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He has riches enough, who need neither borrow or flatter. 5. True wisdom-is to know what is best worth knowing, and to do what is best worth doing. 6. Many things appear too bad to keep, and too good to throw away. 7. Keep a thing seven years, and you will find use for it. 8. We cannot pluck thorns from another's bosom, without placing roses in our own. 9. Better a half loaf than no bread. 10. Draw not thy bow before the arrow be fixed.

397. MODULATION CONTINUED. The I Maxims. 1. A broad hat-does not always situation of the public reader and speaker, cover a wise head. 2. Burn not your house-t calls for the employment of the most refined frighten away the mice. 3. Drinking water, ne art in the management of his voice: hether makes a man sick, nor his wife a widow. 4 snould address a whole assembly with as much apparent ease and pleasure to himself and audience, as tho' there were but a single person present. In addressing an auditory, which meets for information, or amusement, or both, the judicious speaker-will adopt his ordinary and most familiar voice; to show that he rises without bias, or prejudice, that he wishes reason, not passion, should guide them all. He will endeavor to be Experience. By what strange fatality heard by the most distant hearers, without is it, that having examples before our eyes, wo offending the ear of the nearest one, by mak-do not profit by them? Why is our experiing all his tones audible, distinct and na-ence, with regard to the misfortunes of others, tural

Friendship! thou soft, propitious power,

Sweet regent of the social hour,

Sublime thy joys, nor understood,
But by the virtuous, and the good.

Ambition is, at a distance,
A goodly prospect, tempting to the view;
The height delights us, and the mountain-top
Looks beautiful, because 'tis near to heaven;
But we never think how sandy's the foundation;[it.

What storms will batter, and what tempests shake
O be a man; and let proud reason-tread
In triumph, on each rebel passion's head.
At thirty, man suspects himself a fool;
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan;
At fifty, chides his infamous delay,
Pushes his prude::: purpose-to resolve,
In all the magnanimity of thought,
Resolves and re-resolves-then, dies the same.

of so little use? In a word, why is it, that we are to learn wisdom and prudence at our own expense? Yet such is the fate of man! Surrounded by misfortunes, we are supplied with means to escape them; but, blinded by caprice, prejudice and pride, we neglect the proffered aid, and it is only by the tears we shed, in consequence of our own errors, that We learn to detest them.

Varieties. 1. Give to all persons, whoin you respect, (with whom you walk, or whom you may meet,) especially ladies, the wall side of the walk or street. 2. If we think our evil allowable, tho' we do it not, it is ap propriated to us. 3. Why does the pendulum of a clock-continue to move! Because of the uniform operation of gravitation. What is gravitation? 4. Humility-is the 398. Some tell us, that when commencing child of wisdom: therefore, beware of selfan address, the voice should be directed to conceit, and an unteachable disposition. 5. those most distant; but this is evidently Psychology-is the science, that treats of the wrong. At the beginning, the mind is natu- essence--and nature of the human soul, and of the mode--by which it flows into the acrally clear and serene, the passions unawations of the body. 6. The true way to store kened; if the speaker adopt this high pitch, how can it be elevated, afterwards, agreeably 7. The only way to shun evils, or sins, is to the memory is-to develop the affections. to those emotions and sentiments, which require still higher pitches? To strain the fight against them. 8. Reading and observation are the food of the young intellect, voice thus, destroys all solemnity, weight and dignity, and gives, to what one says, asible, that heart-friends will ever separate? and indispensable to its growth. 9. Is it pos squeaking effeminacy, unbecoming a manly 10. All effects are produced by life, and naand impressive speaker; it makes the voice harsh and unmusical, and also produces hoarseness.

Anecdote. Speculation. A capitalist, and shrewd observer of men and things, being asked, what he thought of the speculations now afloat, replied-" They are like a cold bath, to derive any benefit from which, it is necessary to be very quick in, and very soon out."

