in Heraldry.

other saint. She was the daughter of Costis, king of Egypt, living at Alexandria, and was celebrated for her acquirements in learning and philosophy even from her infancy. Being converted to the Christian faith at an early age, she resolved to give herself up to God, and, refusing all offers of marriage, lived in contemplation of the day when she would be united to her heavenly Spouse. After Catherine Wheel, as represented the death of her father and mother, the tyrant Maximian went to Alexandria, and commenced persecuting all the Christians who would not sacrifice to the gods. S. Catherine stood up in their defence, and by her arguments and eloquence quite silenced all her opponents. Maximian then assembled together a band of the most learned philosophers of the kingdom to confute the saint; but she not only utterly vanquished them in argument, but converted them likewise to the Christian faith ; and they were immediately burnt to death by the order of the tyrant, who, struck with the beauty of S. Catherine, reserved her for his own purposes, but she vigorously refusing his offers, he became so enraged that he ordered her to be tortured between four wheels armed with short spikes and swords, which, revolving different ways, were to lacerate her body to

pieces. As they were preparing to bind her between these wheels, fire and lightning came down from heaven and burnt and shattered them, killing her executioners and many hundreds besides, with the fragments that flew about. Maximian then commanded that she should be taken beyond the walls of the city, and, after being scourged, she was beheaded ; and angels carried her body over the Red Sea, to Mount Sinai, where, upon its summit, it found a final resting place.

S. Catherine is well known by her universal accompaniment, the wheel. She is always crowned, indicating her royal descent, as well as her martyrdom. In one hand she bears the sword, with which she was beheaded, in the other generally a book, an emblem of her learning, and sometimes a palm-branch. She frequently tramples upon the Emperor Maximian,

TE emblematical of her spiritual triumph over him,


S, CATHERINE, from stained glass, West Wickham

Church, Kent

armed with sharp instruments and spikes ; sometimes she stands between two wheels, and in some representations the wheel is

broken and shattered. Occasionally she holds a small wheel in her hand, and rarely she has one suspended from her neck, or embroidered on her dress, which is generally very sumptuous.

NOVEMBER 30. S. Andrew, A.D. 70, was the son of James a fisherman at Bethsaida, and was a younger brother of S. Peter. After the Ascension his name is not once mentioned in the New Testament, but he is generally thought to have preached the Gospel in Scythia, and to have suffered martyrdom in Achaia. Tradition also makes him to have been the first to plant Christianity in Scotland, but there is no historical record of this ; and his being the patron saint of that country, has given rise to more than one legendary reason. He was condemned to be crucified on a cross of the form of an X, and that his death might be more lingering he was fastened with cords. Wheatly says that as S. Andrew “ was the first that found the Messiah (John i. 38.), and the first that brought others to Him (v. 42.), so the Church, for his greater honour, commemorates him first in her anniversary course of holy days, and places his festival at the beginning of Advent, as the most proper to bring the news of our Saviour's coming." This, however, does not always apply; for as Advent Sunday is

S. Andrew

always the nearest Sunday to the feast of S. Andrew, whether before or after, it may and does often occur as the last festival in the Christian year. S. Andrew appears to have been one of the most popular saints in this country, nearly six hundred Churches still retaining their dedication in his sole honour, and one each in honour of All Saints and S. Andrew, SS. Andrew and Eustachius, and SS. Andrew and Mary. Every county in England, except Westmoreland, has several. He is represented with his peculiar cross [crux decussata] beside him, or in his hand; and tied to his cross in Callot, and in Le Clerc; sometimes the cross is in the form of a Y. He is always drawn as an old man, with a long flowing beard, and sometimes may be recognised by his family likeness to his brother S. Peter.


DECEMBER 6, S. Nicholas, Bp. of Myra, A.D. 326, was born at Patera in Lycia, and early distinguished himself by his exercises of devotion, charity, and perfect obedience. After living in seclusion as abbot of a monastery several years, he was chosen Bishop of Myra, in which high calling he became noted for his humility and zeal, and active benevolence. He became one of the most popular saints of Christendom ; is invoked as the protector of sailors, and as the patron saint of school-boys; from a MS. in the Bodleian Library. and had, at some schools, as, for example, Eton, a feast



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