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Woods and Forests, 1 & 2, Whitehall Place, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £22,014. Commissioners, E. Stafford Howard, C.B., J. F. F. Horner, each £1,200. This Department administers woods, forest, mines, etc. on the Crown lands.
Works and Public Buildings, Storey's Gate, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £56,450. First Commissioner, Rt. Hon. A. Akers-Douglas, M.P., £2,000; Sec., Viscount Esher, K.C.V.O., C.B., £1,500; Principal Clerks, J. Fitzgerald and W. J. Downer, £600 to £800. The Com missioners have control of Government Buildings and Royal Parks and Pleasure Gardens.
Secretary for Scotland's Office, Dover House, Whitchall, S. W., and Parliament Square, Edinburgh. £33,454. Sec., Lord Balfour of Burleigh, K.T., £2,000; Under-Sec., Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff, K.C.M.G., C.S.I., £1,500. Business connected with Scotland is transacted in this Office.
Education Department, Dover House, Whitehall, S.W. £1,363,881. Administration (including inspection), £58,871. Sec., Sir Henry Craik, K.C.B., LL.D., £1,500: Assist.-Secs., J. Struthers, £900 to £1,200, and G. Todd, £650 to £900. Deals with all educational matters in Scotland in same way as the Board of Education does in England.
Local Government Board, 125, George Street, Edinburgh. Hours, 9.30 to 4.30; Saturday, 9.30 to 1. 13,778. Pres., The Sec. for Scotland, ex officio; Chairman, M. McNeill, C.B.; Sec., G. Falconar-Stewart. The central department for public health, poor law, and other local matters in Scotland; local authorities are subject to its control, and must obtain its sanction to borrow money, make bye-laws, etc.
General Register House, Edinburgh. £33,473. Keeper of the Records and Reg.-Gen., Sir Stair Agnew, K.C.B., advocate, £1,200; Deputy Keeper of the Records, M. Livingstone, £600. The Registrar-General collects and issues statistics of births, marriages, and deaths in Scotland, and arranges the decennial census.
Office of Works, 3, Parliament Square, Edinburgh. Surveyor for Scotland, W. W. Robertson; Clerk, G. W. Jupp. This department has control of government buildings and royal parks.
Law Officials. Lord Justice Gen., Rt. Hon. J. B. Balfour; Lord Justice Clerk, Rt. Hon. J. H. A. Macdonald, C.B.; Lord Advocate, Rt. Hon. A. Graham Murray, K.C., M.P., £5,000; Solicitor-Gen., C. S. Dickson, K.C., £2,000 Advocates Depute, C. K. Mackenzie, J. A. Fleming, and A. L. M'Clure, £700 each; Crown Agent, W. J. Dundas, W.S., £1,300.
Other Scottish Officials. Hered. Grand Constable, Earl of Erroll: Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, Earl of Leven and Melville; Lord Clerk Register, Duke of Montrose, K.T.; Hered. Master of the Household, Duke of Argyll. K.T.; Hered. Standard Bearer, Earl of Lauderdale; Here litary Keeper of Holyrood Palace, Duke of Hamilton and Brandon; Lord High Commis., The Earl of Leven and Melville; Reg.-Gen. and Dep. Keeper of Great Seal, Sir Stair Agnew, K.C.B.; Dean of the Thistle, J. Cameron Lees, D.D.; Com. of the Forces, Lt.- Gen. Sir Archibald Hunter, K.C.B.
Irish Secretary's Office, Old Queen Street. S.W., and The Castle, Dublin. Hours, 10 to 5, £25,676. Lord Lieutenant, Earl Cadogan, K.G.,
20,000; Chief Sec. to the L. L., Rt. Hon. George Wyndham, M.P., £4,425: Under-Sec., Rt. Hon. Sir David Harrel, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., £2,000; Priv. Sec. to L. L., Lord Plunket, C.V.O. The Lord Lieutenant represents the Sovereign, and all business connected with Ireland is transacted in this Department.
Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, 4, Upper Merrion Street, Dublin. £140,806. Vice-President, Rt. Hon. H. C. Plunkett, £1,350; Sec., T. P. Gill, 1,300. This Department aids and develops agriculture, rural industries, and sea and inland fisheries; and promotes Technical Instruction. It also administers the Parliamentary grant for Science and Art in Ireland, and is the Central Authority under the Acts for the prevention of the spread of contagious diseases in animals.
General Prisons Board. Chairman, J. S. Gibbons, C.B., £1,200. Vice Chairman, J. Mulhall, £1,000.
Local Government Board, Custom House, Dublin. £66,182. President, Chief Sec. to the Lord Lieutenant; Vice-President, Sir Henry A. Robinson, K.C.B.; Sec., H. M. Swaine, £900. The Central Department in Ireland for poor law, public health, and other local matters; local authorities are subject to its control, and must obtain its sanction to borrow money, make bye-laws, etc.
National Education, Tyrone House, Marlborough Street, Dublin. £1,300,771. Adminis tration, £ Resident Commr., W. J. M. Starkey, Litt.D., £1,500; Senior Sec., Alexr. Hamilton, 1,000. Deals with all educational matters in Ireland in same way as the Board of Education does in England.
Public Works Board, Custom House, Dublin. £35,940. Chairman, George V. C. Holmes, £1,500; Sec., H. Williams, £700. Assist.-Sec., Geo. E. Shanahan, £680. The Board has control of Government buildings and royal parks in Ireland.
Registrar General's Office, Charlemont House, Dublin. £30,278. Regis.-Gen., Robert E. Matheson, B.L., £1,000; Sec. and Assist., Robert J. Brew, 600 to £800. Records of births, marriages, and deaths are preserved and indexed here. The Reg.-Gen. issues statistics of births, etc., and collects and compiles the emigration Statistics of Ireland. He also reports on the judicial statistics, and superintends the taking of the decennial census.
Law Officials. Lord Chancellor, Rt. Hon. Lord Ashbourne; Master of the Rol s, Rt. Hon. Andrew M. Porter; Vice-Chanc., Rt. Hon. H. E. Chatterton; Lord Chief Justice, Rt. Hon. Lord O'Brien; Lord Chief Baron, Rt. Hon. Chris. Palles; Attorney-Gen., Rt. Hon. J. Atkinson, K.C., M.P.; Solicitor General, James H. M. Campbell, K.C.
Other I ish Officials. Assist.-Under-Sec. and Clerk of Privy Council, James B. Dougherty, C.B.; State Steward, The Lord Lurgan; Comptroller, The Lord Langford, K.C.V.O.; Gentleman Usher, John Olphert; Chamberlain, Lt.-Col. Sir Gerald R. Dease, C.V.O.; Ulster King of Arms, Sir A. Vicars, C.V.O., F.S.A.; Dean of the Chapel, Very Rev. H. H. Dickinson, D.D.; Com. of the Forces, General H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, K.G., K.T., K.P.
HOW OUR LAW COURTS ARE ARRANGED.
For Scotch and Irish Law Officials see page 105.
House of Lords.-Lord High Chancellor, Earl of Halsbury, £6,000. Lords of Appeal in Ord., Lord Macnaghten, Lord Davey, Lord Robertson, Lord Lindley, each £6,000, and such Peers as hold or have held high judicial office. This is the highest and final appellate Court in the United Kingdom, and all appeals to the House must be brought from the Courts of Appeal in England and Ireland and the Court of Session in Scotland. Not less than 3 Lords of Appeal must be present at the hearing of any appeal. The decisions of the House are not technically judgments; each law Lord, in order of seniority, delivers a speech expressing his opinion on the particular case, and in the end the vote of the majority decides whether an appeal is allowed or whether the judgment of the Court below is to stand. Should a decision of the House of Lords be generally considered to defeat the intention of the Legislature, the only way to remedy it is by fresh legislation on the point in question.