Not to the ensanguin'd field of death alone
Is valor limited: she sits-serene

In the deliberate council; sagely scans

The source of action; weighs, prevents, provides,
And scorns to count her glories, from the feats
Oi brutal force alone.

ture.

Now vivid stars shine out, in brightening files,
And boundless ather glows, till the fair moon
Shows her broad visage-in the crimson'd east;
Now, stooping, seems to kiss the passing cloud,
Now, o'er the pure cerulean-rides sublime.
Nature, great parent! whose directing hand
Rolls round the seasons of the changing year,
How mighty, how majestic, are thy works!
With what a pleasant dread-they swell the soul,
That sees, astonish'd, and astonish'd, sings!
You too, ye winds, that now begin to blow,
With boist'rous sweep, I raise my voice to you.
Where are your stores, you viewless beings, say,
Where your aerial magazines-reserved
Against the day of temp 'st perilous?

PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION.

Proverbs. 1. To subdue a trifling erior, du 399, STRENGTH OF VOICE. The voice is weak, or strong, in proportion to the less, not incur a greater. 2. Anger and haste-hinder or greater, number of organs and muscles, good counsel. 3. All complain of want of memory, that are brought into action. If one uses but none of want of judgment. 4. Good men are only the upper part of the chest, his voice a public good, and bad men-a public calamity will be weak: if he uses the whole body, 5. Human laws reach not our thoughts. 6. Ruas ne should do, (not in the most powerful lers-have no power over souls. 7. No one ever manner, of course, on common occasions,) suffered-by not speaking ill of others. 8. Silly his voice will be strong. Hence, to strength-people are generally pleased with silly things. 9. en a weak voice, the student must practice Zeal, without knowledge, is religious wildfire. 10. expelling the vowel sounds, using all the The example of a good man-is visible philos abdominal and dorsal nerves and muscles: ophy. in addition to which, he should read and recite when standing or sitting, and walking on a level plain, and up hill: success will be the result of faithful practice.

So soft, so elegant, so fair,

Anecdote. Clients' Bones. A certain mechanic, having occasion to boil some cattle's feet, emptied the bones near the court house. A lawyer, observing them, inquired of a bystander, what they were. "I believe they are clients' bones," replied the wit, "as/ they appear to be well picked."

The Deceiver. A Base Character. Must not that man be abandoned, even to all manner of humanity, who can deceive a woman with appearances of affection and kindness, she de-for no other end, but to torment her with [nies; more ease and authority? Is anything more unlike a gentleman, than, when his honor is engaged for the performing his promises, because nothing but that can oblige him to it, to become afterwards false to his word, and be alone, the occasion of misery to one, whose happiness he but lately pretended was dearer to him than his own? Ought such a one to be trusted in his common affairs? or treated, but as one whose honesty-consisted only in his capacity of being otherwise.

Sure, something more than human's there. Upon my lute-there is one string Broken; the chords-were drawn too fast: My heart is like that string; it tried Too much, and snapt in twain at last. She will, and she will not, she grants and Consents, retracts, advances, and then flies. Mental fragrance-still will last, When our youthful charms are past. If little labor, little are our gains; Man's fortunes-are according to his pains. Delightful task-to rear the tender thought, To teach the young idea-how to shoot, To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind, To breathe th' enliv'ning spirit, and to fix The generous purpose in the glowing breast. 400. Demosthenes-had three particular defects; first, weakness of the voice; which he strengthened by declaiming on the seashore, amid the roar of waters; which effort would tend directly to bring into use the lower parts of the body; second, shortness of breath; which he remedied by repeating his orations as he walked up hill; which act serves to bring into use the appropriate organs, and fully inflate the lungs and third, a thick, mumbling way of speaking; which he overcame by reading and reciting with pebbles in his mouth; which required him to make a greater effort from below, and open his mouth wider. Examine yourself and act accordingly.

