and unbelief, between zeal and apathy, again, rather than make the smallest between energy and indolence, between concession to the spirit of religious seriousness and frivolity, between a innovation. Sigismund of Sweden lost pure morality and vice. Very differ- a crown which he might have preent was the war which degenerate served if he would have renounced the Protestantism had to wage against re Catholic faith. In short, every where generate Catholicism. To the de- on the Protestant side we see languor; bauchees, the poisoners, the atheists, every where on the Catholic side we see who had worn the tiara during the ardour and devotion. generation which preceded the Refor- Not only was there, at this time, a mation, had succeeded Popes who, in much more intense zeal among the religious fervour and severe sanctity of Catholics than among the Protestants; manners, might bear a comparison with but the whole zeal of the Catholics Cyprian or Ambrose. The order of was directed against the Protestants, Jesuits alone could show many men while almost the whole zeal of the not inferior in sincerity, constancy, Protestants was directed against each courage, and austerity of life, to the other. Within the Catholic Church apostles of the Reformation. But while there were no serious disputes on danger had thus called forth in the points of doctrine. The decisions of bosom of the Church of Rome many the Council of Trent were received ; of the highest qualities of the Re- and the Jansenian controversy had not formers, the Reformers had contracted yet arisen. The whole force of Rome some of the corruptions which had was, therefore, effective for the purpose been justly censured in the Church of of carrying on the war against the ReRome. They had become lukewarm formation. On the other hand, the force and worldly. Their great old leaders which ought to have fought the battle of had been borne to the grave, and had the Reformation was exhausted in civil left no successors. Among the Pro- conflict. While Jesuit preachers, Jesuit testant princes there was little or no confessors, Jesuit teachers of youth, hearty Protestant feeling. Elizabeth overspread Europe, eager to expend herself was a Protestant rather from every faculty of their minds and every policy than from firm conviction. James drop of their blood in the cause of the First, in order to effect his favourite their Church, Protestant doctors were object of marrying his son into one of confuting, and Protestant rulers were the great continental houses, was ready punishing, sectaries who were just as to make immense concessions to Rome, I good Protestants as themselves. and even to admit a modified primacy “Cumque superba foret BABYLON spolianda in the Pope. Henry the Fourth twice tropæis, abjured the reformed doctrines from Bella geri placuit nullos habitura triuminterested motives. The Elector of

phos.” Saxony, the natural head of the Pro- In the Palatinate, a Calvinistic prince testant party in Germany, submitted persecuted the Lutherans. In Saxony, to become, at the most important crisis a Lutheran prince persecuted the Calof the struggle, a tool in the hands of vinists. Every body who objected to the Papists. Among the Catholic any of the articles of the Confession of sovereigns, on the other hand, we find Augsburg was banished from Sweden. a religious zeal often amounting to In Scotland, Melville was disputing fanaticism. Philip the Second was a with other Protestants on questions of Papist in a very different sense from ecclesiastical government. In England that in which Elizabeth was a Protest- the gaols were filled with men, who, ant. Maximilian of Bavaria, brought though zealous for the Reformation, up under the teaching of the Jesuits, did not exactly agree with the Court was a fervent missionary wielding the on all points of discipline and docpowers of a prince. The Emperor trine. Some were persecuted for denyFerdinand the Second deliberately put ing the tenet of reprobation ; some for his throne to hazard over and over not wearing surplices. The Irish

people might at that time have been, Church was preaching, catechising, in all probability, reclaimed from Po- confessing, beyond the Niemen. pery, at the expense of half the zeal It is impossible to deny that the and activity which Whitgift employed polity of the Church of Rome is the in oppressing Puritans, and Martin very master-piece of human wisdom. Marprelate in reviling bishops. In truth, nothing but such a polity