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is composed of the Lord Chancellor, Lord President, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, and members of the Privy Council who hold or have held high judicial office, including Lord Hobhouse, Lord Ashbourne, Lord Field, Lord Shand, Lord James of Hereford, Lord Kinnear, Lord Brampton, Lord Lindley, Sir R. Couch, Sir Ford North, Sir S. J. Way (S. Australia), Sir J. H. De Villiers (Cape of Good Hope), and Sir Hy. Strong (Canada). Registrar, E. S. Hope, C.B., £1,500, Chief Clerk, Judicial Department, G. P. Wheeler, £600. All appeals from the higher Courts of record of the Colonies and Dependencies and from India lie to the King in Council, who hears and determines them through the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Technically this Committee has no executive authority, but is merely a deliberative body advising his Majesty in all cases which are brought before the Judicial Committee, whereupon an Order in Council is made carrying out the recommendations of the Committee. Appeals from the Ecclesiastical Courts also go to this Court, which is usually assisted by ecclesiastical assessors. The two Archbishops are ex officio assessors, the other assessors being the Bishops, who attend according to a rota.
Supreme Court of Judicature.-Court of Appeal. -Ex-officio Judges.-The Lord Chancellor, exLord Chancellors, the Lord Chief Justice, the President of the Probate Division.-Ordinary Judges-Master of the Rolls, Sir Richard Henn Collins, £6,000. Lords Justices, Sir John Rigby, Sir R. Vaughan Williams, Sir Robert Romer, G.C.B., Sir James Stirling, and Sir J. C. Mathew, each £5.000.
This Court usually sits in two divisions, the one the Chancery Court of Appeal and the other the King's Bench Court of Appeal. The former deals, with all appeals from the Chancery Courts Probate and Divorce Courts, the Palatine Courts of Lancaster and Durham, and appeals in bankruptcy. The latter hears all appeals from the King's Bench or common law Courts, Admiralty Court, County Courts, election appeals. All final appeals-i.e., appeals in cases where a final judgment or order has been made by the Court below-must be heard by at least three judges, unless the parties consent to the hearing of an appeal by two judges only (62 & 63 Vict. c. 6). Although this statute has been in force for nearly three years, very few litigants have availed themselves of its provisions. Interlocutory appeals (on questions of procedure,&c., and interim orders
made during the preliminary stages of an action before trial) may be heard by two judges only. One day in each week is set apart by each Court for ex parte applications and interlocutory business generally. No appeal lies from any Court whatever simply on a question of costs.
High Court of Justice.-Chancery Division Judges.-The Lord Chancellor; Sir A. Kekewich, Sir E. W. Byrne, Sir H. H. CozensHardy, Sir Geo. Farwell, Sir H. Burton Buckley, and Sir M. I. Joyce, £5,000 each.
King's Bench Division Judges.-Lord Chief Justice, £8,000 (Lord Alverstone); Sir Alfred Wills, Sir W. Grantham, Sir J. C. Lawrance, Sir R. S. Wright, Sir Gainsford Bruce, Sir William R. Kennedy, Sir Edward Ridley, Sir J. C. Bigham, Sir C. J. Darling, Sir A. M. Channell, Sir W. G. F. Phillimore, Sir T. T. Bucknill, and Sir Joseph Walton, £5,000 each.
Bankruptcy. Judge, Hon. Mr. Justice Wright. Clerk to the Court, G. Falkner. Senior Registrar, J. R. Brougham. - Registrars, H. S. Giffard, J. E. Linklater, H. J. Hope, H. J. Hood.-Chief Clerk, S. R. Stockton.Senior Official Receiver, E. L. Hough.
Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division.— President, Rt. Hon. Sir F. Jeune, £5,000; Judge, Sir J. Gorell Barnes, £5,000.-Admiralty Advo cate, Rt. Hon. Sir J. P. Deane, K.C., D.C.L. -Admiralty Registrar, J. G. Smith,-Probate Registrars, D. H. Owen, R. A. Pritchard, the Hon. J. C. Hannen, A. Musgrave.
