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"MADAME DE MALQUET."-In 1848 there was published, in three volumes, by Messrs. Longman & Co., a very excellent novel under this not very attractive title. It possesses great merit, and its neglect affords a decisive proof of the vitiated taste of the public as to works of fiction.

Another work, bearing the name of Jerningham, was published about the same time, also in three volumes. It was followed by another novel called Doveton; but, although interesting to a certain extent, is inferior to its predecessor.

Can any information be given as to the authors of these works? There was a second Jerningham, J. M.

but of little merit.

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I wish to ask one or two questions in connection with this passage:

1. Is this Jewish tradition still extant in any form? If it is, where, and what are the exact words? Jerome is not referring to Josephus; for that historian does not relate any such treachery. 2. Does it mean that "the lower city," or "market-place," as Josephus calls it, was given up to the Assyrians, while Zion and the temple still remained in the hands of the Jews?

3. Where was the camp of the Assyrians? Josephus says that it was within the third or outmost wall of the city; telling us that Titus, after he had taken that wall and that part of the city, pitched his tent on that spot, i. e. somewhere on Bezetha, or Canopolis, from which he poured down on the second wall and second city. (Wars of the Jews, B. v. ch. vii. sect. 2). Here the bargain between Rabshakeh and Shebna as to the surrender of the lower city must have taken place.

4. What does Josephus mean by "the citadel" in the following passages: "David took the lower city by force, but the citadel held out still he made buildings round the lower city; he also joined the citadel to it." (Ant. vii. 3, 2). "Of these hills, that which contains the upper city is much higher, accordingly it was called the citadel by King David; but it is by us called the upper market-place." (Wars, v. 4, 1). Then, having spoken of "the upper market-place," he adds, "the other hill was called Akra, and sustains the lower city." (ib.)

5. Does not Josephus speak of two Akras, quite distinct the one from the other-the one a hill, the other a fortress?

6. Is not Jerome's "inferior pars Hierusalem " the same as Josephus's "other hill called Akra which sustains the lower city," and to be distinguished from Zion, which Jerome tells us did not pass into the hands of the Assyrians? VISIO PACIS.

JOHN NICOLL, D.D.-Was the portrait of this celebrated head master of Westminster paintedas Dean Stanley affirms in his most interesting book, Memorials of Westminster Abbey, first edition, p. 473-by Sir Joshua Reynolds? Why the Dean should call him Nicolls, and Macaulay, in his essay on Warren Hastings, Nichols, it seems difficult to ascertain. A wrong date, too, is assigned, on the same page of the Dean's book, as the period of his head mastership, namely, from 1733 to 1788. He was second or under master

from 1714 to 1733, when he became head master, and resigned in 1753, when he was succeeded by William Markham, afterwards Archbishop of York. In a scarce volume in my possession, the Latin poems of Antony Alsop-are two copies of sapphics addressed to John Nicoll, who is styled in the index, "tunc temporis Hypodidascalus Scholæ Westmonasteriensis, nunc ejusdem Archididascalus" (i. e. 1752.) Many years ago I also owned a fine mezzotint engraving of him, representing a three-quarter figure, and underneath was a Latin inscription to the effect that he had been for twenty years head master, and was then a prebendary of Westminster.

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Bolton Percy, near Tadcaster.

OATEN PIPES, ETC. -This expression is very the seventeenth century. Of course it is taken common in the English poets, especially about from Virgil's avena; but is there any authority for supposing that shepherds' pipes were really ever made of oat-straws a supposition which seems to be taken for granted by the commentators, but against which common sense appears to


C. S. J. PROVERB:-"The better the day the better the


What is the origin of this familiar proverb? I would ask its meaning also, if I could conceive it possible that it has any foundation whatever in common sense. It has such a rhythmical and plausible look about it that it is not until one begins suddenly to wonder in what conceivable case it can be true that the absurdity becomes R. C. L. striking.