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Varieties. 1. Is it strange, that beautiful flowers should wither and die? 2. Trust thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron string. 3. Our american character is marked by a more than average delight-in accurate perception; which is shown by the currency of the by-word-" no mistake." 4. In sickness, and languor, give us a strain of poetry, or a profound sentence, and we are refreshed; when the great Herder was dyGive me some great ing, he said to his friends, who were weeping around him: thought." Blessed are they, who minister to the cry of the soul. 5. The christian sees, in all that befalls the human race, whether it be good or evil, only the manifestations Inconsistency. Montaigue-condemns of Divine Love, as exercised in training and cruelty, as the most odious of all vices; yet preparing souls. for the approach of that he confesses, that hunting-was his favorite perfection, which they are one day destined diversion. He acknowledges the inconsist- to realize. 6. For every friend, that we ency of man's conduct, but he does not as-lose for truth, God gives us a better one. cribe it to the right cause; which is the pre- The love of praise, howe'er concealed by art, dominance, at the time, of those associations Reigns, more or less, and glows in every heart: it awakens, conducing to pleasure. If he The proud-to gain it-toils on toils endure, had not been accustomed to it, the associa-The modest-shun it, but to make it sure; tions of hunting, would have been painful, and his aversion to cruelty in the abstract, would have been realized in the concrete and particulars.

Then, pilgrim, turn, thy cares forego;
All earth-born cares-are wrong;
Man-wants but little-here below,
Nor wants that little-long.
BRONSON. 10

O'er globes and sceptres, now on thrones it swells,
Now trims the midnight lamp-in college cells.
"Tis tory, whig; it plots, prays, preaches, pleads.
Harangues in senates, speaks in masquerada
It aids the dancer's heel, the writer's head,
And heaps the plain-with mountains of the dead,
Nor ends with life; but nods-in sable plumes,
Adorns our hearse, and flatters-on our tombs,

401. TRANSITION-means, in speech, the Proverbs. 1. Be just to others, that you may changes of pitch, from one note to another; be just to yourself. 2. The mind of the idleras from the eighth to the third: or from the never knows what it wishes for. 3. Every rose sixth to the first; and vice versa; to corres- has its thorn. 4. There is nothing good, that pond in variety and character, to the senti- may not be converted to evil purposes. 5. Few ment and emotion. In singing, it means persons are aware of the importance of rigid changing the place of the key-note, so as to economy. 6. Do not suffer yourself to be deceived keep the tune within the scale of twenty-two-by outward appearances. 7. Never take advantage of another man's ignorance. 8. The degrees. In transition-the pitches of voice word, that has gone forth-can never be recalled. are not only changed, but its qualities, agreea-9. A bird in the hand, is worth two in the busk. bly to the nature and object of the composi- 10. That load appears light, which is borne with tion; however, there must never be any sac- cheerfulness. 11. Virtue is the forerunner o rifice of other principles-all the proportions happiness. 12. Foresight-is the eye of prudence. must be preserved. Example:

An hour passed on; the Turk awoke,
That (6) bright dream-(3) was his last.
He (5) woke to hear his sentry's shriek, [Greek!"
(8) "TO ARMS! they(6)come! the (8) Greek! the (10)
He woke to die-midst (5) flame, and (5) smoke,
And (6) shout, and (3) groan, and sabre stroke,
And death-shots falling thick and fast
As lightnings-from the mountain-cloud;
And heard with voice as trumpet loud,
Bozzarris-cheer his band.