Masters of the Supreme Court.-Geo. Fred. Pollock (King's Remembrancer), Marcus H. Johnson, Joseph Kaye, Charles H. Walton, Lord Dunboyne, Jas. R. Mellor, John Macdonell, LL.D., Edw. Wilberforce, Wm. F. A. Archibald, T. Willes Chitty, Hon. G. J. D. Coleridge, Egerton C. B. Lawford, and W. H. Macnamara.
Masters of the Supreme Court, Chancery Division.-J. W. Hawkins, E. W. Walker, W. Binns Smith, C. Burney, E. L. A. Clarke, J. A Romer, W. O. Hewlett, J. C. Fox, R. J. Villiers, Spencer Whitehead, S. A. M. Satow, and R. White. Official Referees.-H. M. Verey, G. W. Hemming, K.C., E. J. Pollock, 1,500 each.
The High Court of Justice is divided into three main divisions-(1) Chancery, (2) King's Bench, and (3) Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Divisions. Each Division tries causes specially assigned to it, but all the divisions have co-ordinate jurisdiction.
The Chancery Division. The judges are grouped in three pairs for the more convenient and expeditious disposal of the business, one of each pair sitting continuously for the trial of witness actions on which final judgments are pronounced, the other dealing with all interlocutory matters preliminary to the final trial and with all non-witness actions, and with all applications which are made privately in the Judge's Chambers and not in open Court. Each term the judges in each pair change about, the one who had last taken non-witness work taking the witness actions for the next term, and vice versa. Specially assigned to this division are the administration of the estates of deceased persons; the dissolution of partnerships or taking of partnership or other accounts; redemption or foreclosure of mortgages; raising of portions or other charges on land: sale and distribution of proceeds of property subject to any lien or charge; execution of trusts; rectification or cancellation of deeds; specific performance of contracts of sale of real estates, including contracts for leases: partition or sale of real estates; wardship of
infants and care of their estates. Although there is jurisdiction for a judge of this division to sit with a jury, such a proceeding is practically un known. If the services of a jury are required the case is usually transferred, for trial only, to the King s Bench Division. In all ordinary cases the judge is judge both of fact and of law. When a writ is issued in the Chancery Division the cause is at once assigned for all purposes to one of the judges of that division.
The King's Bench Division.-The President of the Division is the Lord Chief Justice. Ordinarily in civil cases the judges of this division (when sitting as judges of first instance) sit either alone or with a special or common jury. In former days trial by jury was the more popular, but now every year the proportion of non-jury cases increases. All actions arising out of contract, other than those specially assigned to the Chancery Division, or tort are tried here, and as a general rule (the exception being when many of the judges are away on circuit) six or eight courts sit daily for the disposal of this class of business. In addition to the above one judge sits daily in Chambers for the disposal of interlocutory matters before trial. He disposes of summonses taken out in an action for the delivery of, and for further and better answers to, interrogatories; for directions as to procedure; for delivery of particulars as to any part of the claim or defence, and other matters. He also has jurisdiction to grant interim injunctions. To this division has been transferred the jurisdiction in bankruptcy, one judge being appointed to deal with all the work in that department.
Some few years ago it was thought advisable to appoint one judge to devote the whole of his time to the trial of commercial cases, and for this purpose the Commercial Court was established. This Court has been a great success, as all purely commercial cases are tried here, and a speedy trial is ensured after the pleadings are closed, unless indeed the judge orders the case to be set down for trial without pleadings on the hearing of the summons for directions. A day for trial is always fixed, so that all parties concerned know exactly when their attendance at the Law Courts will be necessary.