As the Catholics in zeal and in could, against such assaults, have borne union had a great advantage over the up such doctrines. The experience of Protestants, so had they also an infi. twelve hundred eventful years, the innitely superior organization. In truth, genuity and patient care of forty geneProtestantism, for aggressive purposes, rations of statesmen, have improved had no organization at all. The Re- that polity to such perfection that, formed Churches were mere national among the contrivances which have Churches. The Church of England been devised for deceiving and opexisted for England alone. It was an pressing mankind, it occupies the highinstitution as purely local as the Court est place. The stronger our conviction of Common Pleas, and was utterly that reason and scripture were dewithout any machinery for foreign cidedly on the side of Protestantism, operations. The Church of Scotland, the greater is the reluctant admiration in the same manner, existed for Scot- with which we regard that system of land alone. The operations of the tactics against which reason and scripCatholic Church, on the other hand, ture were employed in vain. took in the whole world. Nobody at If we went at large into this most inLambeth or at Edinburgh troubled teresting subject we should fill volumes. himself about what was doing in Po- We will, therefore, at present, advert to land or Bavaria. But Cracow and only one important part of the policy Munich were at Rome objects of as of the Church of Rome. She thoroughly much interest as the purlieus of St. John understands, what no other Church has Lateran. Our island, the head of the ever understood, how to deal with enProtestant interest, did not send out a thusiasts. In some sects, particularly in single missionary or a single instructor infant sects, enthusiasm is suffered to be of youth to the scene of the great spiri- rampant. In other sects, particularly in tual war. Not a single seminary was esta- sects long established and richly enblished here for the purpose of furnish- dowed, it is regarded with aversion. ing a supply of such persons to foreign The Catholic Church neither submits to countries. On the other hand, Ger- enthusiasm nor proscribes it, but uses many, Hungary, and Poland were filled it. She considers it as a great moving with able and active Catholic emissa- force which in itself, like the muscular ries of Spanish or Italian birth; and col- power of a fine horse, is neither good leges for the instruction of the northern nor evil, but which may be so directed youth were founded at Rome. The as to produce great good or great evil; spiritual force of Protestantism was a and she assumes the direction to hermere local militia, which might be use-self. It would be absurd to run down a ful in case of an invasion, but could horse like a wolf. It would be still more not be sent abroad, and could there- absurd to let him run wild, breaking fore make no conquests. Rome had fences, and trampling down passengers. such a local militia; but she had also The rational course is to subjugate his a force disposable at a moment's notice will without impairing his vigour, to for foreign service, however dangerous teach him to obey the rein, and then to or disagreeable. If it was thought at urge him to full speed. When once he head-quarters that a Jesuit at Palermo knows his master, he is valuable in prowas qualified by his talents and charac- portion to his strength and spirit. Just ter to withstand the Reformers in such has been the system of the Church Lithuania, the order was instantly of Rome with regard to enthusiasts. She given and instantly obeyed. In a knows that, when religious feelings have month, the faithful servant of the obtained the complete empire of the mind, they impart a strange energy, a strong passion in the guise of a duty. that they raise men above the dominion He exhorts his neighbours; and, if he be of pain and pleasure, that obloquy be- a man of strong parts, he often does so comes glory, that death itself is con- with great effect. He pleads as if he templated only as the beginning of a were pleading for his life, with tears, higher and happier life. She knows and pathetic gestures, and burning that a person in this state is 'no object words; and he soon finds with delight, of contempt. He may be vulgar, ig- I not perhaps wholly unmixed with the norant, visionary, extravagant; but he alloy of human infirmity, that his rude will do and suffer things which it is for eloquence rouses and melts hearers who her interest that somebody should do sleep very composedly while the rector and suffer, yet from which calm and preaches on the apostolical succession. sober-minded men would shrink. She Zeal for God, love for his fellow-creaaccordingly enlists him in her service, tures, pleasure in the exercise of his assigns to him some forlorn hope, in newly discovered powers, impel him to which intrepidity and impetuosity are become a preacher. He has no quarrel more wanted than judgment and self with the establislıment, no objection to command, and sends him forth with her its formularies, its government, or its benedictions and her applause.

