barks. stapled cotton.
2. Platting and mat-making materials. To return, however, to our subject. I have myself 3. Cordage fibres. been induced to return to it, because some new fibres of 4. Textile fibres. good quality, and old ones from new situations, were 5. Paper materials. sent to the Paris Exhibition. Much additional informa
6. Adaptation of machinery for preparing fibres in tion has been obtained on some points, and ample con- India, and methods to be adopted for obtaining fibres firmation of the views I formerly promulgated. I have in large quantities from India. been encouraged also to proceed with this subject, from the attention which it has excited, and from the nu
BASTS AND BARKS. merous inquiries which continue to be made of me re- Though I commence my observations with basts or specting these Indian fibres: likewise from my having been barks, it is not because I think them of primary importinformed from the best sources that in the busy hives where ance, for I am well aware that carriage and freight must the fibre manufactures are chiefly carried on, they yet operate against their being brought in any large quan, require still larger supplies, either of those which are tities from such great distances; but still, some useful in commerce, or of such as are most like them, and information may be elicited respecting them, and applied therefore, most easily substituted. I know, also, that to other subjects. The bast now chiefly used is that em. several engineers are employed in ascertaining improved ployed for making Russia mats. Of these about 34 milmethods of separation and of preparation, not only of lions were annually exported from Russia, and of them fibres in general, but of these in particular. And, though from 500,000 to 800,000 were brought to this country, last, not the least important result will be, that improved selling for about £5 per 100; but gardeners have, for information cannot fail to be useful to some of our fellow- some time been in the habit of tying up plants with subjects of the East, who are, perhaps, apt to depreciate Cuba bast. The origin of this was, until lately, quite indigenous products; while some of them may be in- unknown. In describing the basts or inner barks of duced to grow or to use what is valuable in neighbour- several trees which had been sent from Assam, &c., I ing districts (for some complain that there is no market stated, that among the Indian species of Grewia, as well even for a valuable product), while a few may perhaps be as among the Malvaceæ, there were numerous bast-yieldinduced to send theirs in an improved state, in order to ing plants. I specially mentioned, as those used by the realise a higher price in the market.
natives, the bast of Hibiscus arboreus, or liliaceus, Sterculia Such investigations, though they may not appear prac- villosa, and others. It is curious that Sir W. Hooker, in tical, are, however, of great use in enabling the inquiring a late number of the Journal of Botany, has ascertained and intelligent manufacturer to become acquainted with that Cuba bast is produced by a West India tree named the properties and probable quantities of new substances. Hibiscus elatus,* and which appears to be nothing more The broker is able to say something more respecting than a variety of Hibiscus liliaceus ; that is the very same them than that “they are unknown in the market," and species as that I have just mentioned as one of those of therefore of no value. As a further consequence, the which the bast is in use by the natives of India. Dr. local merchant or capitalist abroad is able to purchase, Lindley, in the Gardeners' Chronicle of Nov. 8, hopes or make advances on what there is some probability of " that this useful material may now be prepared in our selling at reasonable prices in foreign markets. Finally, colonies, and sold at a lower price than it bears at the European planter or native cultivator is encouraged present.” to grow or to prepare what appears to him of the greatest value, because it finds a local purchaser; for he has * Journal of the Society of Arts, Vol. IV., p. 786.