(8) Strike! till the last armed foe expires;

Anecdote. Obey Orders. A brave veteran officer, reconnoitering a battery, which was considered impregnable, and which it was necessary to storm, laconically answered the engineers, who were endeavoring to dissuade him from the attempt;-" Gentlemen, you may think and say what you please: all I know, is, that the American flagmust be hoisted on the ramparts to-morrow morning; for I have the order in my pocket.” Effects of Perseverance. All the performances of human art, at which we look

(9) Strike! for your (6) altars and your (8) fires, with praise or wonder, are instances of the

(10) Strike! for the green graves of your sires, (8) God--and your native land.

resistless force of perseverance; it is by this distant countries are united with canals and that the quarry becomes a pyramid, and that

402. To succeed in these higher parts of oratory, one must throw himself into the con-rail-roads. If a man was to compare the ef dition, and shape, he wishes to fill, or be, and bring the body into perfect subjection: by assuming the appropriate language of action and earnestness, he may work himself into any frame of mind, that the subject demands. He must be sure to keep up the life, spirit, and energy of the composition; and let there be a light and glow in his style. He must also cultivate a bold and determined manner;

for if he takes no special interest in what he is reading or speaking, he may rest assured

others will not.

[brave?

Lo! from the regions of the north,
The reddening storm of battle pours,
(5) Rolls along the trembling earth,
(6) Fastens on the Olynthian towers;
(8) Where rests the sword? Where sleep the
(9) Awake' (8) Cecropia's ally save
(6) From the fury of the blast;
(8) Burst the storm-on Phoci's walls;
(10) Rise, or Greece (8) forever falls :

(12) Up or (10) freedom-breathes her (6) last.
(4) The jarring states-obsequious now,
(5) View the patriot's hand on high;
(2) Thunder-gathering on his brow,
46) Lightning-flashing from his eye :-
(8) Grasp the shield-and draw the (6) sword:
(9) Lead us to (8) Philippi's lord;
(6) Let 18 (10) conquer him,-(5) or (2) die.

THE BIBLE.

Behold the Book, whose leaves display
Jesus, the life, the truth, the way;
Read it with diligence and prayer,
Search it, and you shall find him there.

fect of a single stroke of a pickaxe, or of one impression of the spade, with the general design and last result, he would be overwhelm those petty operations, incessantly continued, ed by the sense of their disproportion; yet in time, surmount the greatest difficulties, and mountains are levelled, and oceans bounded by the slender force of human beings.

Varieties. 1. Can Omnipotence do things incompatible and contradictory? 2. St. Augustine described the nature of God, as a circle, whose centre was everywhere, and his circumference nowhere. 3. The walls of rude minds are scrawled all over with facts and with thoughts; then shall one bring a lantern, and read the inscriptions? 4. "My children," said an old man to his boys, scared by a figure in the dark entry, "you will never see anything worse than yourselves." Some one says, "There are no prodigies, but the first death, and the first night, that deserve astonishment and sadness!" 6. When we have broken our god of Tradition, and ceased from our god of Persuasion, then, God may fire our hearts, with his own presence; but not before. 7. No love can be bound by oath, or covenant, to secure it against a higien love.

God-scatters love-on every side,
Freely-among his children all;
And always-hearts are open wide,
Wherein some grains may fall.
To know and love God, is everything.

5.

8. A

wrong. 3. He is greatest, who is most useful. 4.
Love-and you shall be loved. 5 A great man-
is willing to be little. 6. Blame-is safer than
praise. 7. All the devils respect virtue.
sincere word was never lost. 9. Curses-always
recoil upon the head of him, who imprecates them.
10. God-will not make himself manifest to com-
ards. 11. The love of society is natural.

403. MALE AND FEMALE VOICES. The Maxims. 1. Bad counsel confounds the advoices of men--are generally an octave lower viser. 2. No one can do wrong, without suffering than those of women; or, comparatively, men's voices are like the bass viol, and women's voices like the violin. The voice is made grave, that is, to run on lower pitches, by elongating, and enlarging the vocal chords; and it is made acute, that is, to run on higher pitches, by shortening and diminishing them; in connection, however, with the size of the chest, which always has its influence. Few are aware of the extent to which the voice is capable of being cultivated; and hence, we should beware of setting limits to it.

If every one's internal care

Were written on his brow,
How many would our pity share
Who raise our envy now!
The fatal secret, when revealed,

Of every aching breast,

Would fully prove, that while concealed,

Their lot appears the best.