Buckingham is a mansion called Fowlers and Lambards from two families who successively possessed it. William Lambard or Lambert succeeded

to this property in 1611; subsequently his wife, after his decease, married Sir Edward Richardson, and while in his occupation this mansion was for a few days the residence of King Charles I. in the year 1644. Can any of your readers afford information respecting Sir Edward Richardson, his ancestry, or his descendants ? ROYSSE.

THE SANGREAL, OR HOLY GREAL (4th S. v. 29, 135.)-I should be glad to be informed by anyone who takes an interest in such matters, as to what authority exists to justify Mr. Tennyson in his division of the old word Sangreal. Mr. Tennyson is a man who ought to be much better informed about such matters than I am, but I feel convinced that this division of the syllables is wrong. Reason and common sense suggest another division. Sang is blood; real (vide Hamilton's French Dictionary) is a good old French word, meaning "real or royal."

Possibly Mr. Tennyson can produce good authority from the old chronicles of Arthur for the Holy-Greal. San may of course be short for santo; but what is a Greal? HENRY LATHAM.

Oxford and Cambridge Club. "SCREW."-What is the derivation of the term screw, meaning an avaricious and hard-hearted person? J. W. W.

[In "N. & Q," 3rd S. vi. 325, an extract from Nimrod's Hunting Tour, 1825, is given, in which it is said that "a lame or very bad horse is called a screw."-ED. "N. & Q."]

SNAP, OR NAPE, AS A TERMINATION. - In the hundred of Amounderness, co. of Lancaster, are many places with this termination-as Fairsnape, Bullsnap, Kidsnape, &c. Can any correspondent suggest a meaning? The places have been known by these names since the time of Henry VIII. H. FISHWICK.

STOLES ON ALTARS.-Can any of your readers point out the authority for the so-called "stoles " with which our altars are beginning to be decorated? Something like them appears on some paintings-e. g. the Ghent "Adoration of the Lamb," but I do not remember ever finding them alluded to by any old writer. SNAIX. Will any reader of "N. & Q." inform me if anything be known of the descendants of John Stow the historian; what sons he had, and who his daughters married? Also, the name of John Stow's brother, who accused him upon one hundred and forty charges on wrong religious opinions? Also the date of his death?" H. A. BAINBRIDGE.


24, Russell Road, Kensington. STRANGEWAYS HALL, MANCHESTER. - Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." say if there is known to be any drawing or print of the above, and where it can be seen? E. MORTON.

The Villa, Malton.

VERONICA.-May I ask the derivation of veronica as applied to the plant speedwell?


"THE WELSHMAN."-I remember, in my schoolboy days now some five-and-forty years ago, reading a romance-the first thing in the form Welshman. It was one of that class of fourof a novel I ever read in my life entitled The volume romances, which the magic pen of the author of Waverley drove out of the field by hundreds, and consigned to the trunk-maker and pastry-cook. It, however, made a deep and powerful impression on me at the time, and I should be very glad to read it again were it only to recall old and happy times. Can you or any of your contributors give me any information regarding obtained anywhere? this novel, and as to whether a copy of it is to be M. LLOYD.

Royal Hotel, Plymouth.

-Can any


of your readers kindly direct me to the best source of information with regard to the above subjecttheir construction, guidance, and managementincluding that of boats of all sorts and sizes? Works on shipbuilding we have in plenty, but where may we get instruction on the "little boats" that "should keep near shore"? In the course of the summer I noticed in some local paper the review of a work on this subject by Edwin E. Brett, but have not since been able to lay hands on it. Could any of Captain Cuttle's crew assist me? BOATSWAIN.

Queries with Answers.