Divisional Courts (constituted of two or more judges at the discretion of the President) are formed for the purpose of disposing of cases on the Crown or revenue side of the King's Bench Division, appeals from revising barristers, official referees, proceedings on election petitions, cases stated by the Railway Commissioners, cases of habeas corpus, special cases by agreement between the parties, and appeals from Chambers in the King's Bench Division, except in matters of practice and procedure, which go direct to the Court of Appeal. When all the judges are in town, there are usually at least two or three Divisional Courts sitting daily.
The judges of this division constitute yet another Court, the Court for Crown Cases Reserved. This is presided over by the Lord Chief Justice, and is composed of at least five judges, including the Lord Chief Justice. This Court usually sits on a Saturday morning, and disposes of any points of law which have been raised in the prosecution or defence of any prisoner in any criminal court in the land. These points are reserved by the presiding judge for the consideration of the Court for Crown Cases Reserved.
Every year a rota of judges is appointed for the trial of election petitions during the year.
Another duty thrown upon the judges of this division is that of commissioners of assize, oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery. Various towns throughout the kingdom are constituted assize towns, and these are visited three times a year by one or more judges of the High Court. It is the duty of the judge to try all prisoners who are in gaol awaiting trial, and so make delivery of the gaol. At all assize towns civil as well as criminal business is taken twice a year, and at some of the larger centres, such as Liverpool and Manchester, civil business is taken at every assize.
Space does not admit of an account of the many other commissions and enquiries over which His Majesty's judges are periodically called upon to preside, and other duties to perform in all parts of the empire.
Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division.Two judges are assigned to this division, the senior of them being the President. Although there are only two judges for this division, for all practical purposes it constitutes three separate and independent divisions of the High Court. The Probate Division grants probate of all wills, and administration to the estates of deceased intestates, and decides as to the validity of disputed wills. On the Divorce side all matrimonial causes are tried, including petitions for divorce, nullity of marriage, judicial separation, and restitution of conjugal rights. The Admiralty Division deals with all questions relating to collisions of ships, salvage services and the like, but actions on charter-parties and for freight are usually tried in the Commercial Court of the King's Bench Division. The judge, when trying Admiralty cases, frequently sits with nautical assessors, who are Elder Brethren of the Trinity House.
County Courts.-England and Wales are divided into 54 circuits, each presided over by a judge, who must be a barrister of at least 7 years' standing. Each circuit contains a district, at specified towns or places in which a court must be held generally at least once a month (except September), but at some places a court need only be held once every two months. Outside the metropolis at least one court on each circuit has jurisdiction in bankruptcy, and some few have also jurisdiction in Admiralty.
The general jurisdiction extends to all personal actions, where the debt, demand, or damage claimed is not more than £50, and to actions of ejectment, where neither the value nor the rent exceeds £50, provided that the defendant or his landlord may, within one month from the day of service of the summons, apply to a judge of the High Court at Chambers for a summons to the plaintiff to show cause why such action should not be tried in the High Court on the ground that the title to lands or hereditaments of greater annual value than £50 would be affected by the decision in such action.
The Court in its equitable jurisdiction can exercise all the powers and authority of the High Court in the following matters where the amount does not exceed £500:1. Actions by creditors, legatees (whether specific, pecuniary or residuary), devisees (whether in trust or otherwise), heirs-at-law, or next-ofkin. 2. For the execution of trusts. 3. For foreclosure or redemption, or for enforcing any charge or lien. 4. For specific performance of, or for the reforming, delivering up, or cancelling of any agreement for the sale, purchase, or lease of any property. 5. Under any of the Trustees Relief Acts or the Trustee Acts. 6. Relating to the maintenance or advancement of infants. 7. For the dissolution or winding up of any partnership. 8. Actions for relief against fraud or
mistake. Transfer is to be made to the Chancery Division of any action exceeding the jurisdiction of the Court.
There are two modes of procedure for the recovery of small debts: 1. The ordinary summons. 2. The default summons. If the debtor can be easily served in person the default summons is the better of the two, because redress-or at least a hearing of the claim-where notice of defence has been given, is much more promptly secured than under an ordinary summons.
