please. Cf. Twelfth Night (iv, 2, 88): “They have here propertied me ; keep me in darkness," etc.

41. Listen great things : See Introduction, $ 31, and cf. v, 5, 15, • list a word.” In Much Ado about Nothing (iii, 1, 11) we find “ There will she hide her, To listen our purpose.

44. Our best friends made, our means stretch'd: Thus, except for spelling, etc., the first Folio. The second Folio fills out the defective line thus: “ And our best means stretcht out." Malone reads means stretch'd to the utmost.”

45-6. Go sit in council, How covert matters may be best disclos'd : We should expect either “go sit in council as to how,” etc.; or, and consult how,” etc.

49. Bay'd about : like bears tied to a stake and barked at and worried by a pack of dogs ; cf. iii, 1, 205, and Macbeth (v, 7, 1) :

“They have tied me to a stake; I cannot fly,

But, bear-like, I must fight the course.”



The Folio has : Drum. Enter Brutus, Lucillius, and the Army. Titinius and Pindarus meete them. There is no other indication of a change of scene.

5. To do you salutation : Several editors refer to Richard III(v, 3, 210): “The early village cock Hath twice done salutation to the

Cf. in Julius Cæsar (iii, 2, 57) Do grace to Cæsar's corpse, and (iii, 2, 120): “And none so poor to do him reverence." See, also, Troilus and Cressida (i, 3, 218–9):

" morn.

“May one that is a herald and a prince

Do a fair message to his princely ears ?” 14. How he receiv'd you, let me be resolv’d: Brutus' favourite habit of inversion. Cf. i, 2, 162 ff :

do love me, I am nothing jealous;
What you would work me to, I have some aim ;
How I have thought of this and of these times,
I shall recount hereafter.”

That you

26. They fall their crests : They let, or make, fall their crests.

Craik says that this transitive use of fall is not common in Shakspere’; but it occurs sixteen times.”Rolfe.

26. Deceitful jades : Horses that deceive one by a promise of speed, etc., not to be fulfilled; they “ sink in the trial.” 29-30. The greater part

are come : Cf. on three parts of him is ours already” (i, 3, 154-5).

37. Most noble brother : What was the relationship between Cassius and Brutus ?

41. Be content: be self-contained; restrain yourself.

42. I do know you well. I know your habit of blurting out your anger in plain hearing of all.

46. Enlarge your griefs: Enlarge upon your grievances. See i, 3, 118: “Be factious for redress of all these griefs [grievances), and iii, 2, 213, “What private griefs they have, alas, I know not.”

50. Lucilius, do you the like : Craik changed the Lucilius to Lucius, on the following grounds : “ The original text is,

Lucillius, do you the like, and let no man
Come to our tent till we have done our Conference.

Let Lucius and Titinius guard our doore.' To cure the prosody in the first line, Steevens and other modern editors strike out the you. It is strange that no one should have been struck with the absurdity of such an association as Lucius and Titinius for the guarding of the door. An officer of rank and a servant boy, the boy, too, being named first. The function of Lucius was to carry messages. As Cassius sends his servant Pindarus with a message to his division of the force, Brutus sends his servant Lucius with a similar message to his division. Nothing can be clearer than that Lucilius in the first line is a misprint for Lucius, and Lucius in the third, a misprint for Lucilius. Or the error may have been in the copy ; and the insertion of Let was probably the attempt of the printer or editor to save the prosody of that line, as the omission of the you is of the modern editors to save that of the other. At the close of the conference we have Brutus again addressing him. self to Lucilius and Titinius, who had evidently kept together all the time it lasted.”

SCENE III The Folio indicates the change of scene by the words Exeunt. Manet Brutus and Cassius.

2. Condemn’d and noted : Cf. iv, 1, 6: “with a spot I damn him.” The words "condemned and noted are taken from Plutarch. Noted : disgraced, marked with a stigma. 4. Wherein : syncopated for

a case in which."

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8. That every nice offence should bear his comment : That every small offence should bear its comment. Nice : foolish or trifling, in Shakspere's day. On his for its, see Introduction, $ 2.

11. Mart : See Introduction, 38. 13. You are Brutus that speaks: For the construction, see iii, 1, 30, Casca, you are the first that rears your hand.” 16. His head : Cf. on his comment,” line 8, above. 26. Grasped thus : One can see Brutus' gesture.

27. Had rather : Cf. note on i, 2, 168 : “ Brutus had rather be a villager.”

28. Bait not me : The Folio reads baite; Theobald changed it to bay, on the theory that Shakspere wished Cassius to echo Brutus' word. The assumption is reasonable.

30. To hedge me in : another gerundial infinitive.

31. Older in practice, etc.: Thus Antony speaks to Octavius (iv, 1, 18): “ Octavius, I have seen more days than you.”

37. Away, slight man : Cf. iv, 1, 12 : slight, unmeritable man.”

44. Budge : Cf. Hamlet (iii, 4, 18) : “ Come, come, and sit you down ; you shall not budge"; and Coriolanus (i, 8, 5): “Let the first budger die.” The word is not particularly elegant to-day.