SHAKESPEARE AND DONNE.-In a brief life of Shakespeare by Mr. and Mrs. Cowden Clarke, published in their new edition of the Plays, an anecdote of some interest is told of Dr. Donne, who, it is stated, in reply to an application that had been made to him for an epitaph on the great poet, said::

"If you had commanded me to have waited on his body to Scotland, and preached there, I would have embraced your obligation with much alacrity; but I thank loather to do, for even that hath given a tincture of you that you would command me that which I was merit to the obedience of your poor friend and servant."

Can you tell me the authority for this curious story? J. O. HALLIWELL. [The letter quoted by Mr. and Mrs. Clarke is printed in the Poems by Dr. John Donne, edit. 1669, p. 826. The allusion in it is not to Shakspeare, but to James, third Marquess of Hamilton, who died in April, 1625. The letter is followed by the hymn composed on the occasion at the request of Sir Robert Carr, and entitled "An Hymn to the Saints, and to Marquess Hamylton." As the letter is not long, we give it in extenso :—

"To Sir Robert Carr.

"SIR,-I presume you rather try what you can do in me, than what I can do in verse; you know my uttermost when it was best, and even then I did best, when I had least truth for my subjects. In this present case there is so much truth, as it defeats all poetry. Call, therefore, this paper by what name you will; and if it be not worthy of him, nor of you, nor of me, smother it, and be that the sacrifice. If you had commanded me to have waited on his body to Scotland, and preached there, I would have embraced the obligation with more alacrity. But I thank you that you would command that which I was loath to do; for even that hath given a tincture of merit to the

obedience of, Sir,

"Your poor friend and servant in Christ Jesus, "JOHN DONNE." John Chamberlain, writing to Sir Dudley Carleton, on April 23, 1625, says, "I send you here certain verses of our Dean of St. Paul's upon the death of the Marquess of Hamilton, which though they be reasonably witty and well done, yet I could wish a man of his years and place to give over versifying."-Court and Times of Charles I., i. 16.]

"SQUIRE TRELOOBY."-In the Roscius Anglicanus, among the plays produced by Sir John Vanbrugh at his new theatre in the Haymarket, is recorded-" Trelooby, a farce wrote by Captain 'Vanbrugg' (as Downes persists in calling him), Mr. Congreve, and Mr. Walsh. Mr. Dogget acted Trelooby so well the whole was highly applauded." As this farce is not included in the editions I have seen of the works of either Vanbrugh or Congreve, I should like to know if it was ever printed.

In these days, when a successful piece may run uninterruptedly for a twelvemonth, it is curious to read that Love for Love," wrote by Mr. Congreve, being extremely well acted, chiefly the part of Ben the sailor (Dogget), it took thirteen days successively." My quotations are from the edition published by F. G. Waldron in 1789. CHARLES WYLIE. [The farce, Squire Trelooby, printed in April, 1704, is a translation of Molière's Monsieur de Pourceaugnac. Downes, as stated by our correspondent, attributes it to Vanbrugh, Congreve, and Walsh; whereas, Coxeter's

MS. hints that Dr. Garth was the translator.


Baker's Biographia Dramatica, iii, 57; and Geneste's History of the Stage, ii. 308, 347.]

PRIME MINISTER.-Who was the first Prime Minister of England? G.

[The term "Prime Minister" was first applied to Sir Robert Walpole, but in a reproachful sense. On Feb. 11, 1742, after twenty years' tenure of office, he resigned all his employments. "Having invested me (he remarked to the Opposition a short time previous to his resignation) with a kind of mock dignity, and styled me a Prime Minister, they impute to me an unpardonable abuse of that chimerical authority which they only created and conferred."]

TWICKENHAM PARK AND KNELLER HALL. – Can you inform me where I can obtain information respecting either of the above? F. J. WILLIAMS.

Economic Museum, Twickenham.

[Consult Lysons's Environs, iii. 558-604, and Supplement, pp. 312-323; Ironside's History of Twickenham, 4to, 1797; Aungier's History of Syon Monastery, the Parish of Isleworth, and the Chapelry of Hounslow, 8vo, 1840; Beauties of England and Wales, vol. x, pt. iv.]