vestments. He would gladly be admitted In England it not unfrequently hap- amongits humblest ministers, but, admitpens that a tinker or coalheaver hears ted or rejected, he feels that his vocation a sermon or falls in with a tract which is determined. His orders have come alarms him about the state of his soul. down to him, not through a long and If he be a man of excitable nerves and doubtful series of Arian and Popish strong imagination, he thinks himself bishops, but direct from on high. His given over to the Evil Power. He doubts commission is the same that on the whether he has not committed the un- Mountain of Ascension was given to pardonable sin. He imputes every wild the Eleven. Nor will he, for lack of fancy that springs up in his mind to the human credentials, spare to deliver the whisper of a fiend. His sleep is broken glorious message with which he is by dreams of the great judgment-seat, charged by the true Head of the Church. the open books, and the unquenchable For a man thus minded, there is within fire. If, in order to escape from these the pale of the establishment no place. vexing thoughts, he flies to amusement He has been at no college; he cannot or to licentious indulgence, the delusive construe a Greek author or write a relief only makes his misery darker and Latin theme; and he is told that, if he more hopeless. At length a turn takes remains in the communion of the Church, place. He is reconciled to his offended he must do so as a hearer, and that, if Maker. To borrow the fine imagery of he is resolved to be a teacher, he must one who had himself been thus tried, begin by being a schismatic. His choice he emerges from the Valley of the is soon made. He harangues on Tower Shadow of Death, from the dark land Hill or in Smithfield. A congregation of gins and snares, of quagmires and is formed. A license is obtained. A precipices, of evil spirits and ravenous plain brick building, with a desk and beasts. The sunshine is on his path. benches, is run up, and named Ebenezer He ascends the Delectable Mountains, or Bethel. In a few weeks the Church and catches from their summit a distant has lost for ever a hundred families, not view of the shining city which is the one of which entertained the least scruend of his pilgrimage. Then arises in ple about her articles, her liturgy, her his mind a natural and surely not a government, or her ceremonies. censurable desire, to impart to others Far different is the policy of Rome. the thoughts of which his own heart is The ignorant enthusiast whom the Anfull, to warn the careless, to comfort glican Church makes an enemy, and those who are troubled in spirit. The whatever the polite and learned may impulse which urges him to devote his think, a most dangerous enemy, the whole life to the teaching of religion is Catholic Church makes a champion. She bids him nurse his beard, covers | He is certain to become the head of a him with a gown and hood of coarse formidable secession. Place John Wesdark stuff, ties a rope round his waist, ley at Rome. He is certain to be the and sends him forth to teach in her first General of a new society devoted name. He costs her nothing. He takes to the interests and honour of the not a ducat away from the revenues of Church. Place St. Theresa in London. her beneficed clergy. He lives by the Her restless enthusiasm ferments into alms of those who respect his spiritual madness, not untinctured with craft. character, and are grateful for his in- She becomes the prophetess, the mother structions. He preaches, not exactly in of the faithful, holds disputations with the style of Massillon, but in a way the devil, issues sealed pardons to her which moves the passions of uneducated adorers, and lies in of the Shiloh. Place hearers; and all his influence is em- Joanna Southcote at Rome. She founds ployed to strengthen the Church of an order of barefooted Carmelites, every which he is a minister. To that church one of whom is ready to suffer martyrhe becomes as strongly attached as any dom for the Church; a solemn service of the cardinals whose scarlet carriages is consecrated to her memory; and her and liveries crowd the entrance of the statue, placed over the holy water, palace on the Quirinal. In this way the strikes the eye of every stranger who Church of Rome unites in herself all the enters St. Peter's. strength of establishment, and all the We have dwelt long on this subject, strength of dissent. With the utmost because we believe that of the many pomp of a dominant hierarchy above, causes to which the Church of Rome she has all the energy of the voluntary owed her safety and her triumph at the system below. It would be easy to men- close of the sixteenth century, the chief tion very recent instances in which the was the profound policy with which she hearts of hundreds of thousands, es- used the fanaticism of such persons as tranged from her by the selfishness, St. Ignatius and St. Theresa. sloth, and cowardice of the beneficed The Protestant party was now indeed clergy, have been brought back by the vanquished and humbled. In France, zeal of the begging friars.

