very bond of peace and of all virtues, without which whosoever liveth is counted dead before

thee,”— In this it is declared, 1. That that charity to which the Petition relates is one

of the gifts of God, and that of the most excellent kind. 1 Cor. xii. 31; xiii. 1-8; Rom. v. 5; xiii.

10; Gal. v. 22. 2. That it is excellent,

(a) Because it is the very bond of peace and all

virtues. 1 Cor. xiii. 4–8; Eph. iv. 2 ; Col. ii. 2;

ii. 14. (b) Because without it, though living, we are

counted dead in the sight of God. 1 Cor. xvi.

22; Jam. i. 14–18; 1 John, ü. 11; ii. 14–18. 3. That in order to the possession of this charity God

must send His Holy Spirit, and by that Spirit pour this most excellent gift into our hearts. Acts, x. 45; Rom. v. 5 ; Gal. v. 22; Eph. iv. 24.

For which, therefore, we earnestly pray. The Conclusion is :

“grant this for thine only Son Jesus Christ's sake. Amen." A Conclusion which, though changed as to the words,

does not in substance differ from what we have already repeatedly examined.

Supplementary Questions. What do we here state to be necessary to make our duties

worthy in God's sight? What do we mean by the word “ charity” in this Collect ? Is such its usual signification now? How do we know that this spirit is so essential ? Where has God so taught us ? ' What is this charity further said to be ?

How is this gift of God described ?
Why is it so excellent a gift ?
What is it the bond of ?
If we have not this charity, what are we counted in God's

What do we mean by “ counted ?”
What kind of death is here referred to ?
How must this gift be obtained ?
Who only can pour it into our hearts ?
By what agency is it usually done ?

No. XXI.

Ash Weduesday.
The Invocation is:

“Almighty and everlasting God, who hatest nothing that thou hast made, and dost forgive

the sins of all them that are penitent,— Here, in addition to the titles ascribed to God, we state,– 1. That He hates nothing which He has made. Ps.

cxlv. 9; Matt, v. 45. 2. That He forgiveth the sins of all that are truly peni

tent. Ezek. xviii. 21-23, 30-32 ; Ps. li. 17; Ezek. xxxiii. 11; 1 John, i. 9; Ps. cxxx. 4; Luke, iii. 3; xxiv. 47; Acts, iii. 19; Luke, xv. 7 ; Isa. lv. 7 ; Acts,

xiii. 38. The Petition is :

Create and make in us new and contrite hearts, that we, worthily lamenting our sins, and acknowledging our wretchedness, may obtain of thee, the God of all mercy, perfect

remission and forgiveness," — Herein we acknowledge or declare,– 1. That we stand in need of a perfect remission and

forgiveness from the hands of God. Ps. cxxx. 3;

exliii. 2; Acts, ii. 37, 38; Isa. lxiv. 6. 2. That this is because of our sinfulness and wretch

edness. Isa. vi. 5 ; Job, xl. 4; xlii. 6; Dan. ix. 5 ; Ezek. xviii. 5; Rom. vi. 23; 2 Cor. v. 18, 19; Eph.

ii. 13-18. 3. That God from whom we need this is a God of all

mercy. Ps. cxlv. 8; Ex. xxxiv. 6,7; Ps. cxxxvi. ;

Numb. xiv. 18, 19; Mic. vii. 18, 19. 4. That to obtain this we must, notwithstanding,

(a) Worthily lament our sins. Acts, iii. 19; xvii.

30; Ezra, ix. 5, 6; x.l; 2 Cor. vii. 8-10; Joel,

ii. 12, 13; Matt. vi. 16-18; Isa. Iviii. 3-7. (6) Acknowledge our wretchedness. Isa. vi. 5;

Jam. iv. 10; Rom. vii. 24; Ps. xxxviii. 1-8. 5. That before we shall do this we must have new and

contrite hearts. John, iii. 3-7; 2 Cor. v. 17; 1 Pet.

ï. 2; Matt. xvii. 1-4. 6. That such new and contrite hearts cannot be pro

duced by ourselves, but must be created and made
in us by God. Ps. li. 10; Ezek. xxxvi. 25-27; Tit.
iii. 5; Eph. iv. 24.
Whence the prayer that He would be pleased so

to do: a prayer confidently offered because of

God's character as stated above. The Conclusion is :

“through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.” As before.

Supplementary Questions. How many things are stated of God in the Invocation of

this Collect ?

What is the first ?
What the second ?
Whose sins only does God forgive ?
What do we mean by “ forgive ?”
What by “penitent?
Why do we say truly penitent?
What do we state in our prayer that we desire to obtain

of God ?
Remission of what ?
Forgiveness of what ?
Why do we stand in need of these mercies ?
What is the character of that God from Whom we seek

them ? How must we act in order to obtain what we desire ? What do we mean by “worthily lament ?” To Whom is our wretchedness to be acknowledged ? What change must take place in us before we shall ever

do this? Can we procure such new and contrite hearts for our

selves ? Who only can “create and make” them within us ? What grounds of confidence have we that He will do this

for us?


First Sunday in Lent.



The Invocation is :

“ O Lord, who for our sake didst fast forty days and forty nights,”— Here we invoke Jesus Christ, the second Person in the

ever-blessed Trinity, calling Him “ Lord,” thereby acknowledging Him our Master and ourselves His servants : and we state, in connexion with our Invocation,1. That He once fasted forty days and forty nights.

Matt. iv. 1, 2; Murk, i. 13; Luke, iv. 1, 2. 2. That this He did for our sake. Heb. ii. 9, 10, 14

18; iv. 15, 16; Rom. viii. 3; Gal. iv. 4, 5; John,

xvii. 19; 2 Cor. v. 21. The Petition is (reaching to the end of the Collect) :

“Give us grace to use such abstinence, that, our flesh being subdued to the Spirit, we may ever obey thy godly motions in righteousness, and true holiness, to thy honour and glory, who livest and reignest with the Father and the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.”

Here we affirm or teach, 1. That obedience to Christ's godly motions is the duty

of His followers. Rom. vi. 1-4; vii. 4; 1 Cor. xii. 7; 1 Thess. v. 19; Rom. viii. 9, 10; Eph. iv. 7; V.

9-11; Rom. xii. 14; 1 Pet. iv. 1-4. 2. That this obedience is to be

(a) In righteousness and true holiness, as to the

manner of it. Rom. vi. 13, 19; Tit. ii. 12. (6) To His honour and glory as to the end of it.

1 Cor. vi. 20; Gal. i. 24; 1 Pet. ii. 12; 1 Cor. x.

31; Phil. i. 20. 3. That, in order to this, our flesh must be subdued to

the Spirit; as, otherwise, it will hinder us in the work. Rom. vii. 23; viii. 13; Deut. xxxii. 15; Ps. lxxiii. 3-9; Gal. v. 17, 24.

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