BISHOP JEREMY TAYLOR.-I am desirous to

know where access can be had to any letter or signed document in the handwriting of this illustrious prelate; also, whether a fac-simile of his autograph ever has been published.

ALEXANDER B. GROSART. [Three of Bishop Jeremy Taylor's autograph letters are among the Additional MSS. in the British Museum, No. 4274, pp. 125, 127, dated Nov. 24, 1643, and Feb. 22, 1656-7; No. 12,101, to John Evelyn, dated May 15, 1657. See also the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1660-61, for four certificates signed by the bishop.]


(4th S. iv. 197.)

The notice given by W. F. of the cemetery of this lately "renovated" edifice tempts me to visit to the place. offer the result of my own experience on a recent When steps were taken in 1866 to collect subscriptions for the restoration of the chapel, I was induced to subscribe to the fund under the positive assurance, received from the secretary of the managing committee, that the monuments "would not be removed except absolutely necessary, and, if removed, they would be most carefully replaced." My surprise therefore was great when, on entering the chapel, I found that every monument had been removed, and not one replaced in its original position! But this was not the worst part of the alterations which, under the name of "restoration," had been carried out: for on making a further survey I found that, out of about sixty monuments erected before the year 1860, nearly one half had been taken to pieces and more or less mutilated, by removing the ornamental back and side slabs of coloured marble, and retaining only the inscribed centre tablets. Among the monuments thus injured, thirteen have had the shields of arms belonging to them taken away-an act of Vandalism (for so I consider it) which has much diminished their interest and value. For the sake of the local historian, it may be useful to record the names and dates on the monuments so dealt with, namely:Col. Daniel O'Connor, Sept. 10, 1662; Major Thomas Oldfield, Apr. 7, 1799; Lieut. Christopher William Guise,

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Cct. 13, 1803; Thomas Meik, M.D., May 23, 1811; Ensign William Knatchbull, Oct. 14, 1813; Major T. J. Harrison, Dec. 10, 1820; Capt. John Baker Hay, R.N., May 13, 1823; Ann Maria, wife of Lieut.-Col. William Woodhouse, Nov. 5, 1826; Lieut.-Col. George Macgregor, Aug. 7, 1828; Hon. Sir George Grey, Bart., Oct. 3, 1828; Lieut.-Col. Timins, Oct. 23, 1828; Amelia Harriotte daughter of Major Frederick Macbean, Feb. 14, 1832; and Col. Robert Moncrieffe, Feb. 24, 1844.


All this uncalled-for mischief was authorised, it appears, by the committee on the recommendation of the architect employed to restore the building! Instead of replacing the monuments in their original positions on the walls, to which they would have lent an interest (as evidenced by the two which have escaped the fate of the restthose of Admiral Sir George Campbell and Capt. Sir James Lucas Yeo, R.N.), it would seem that the architect has preferred to leave the walls of the body of the chapel in their bare unadorned state, as rebuilt. A portion, indeed, of the plain white tablets taken from the monuments has been placed close together at the west end of the building, on the space gained by its recent enlargement; and here some twenty-five tablets are arranged in parallel rows, attached to the walls, but the effect is mesquin in the extreme and unsatisfactory. A few others have been degraded from their original locality, and are now placed almost on a level with the pavement, and exposed to inevitable injury from their close proximity to the wooden chairs of the congregation. I particularly allude to the handsome monument of Rear-Admiral Donald Campbell, Nov. 11, 1819, and Colonel Peter Hawker, Lieutenant-Governor of Portsmouth, Jan. 5, 1732. Besides these, no less than thirty monuments have been crowded together into the small vestry on the north side of the chancel, most of which are imbedded in the walls, and the two lower rows quite hidden by the surplices of the choristers, which are suspended around on a wooden rail.