46. Testy : heady, fretful.
51. Soldier : probably a trisyllable here, as in iv, 1, 28.

56. I said an elder soldier, not a better : He really said, “ Older in practice, abler than yourself, to make conditions."

58. Durst : See Introduction, $ 16.

64. I may do that I shall be sorry for : a case of relative and antecedent combined. See Introduction, $ 9.

73. To wring : For this unnecessary to, cf. on “to repute” (i, 2, 173).

79–80 : So covetous To lock : We are now familiar with this omission of the conjunction before expressions denoting result.

80. Rascal : base, ill-conditioned. Rascal meant, in Shakspere's day, also the young of a herd of deer, lean and out of season. Cf. As You Like It (iii, 3, 50): “The noblest deer hath thein as huge as the rascal.”

80. Counters : round pieces of cheap metal used in making calculations.

Brutus is here somewhat inconsistent. He may depreciate money in talk, but his desperate need of it is apparent. Like many philosophers, he will not himself get money “by vile means,” but he has no objection to using that which others have thus acquired.

84. Brutus hath riv'd : Cf. i, 3, 5–6 : When the scolding winds Have riv'd,” etc.

93. Alone on Cassius : on Cassius alone. Cf. i, 2, 157: one only man.” 94. A-weary : Cf. The Merchant of Venice (i, 2, 1): “By my troth,

sa, my little body is a-weary of this great world.” 97. Conn'd : like a lesson. We still hear “to con a task or lesson,” though the verb is rarely used nowadays.

101. Plutus': The Folio reads Pluto's. See on i, 2, 3, Antonius'. Plutus is the old god of riches, who had all the world's gold in his keeping:

108. Dishonour shall be humour : that is, I shall consider dishonour the result of your testy humour.

110. As the flint bears fire : Cf. Cassius' words (i, 2, 176): “I am glad that my weak words Have struck but thus much show of fire from Brutus.”

111. Who : Modern usage requires which.

130. Than ye : The correct form for the nominative. See Introduction, $ 1.

132. Saucy fellow : Cf. i, 1, 17: thou“ naughty knave." To-day we should hardly use either naughty or saucy as Shakspere here employs them. Both adjectives are applied to children ; saucy to children, domestics, and women ; rarely to men.

135. Jigging : Malone tells us that jäg used to mean a metrical composition as well as a dance.

136. Companion : For this derogatory sense of companion, cf. Coriolanus (iv, 5, 11–2): “Has the porter his eyes in his head, that he gives entrance to such companions ?” and again (v, 2, 57) : “ Now, you companion, I'll say an errand for you," etc.

137. Lucilius and Titinius : See note on line 50, above.

144. If you give place to accidental evils : if you become disheartened by evils that are beyond your control.

150. Impatient of my absence, etc. Note the confused grammatical structure of this sentence of Brutus. Shakspere's later work is frequently distinguished by involved structure, elliptical speech, unfinished sentences, etc. This reproduction of the habit, in minds profoundly moved, of jumbling ideas, one thought crowding on another before the first has been fully expressed, had been thoroughly mastered by Shakspere in his later years. Much of the alleged obscurity of Browning is due to this same habit of dramatic utterance.

153. That tidings: Tidings is both singular and plural in


Shakspere. Cf. v, 3, 54 : “ These tidings will well comfort Cassius.”

153. Distract : distraught, distracted. For the past participle without -ed, cf. Troilus and Cressida (i, 3, 187): Many are infect; (i, 3, 125): “When degree is suffocate; (v, 1, 28) : “Why art thou, then, exasperate ?

154. Her attendants absent : Cf. i, 1, 43, “Your infants in your arms.”

155. Re-enter Lucius, with wine and taper : The Folio reads Enter boy with wine and tapers; but from line 162, there would seem to be only one taper, unless the others were placed in a different part of the tent.

169. Myself have letters : See Introduction, $5.
173. An hundred : On the an, see Introduction, $11.

181. Writ : written ; this form is now slowly dying out of even vulgar speech. See Introduction, $17.

182. Methinks : originally the me was the dative case of the pronoun used with the impersonal verb think, to seem. Methinks it seems to me.

192. In art : probably, in theory or in profession. His philosophy was strong, but the flesh would have been weak.

194-5. What do you think Of marching to Philippi : See North’s Plutarch, Life of Brutus (ed. Skeat, p. 138) : “Thereupon Cassius was of opinion not to try this war at one battle, but rather to delay time, and to draw it out in length, considering that they were the stronger in money, and the weaker in men and armour. But Brutus, in contrary manner, did always before and at that time also, desire nothing more than to put all to the hazard of battle, as soon as might be possible : to the end he might either quickly restore his country to her former liberty, or rid him forthwith of this miserable world, being still troubled in following and maintaining of such great armies together.”

195. Presently : at once.
199. Doing himself offence : injuring himself.

205. The enemy, marching along by them : Can this line, with any show of reason, be scanned regularly ?

209. If at Philippi we do face him there : As to this pleonastic there, cf. v, 1, 5 : They mean to warn us at Philippi here."

210. These people at our back : Another absolute expression. Cf. i, 1, 43 : “Your infants in your arms."

216. There is a tide in the affairs of men : These famous lines are


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