How calm, how beautiful, comes on The stilly hours, when storms are gone; When warring winds have died away, And clouds, beneath the glancing ray, Melt off, and leave the land and sea, Sleeping-in bright tranquillity. 404. To acquire the ability to change, at will, your pitch of voice, so as to be able o adapt the manner to the matter, pracdice throwing the voice on different pitches, varying from one to five, five to eight, eight to one, and in other ways; also, recite such pieces as have a number and variety of speakers, as found in dialogues; and imitate the voice and manner of each, as far as possible. But remember, no one can accomplish much, without committing the examples to memory; thus, after long practice in this way, you may make the book talk and speak. All developments are from within-out, not from without-in.

Anecdote. An old alderman, after having lived for fifty years on the fat of the land, and losing his great toe with a mortification, insisted, to his dying day, that he owed it to two grapes, which he ate one day, after dinner; he said, he felt them lie cold at his stomach the moment they were eaten.

Education. The time, which we usually bestow on the instruction of our children-in principles, the reasons of which they do not understand, is worse than lost; it is teaching them to resign their faculties to authority; it is improving their memories, instead of their understandings; it is giving them credulity instead of knowledge, and it is preparing them for any kind of slavery which can be imposed on them. Whereas, if we assisted them in making experiments on themselves, induced them to attend to the consequence of every action, to adjust their little deviations, and fairly and freely to exercise their powers, they would collect facts which nothing could controvert. These facts they would deposit in their memories, as secure and eternal treasures; they would be materials for reflection, and, in time, be formed into principles of conduct, which no circumstances or temptations could remove. This would be a method of forming a man, who would answer the end of his being, and make himself and others happy.

corruption; one, when the people do not observe the laws; the other, when they are corrupted by the laws. 3. Cesar-added the punishment of confiscation, for this reason; lest the rich, by preserving their estates, should become bolder in the perpetration of crime. 4. No localities can bound the dominion, or the superiority of man. 5. What constitutes a church? Divine goodness and truth, conjoined by love, and exemplified in the life. 6. Madame de Stael's idea, that architecture is like frozen music, must have been sug

Varieties. 1. Did not the Greek philosophy--corrupt the simplicity of the christian Miscellaneous. 1. Two things are in-religion? 2. There are two sorts of popular cumbent on the historian; to avoid stating what is false, and fully and fairly to place before us the truth. 2. One of the greatest blunders an orator can commit is, to deviate into abstruse expressions, and out of the beaten track. 3. Man-was created for a state of order, and he was in order, till he fell, or became depraved; or, what is the same thing, disordered-i. e. the reverse of order. 4. Man is in order, when he acts from supreme love to the Lord, and charity towards his neighbør, in obedience to the Divine Will, but he is depraved, and disordered, in the degree hegested on a cold day. 7. We are often made acts from the love of self, and the love of the world. 5. No man is compelled to evil; his consent only makes it his.

A dia.nond,

Tho' set in horn, is still a diamonu,
And sparkles-as n purest gold.

to feel, that there is another youth and age, than that which is measured from the year of our natural birth; some thoughts always find us young, and keep us so; such a thought is the love of the Universal and Eternal Beauty.

405. STYLE-comprehends all the principles of elocution, and denotes the manner in which different kinds of composition should be read, or spoken: of course, there are as many kinds of style, as there are of composition; and unless a person has command of body and mind, he cannot harmonize his manner and matter. If in writing, stylemeans proper words, in proper places; in speaking, it must signify, proper sounds in proper places. Ex.

What is wit? a meteor, bright and rare,

Th't comes and goes, we know not whence, or where;
A brilliant nothing-out of something wrought,
A mental vacuum-by condensing thought.

O the eye's eloquence,

(Twin-born with thought,) outstrips the tardy voice;
Far swifter-than the nimble lightning's flash,
The sluggish thunder-peal, that follows it.
True courage-but from opposition grows,
And what are fifty-what-a thousand slaves,
Matched to the sinew-of a single arm,
That strikes for LIBERTY?