It would, I think, be very desirable to know whether such proceedings are strictly legal, and whether it is really in the power of a committee or architect to mutilate monuments in such a manner (even if a faculty has been obtained for their removal), without first obtaining the consent of the representatives of the deceased? There is surely a sanctity and property in monuments as well as in graves, and both ought, in my opinion, to be respected. I own that I write warmly on the subject, for among the monuments in the Garrison Chapel is one of & near relative, put up at a considerable expense in 1828, and which, being wholly of white marble, has been very recklessly mutilated.

Before I conclude, I wish to draw attention to the inscription on the monument of Col. Daniel O'Connor (descended from an ancient family of that name in Ireland), which is becoming illegible,

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Siste gradum, mortalis, et hujus quem tenet urna hæc Collige virtutem, quo duce, disce mori.

Justitiam, Regem, Patriam, Christumque secuutus (sic),
Moribus, officio, corde et amore pio,

Hic jacet Danielis O Connor (vulgo Cornelius dictus),
Ex antiqua et illustri O Connorum prosapia ortus, in
Momonia, Hyberniæ provinciâ, qui per decem annorum
Curriculum serenissimis nostris Regibus Carolo
Primo, piæ memoriæ, et Carolo Secundo, ter maximo,
Glorioso, jam fœliciter regnanti, equestris turmæ
Dux, fideliter, prudenter, fortiter inservivit.
Quietissimus in pace, stetit, vicit, vixit, neque elatus
Consilio prudentissimus, expertissimus in bello,
In prosperis, neque dejectus in adversis, ut eum nec
Tumidè nec timidè vixisse merito dicas (uno verbo)
Semper idem, toti patriæ totus, unicus amicus ami-
Cissimus, pauperibus pater perpetuus, vir singulari
Patientia, vigilantia, sobrietate, ornatissimus: uxorem
Ducit Dominam Annam Whaley, eximia modestia, pie-

Charitatis Fœminam, Londini, in Parochiâ Stæ Mariæ
Magdalene, ex qua nullam habuit prolem, cum qua
Per decem annorum spatium unanimiter vixit, deposita
Cum morte quietè, piè, religiosè commutavit, anno regni
Tandem (proh dolor) hujus mortalitatis sarcina, vitam
Caroli Secundi xivo et naturæ reparatæ MDCLXII.
Etatis suæ xxxxvo die xo Septembris.
Abi, viator, et refer hujus interitu

Cæterorum mortalium vitam solvi."

monument was, Azure (?) a lion (?) rampant or (?), The shield of arms formerly annexed to this for O'Connor; impaling, argent, three whales' heads erased sable, for Whaley. F. R. S.


(4th S. iv. 10, 66, 127.)

Last July I ventured to forward to "N. & Q." a few lines relative to the nationality of the word Bally, which so commonly forms the first part of the names of towns and villages in Ireland. Haying spent the last six months abroad, it was only by accident that I met with some numbers of "N. & Q.," and then first learned that my question had been printed, and had elicited two replies: to the other, bearing the signature LIOM. F., the one a very courteous one, signed A. M. S.; while term courteous could scarcely be applied without a sacrifice of truth.

Written, as the latter article evidently was, under a feeling of irritation produced by a false idea of the motive which induced me to send my question to "N. & Q.," I am quite willing to overlook LIOM. F.'s momentary forgetfulness of the style commonly current among men of educa tion; and I flatter myself that, having had ample time to cool, he will, after reading the few following lines, admit that the idea I threw out was not

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so absurd as he declares it to be; and, further, that the desire to denigrate his nation in nowise influenced me. I spent seven years in that fair green island," and I have always considered those years the very happiest of my life, and to this day, whenever in my wanderings in many lands I happen to hear the "music of the brogue," my heart beats quicker.