so strong had been the Catholic reacEven for female agency there is a place tion that Henry the Fourth found it in her system. To devout women she necessary to choose between his religion assigns spiritual functions, dignities, and his crown. In spite of his clear heand magistracies. In our country, if a reditary right, in spite of his eminent noble lady is moved by more than or- personal qualities, he saw that, unless he dinary zeal for the propagation of reli- reconciled himself to the Church of gion, the chance is that, though she may Rome, he could not count on the fidelity disapprove of no doctrine or ceremony even of those gallant gentlemen whose of the Established Church, she will end impetuous valour had turned the tide by giving her name to a new schism. of battle at Ivry. In Belgium, Poland, If a pious and benevolent woman enters and Southern Germany, Catholicism the cells of a prison to pray with the had obtained complete ascendency. The most unhappy and degraded of her own resistance of Bohemia was put down. sex, she does so without any authority The Palatinate was conquered. Upper from the Church. No line of action is and Lower Saxony were overflowed by traced out for her; and it is well if the Catholic invaders. The King of DenOrdinary does not complain of her in- mark stood forth as the Protector of the trusion, and if the Bishop does not Reformed Churches : he was defeated, shake his head at such irregular bene-driven out of the empire, and attacked volence. At Rome, the Countess of in his own possessions. The armies of Huntingdon would have a place in the the House of Austria pressed on, subcalendar as St. Selina, and Mrs. Fry jugated Pomerania, and were stopped would be foundress and first Superior of in their progress only by the ramparts the Blessed Order of Sisters of the Gaols. of Stralsund.

Place Ignatius Loyola at Oxford.' And now again the tide turned. Two violent outbreaks of religious feeling in , vigour and success with which he had opposite directions had given a character put down the Huguenots; the latter a to the whole history of a whole century. Protestant king who owed his throne to Protestantism had at first driven back a revolution caused by hatred of Popery. Catholicism to the Alps and the Pyre- The alliance of Richelieu and Gustavus nees. Catholicism had rallied, and had marks the time at which the great relidriven back Protestantism even to the gious struggle terminated. The war German Ocean. Then the great southern which followed was a war for the equireaction began to slacken, as the great librium of Europe. When, at length, northern movement had slackened be- the peace of Westphalia was concluded, fore. The zeal of the Catholics waxed it appeared that the Church of Rome cool. Their union was dissolved. The remained in full possession of a vast paroxysm of religious excitement was dominion which in the middle of the over on both sides. One party had de- preceding century she seemed to be on generated as far from the spirit of Loyola the point of losing. No part of Europe as the other from the spirit of Luther. remained Protestant, except that part During three generations religion had which had become thoroughly Protesbeen the mainspring of politics. The tant before the generation which heard revolutions and civil wars of France, Luther preach had passed away. Scotland, Holland, Sweden, the long Since that time there has been no struggle between Philip and Elizabeth, religious war between Catholics and the bloody competition for the Bohemian Protestants as such. In the time of crown, had all originated in theological Cromwell, Protestant England was disputes. But a great change now took united with Catholic France, then goplace. The contest which was raging in verned by a priest, against Catholic Germany lost its religious character. It Spain. William the Third, the emiwas now, on one side, less a contest for nently Protestant hero, was at the head the spiritual ascendency of the Church of a coalition which included many of Rome than for the temporal ascen- Catholic powers, and which was sedency of the House of Austria. On the cretly favoured even by Rome, against other side, it was less a contest for the the Catholic Lewis. In the time of reformed doctrines than for national in Anne, Protestant England and Prodependence. Governments began to testant Holland joined with Catholic form themselves into new combinations, Savoy and Catholic Portugal, for the in which community of political interest purpose of transferring the crown of was far more regarded than community Spain from one bigoted Catholic to of religious belief. Even at Rome the another. progress of the Catholic arms was ob | The geographical frontier between served with mixed feelings. The Su- the two religions has continued to run preme Pontiff was a sovereign prince of almost precisely where it ran at the the second rank, and was anxious about close of the Thirty Years' War ; nor the balance of power as well as about has Protestantism given any proofs of the propagation of truth. It was known that “expansive power” which has that he dreaded the rise of an universal been ascribed to it. But the Protestant monarchy even more than he desired boasts, and boasts most justly, that the prosperity of the Universal Church. wealth, civilization, and intelligence, At length a great event announced to have increased far more on the norththe world that the war of sects had ern than on the southern side of the ceased, and that the war of states had boundary, and that countries so little succeeded. A coalition, including Cal- favoured by nature as Scotland and vinists, Lutherans, and Catholics, was Prussia are now among the most flouformed against the House of Austria. rishing and best governed portions of At the head of that coalition were the the world, while the marble palaces of first statesman and the first warrior of Genoa are deserted, while banditti inthe age; the former a prince of the fest the beautiful shores of Campania, Catholic Church, distinguished by the while the fertile sea-coast of the Pon

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