406. What causeth the earth to bring forth and yield her increase? Is it not the light and heat of the sun, that unlocks her native energies and gives them their power? In an analogous manner should the light of the thought, and the heat of its accompanying affection, act upon the mind, which will communicate the influence received to the whole body, and the body to the voice and actions. This is what is meant by imbibing the author's feelings, and bringing before you all the circumstances, and plunging amid the living scenes, and feeling that whatever you describe, is actually present, and passing before your mind.

Proverbs. 1. A good word for a bad one—12 worth much, and costs tittle. 2. He, who knows not when to be silent, knows not when to speak. 3. Oppression-causes rebellion. 4. Where content is, there is a feast. 5. The drunkard continu ally assaults his own life. 6. Show me a liar, and I will show you a thief. 7. That which helps one man, may hinder another. 8. A good educa tion is the foundation of happiness. 9. Most follies owe their origin to self-love. 10. No tree--takes so deep a root as prejudice. 11. Inform yourself, and

instruct others. 12. Truth-is the only bond of friendship.

Learning. We have been often told, that "a little learning is a dangerous thing," and we may be just as well assured, that a little bread is not the safest of all things; it would be far better to have plenty of both: but the sophism-of those who use this argument, is, that they represent the choice between little and much; whereas our election must be made between little-and none at all; if the choice is to be-between a small portion of

information, or of food, and absolute igno decision in the homely proverb-half a loar rance, or starvation, common sense gives it

is better than no bread."

Varieties. 1. The best and surest course

olutionists, "the ablest architects of ruin, that the world ever saw." 6. Trifles-always require exuberance of ornament; the build ing that has no strength, can be valued only for the grace of its decorations. 7. We cannot part with our heart-friends: we cannot let our angels go.

is-never to have recourse to deception, but prove ourselves, in every circumstance of life, equally upright and sincere. 2. The most consummate hypocrite-cannot, at a times, conceal the workings of his mind. 3. When we employ money-to good purposes, it is a great blessing; but when we use it for eve and wicked ends, or become so devoted to as to endeavor to acquire it by dishones means, it is a great curse. 4. None are so fond of secrets, as those who do not mean to 407. Lyceums and Debating societies, are keep them: such persons covet them, as admirable associations for the improvement spendthrifts do mony, for the purpose of cir of mind, and cultivation of talent, for pub-culation. 5. Burke-called the French rev lic or private speaking. Franklin and Roger Sherman, (the one a printer, and the other a shoe-muker,) rose from obscurity to great eminence, and usefulness, by their own efforts: so may we, by using the proper means. It was in a debating society, that Lord Brougham first displayed his superior talents and unrivaled eloquence; and there, also, HENRY CLAY, the greatest American orator, commenced his brilliant career. A word to those who would be wise is enough. Anecdote. An appropriate Sign. A man who had established a tippling-house, being about to erect his sign, requested his neighbor's advice-what inscription to put upon it. His friend replied, "I advise you to write en it-Drunkards and Beggars made here." Honor's-a sacred tie, the law of kings, The noble mind's-distinguishing perfection, That aids strengthens virtue, when it meets her, And imitates her actions, where she is not: It ought not to be sported with.

Nor fame I slight, nor for her favors call;
She comes unlook'd for, if she comes at all.

But, if the purchase cost so dear a price,
As soothing folly, or exalting vice;
And if the muse-must flatter lawless sway,
Or, if no basis-bear my rising name,
And follow stil! where fortune leads the way;
But the fall'n ruins of another's fame;
Then, teach me, heaven, to scorn the guilty bay■;
Drive from my breast that wretched lust of praise
Unblemish'd let me live, or die-unknown:
O, grant me honest fame, or grant me none.
Tis sweet-to hear

The song and oar-of Adria's gondolier,
(By distance mellowed,) o'er the waters sweep.

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