The ordinary summons, though rather easier to obtain, takes nearly a month before the case comes on for hearing.
Should the plaintiff not succeed in obtaining payment after judgment has been given in his favour on either class of summons, then
66 execution may be levied against defendant's goods. Should plaintiff be unsuccessful in the execution then application should be made to the Court for a "judgment summons." When obtaining such a summons the judge must be satisfied that defendant has really the means to pay the amount claimed, and this is not always easy to prove. If, however, such an order is made, and still payment cannot be obtained, the final step is to apply to the judge for an order of committal to prison. Committal does not exonerate from the debt.
Central Criminal Court.-This Court takes the place of an Assize Court for the City and County of London, the County of Middlesex, and parts of the counties of Surrey, Essex, and Kent. The judges of the Court are the Lord Mayor, Lord Chancellor, judges of the High Court of Justice, judge of the Bankruptcy Court, judge of the Admiralty, Dean of the Arches, aldermen of London, past Lord Chancellors or judges, Sir Forrest Fulton, K.C. (Recorder), F. A. Bosanquet, K.C. (Common Serjeant), and R. M. Kerr (judge of the Sheriffs' Court). Sessions are held every month for the trial of prisoners, and usually three courts sit, presided over by a judge of the High Court, the Recorder and the Common Serjeant. Capital charges are always tried by the judge, though the presidents of the other courts have jurisdiction to try such cases. There is jurisdiction, though it is not often exercised, to send a prisoner for trial to the Central Criminal Court from any assize town.
Courts of Quarter Sessions are held quarterly in every county or division of a county having Quarter Sessions. The judges of these courts are the justices of the peace for the county or division. The principal work which falls to their lot is the trial of prisoners who have been committed for trial by the justices in petty sessions. minor offences are triable at sessions, but murder cases, felonies and assaults on women or children must be sent to the assizes for trial. Although all the justices who are sitting have an equal voice in every sentence or decision, in practice the chairman only takes any part in the proceedings. He charges the jury and sentences the prisoners if convicted. Apart from their criminal jurisdiction Courts of Quarter Sessions have a certain appellate jurisdiction. Appeals from sentences or decisions by justices in petty sessions are heard by quarter sessions, also bastardy appeals and rating appeals. They have also an original jurisdiction as the county authority for making orders to close or divert roads or footpaths in the county. Much of the jurisdiction which the courts formerly held was taken away from them by the Local Government Act, 1888, and vested in the county councils. In addition to the county sessions there are many boroughs throughout the country which have
separate courts of quarter sessions, called borough sessions, of their own. The justices of the boroughs sit in these courts, and their jurisdiction in their own boroughs is much the same as that of the county justices in the counties. The Borough Sessions Court is presided over by a barrister, called the Recorder, who is paid for his services by the borough; he is supreme in his own Court, and if he likes can ignore the wishes and recommendations of the justices who may be sitting on the bench with him.
The duties and functions of justices sitting in petty sessions, Metropolitan Police Magistrates, and Stipendiary Magistrates require no special explanation here.
Ecclesiastical Courts.-Are of three kinds :(1) The Courts of the Primates, or Provincial Courts. (2) Diocesan Courts. (3) Archdeacons' Courts. The Provincial Courts in Canterbury are the Court of Arches (the Sanctuary, Westminster) and the Court of Peculiars (now almost obsolete), and in York the Chancery Court. They are quite independent of each other, and appeals from them lie to the Privy Council. The Court of Arches, presided over by the Hon. Sir Arthur Charles, the Official Principal, or Dean of Arches, has an appellate jurisdiction from the Diocesan Courts and from most of the Courts of Peculiars within the Province of Canterbury; it also takes cognisance of certain causes which properly belong to the inferior courts, the jurisdiction being waived by letters of request from such
The Chancery Court in York corresponds to the Court of Arches in Canterbury, and is the general court of appeal for the Diocesan Courts of the Province. The Judge of the court is the Hon. Sir Arthur Charles, who is called the "Official Principal, or Auditor." Since the Public Worship Regulation Act, 1874, the two Archbishops have appointed one and the same Judge to preside over each of the Provincial Courts.