Though well aware of the absurd notions current in Ireland forty years ago on the subject of the Danes, I imagined that the results of the researches of Dr. Todd and other learned Irishmen on the one hand, and of the members of the Royal Danish Antiquarian Society on the other, had become generally known at least among the educated classes; and that common justice would be done to a race of men whose vices have been painted in the blackest colours, especially by ecclesiastics, but whose noble qualities have been ignored by every historian save Kemble in his work on the Anglo-Saxons; but LIOм. F.'s communication seems to indicate the reverse.

admits, as he does, the inferiority of the Celt to the Dane in military architecture, why should any one be indignant at the idea of his inferiority as a civil architect? I was confirmed in my idea of the innate inferiority of the ancient Celts as masons by remarking the absence of taste or skill (or both) observable in the dwellings of their descendants-in the Scotch Highlands, in Wales, in the Celtic parts of Ireland, and perhaps more strikingly in Brittany. I haye visited countries as little blessed with wealth as any of the abovementioned, but such uncomfortable abodes as those which appear to satisfy the Celts I never met with.

Two nations, not widely differing in civilisation, cannot long live in close contact without giving and receiving mutual instruction. The case of the Scandinavian and the Celt forms no exception to this rule. While the Celt may fairly claim (inter alia) the honour of having inoculated both the fair-haired Norwegian (Fionn lochlannaigh) and the black-haired Dane (Dubh lochlannaigh) with elementary Christianity, and may have taught both an alphabet superior to the Runic, the Danes appear to me, after consulting the best Irish and Scandinavian records, to have directly and indirectly conferred great benefits on the natives of Ireland, especially in fostering, if indeed they did not create, Irish commerce, and thus lay the foundation of the present flourishing commerce of Dublin, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick, which places we know were the chief Scandinavian strongholds during more than three centuries. The Dublin Museum shows that the Celt possessed no common skill as an artificer in gold, while the Dane surpassed him in fashioning an iron weapon; and it is to this skill that I am always inclined to attribute the success of the. Scandinavians in their efforts to establish themselves in a country so distant from their own, in the face of a foe equal in courage and so superior in number.

The above plain statement will, I trust, convince LIOM. F.that under my inquiry in "N. & Q." there lurked no sneer at the nation to which he belongs. Further: I cheerfully yield the point in question, and am ready to believe that the word Bally may be found not only in a Celtic dictionary of 1817, but also in the oldest Irish manuscript which the rats and the rain have left us; but there is one assertion in my opponent's letter to which I must demur. He says "I must be a Dane." I should be happy to claim that honour had I any title to it, but I have none. Born in the county of Bedford, where my progenitors had been settled for more than two centuries, I must be satisfied with being an Englishman, of which I trust I shall never have reason to be ashamed. OUTIS.

Montreux, Switzerland, Dec. 28, 1869.


(4th S. v. 35.)

In August last I visited Nuremberg, and having previously read Mr. Pearsall's interesting article in The Archeologia on the "Kiss of the Virgin," I resolved on ascertaining whether that instrument was still in existence in the old city. On inquiry I found an intelligent guide named John Winter, a native of Nuremberg, who is well acquainted with some matters of local history and with local antiquities. He conducted a fellowtraveller and myself to a part of Nuremberg near to the old castle, and brought to the spot a woman who possessed the keys of a grated gateway to which he led us, the entrance to a flight Further, an early Irish chronicler distinctly of steps hewn apparently out of the rock itself on states that in the art of fortification the Danes which the castle stands. We descended these, were far superior to his countrymen; and it was and found ourselves in a subterranean gallery or this statement which induced me to put the un- passage, with several lofty recesses on the left fortunate question, whether these same Danes hand, in which were placed the apparatus for inmight not have improved the Celtic style of flicting public punishment and for torture. Of house-building, and that hence the term Bally these I remember a low platform serving for the might possibly be a corrupt form of the Danish exposure of thieves thereon, as in a fixed pillory; Volig. "Non omnes omnia possumus" is as true the appliances for stretching the body by means of nations as of individuals; and if an Irish writer of pulleys in an upright posture; the cradle, a

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