Diocesan or Consistory Courts have cognisance of all matters which arise locally within their own limits, and administer generally all branches of Ecclesiastical Law. The Judge is the Bishop's Chancellor or his Commissary. Appeals from these courts lie to the Archbishops' Provincial Courts.
The Archdeacons' Court is subordinate to the Bishops' Court, to which appeals lie. The Judge is appointed by the Archdeacon and is called his "Official."
By the provisions of the Clergy Discipline Act, 1892, if a clergyman holding preferment is convicted of any of the offences enumerated in the Act, then his preferment is, without any further trial, to be declared vacant by the Bishop within 21 days. Before the passing of that Act a trial would have been necessary in one of the Ecclesiastical Courts.
Ecclesiastical Court Officials:-ARCHES Court: Registrar, F. H. Lee; Clerk, Kenneth Munro. -FACULTY COURT, 22, Knightrider Street, E.C.: Registrar, W. P. Moore; Clerk, B. B. Bull.Vicar-General's Office, 3, Creed Lane, E.C.: Vicar-General, Sir James Deane, K.C., D.C.L.; Registrar, Harry W. Lee; Apparitor-General, Arthur Ryder; Chief Clerk, T. G. Ryder.— DEAN AND CHAPTER OF ST. PAUL'S COURT, 68, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C.: Commissary, Arthur Milman; Chapter Clerk, H. W. Lee; Receiver, G. Murray.-BISHOP OF LONDON'S CONSISTORY COURT, Dean's Court, Doctor's Commons, E.C.: Chancellor, T. H. Tristram, K.C., D.C.L.; Registrar, H. W. Lee; Apparitor, Arthur Ryder,
ENGLAND AND WALES.
ABBREVIATIONS.-L. L.-Lord Lieutenant; Q. S., Quarter Sessions; C., Chairman; V.-C., ViceChairman; C. of P., Clerk of the Peace; C. T., County Treasurer; Cf. C., Chief Constable; C. C., County Council; D.,Deputy; C.Cor., County Coroner; C.S.,County Surveyor; C.A., County Analyst. Con. C., Convener of County; V. Con., Vice-Convener of County; Sh., Sheriff; C. of P., Clerk of the Peace; Co. Cl., County Clerk, Cf. C., Chief Constable; C. C. F., County Court Judge; C. of C., Clerk of the Crown; C. S., Crown Solicitor.
Walter B. C. Jones, Criccieth. Cf. C., Lt.-Col, Ruck, Carnarvon. C. S., Evan Evans. C. C., 64 members. C., Robert Hughes.
*Except where otherwise stated the Clerk of the Peace is also Clerk of the County Council. Anglesey.-Pop., 50,590. Acres, 175,836 L. L., Sir Richard Williams Bulkeley. Q. S., alt. Beaumaris, Holyhead and Llangefni. C., Şir Richard H. Williams Bulkeley, Bart. C. of P., John Lloyd Griffith, Holyhead. C. T., Evan M. Roberts. Cf. C., Lewis Prothero, C.C.,* 30 members. C., R. R. Jones.
Bedfordshire.-Pop., 171,249. Acres, 298,494. L. L., Earl Cowper, K.G. Q. S., Bedford. C., Lord St. John. C. of P., Wm. W. Marks, Bedford. C. T., Thos. Barnard, Cople. Cf. C., Lt. Col. F. J. Josselyn, Bedford. C. C., 68 members. C., Duke of Bedford.
Berkshire.-Pop., 254,931. Acres, 455,453. L. L., James Herbert Benyon. 2. S., Reading. W. G. Mount, M.P., A. R. Tull. C. of P., John Thornhill Morland, Reading. D. C. of P., F. Morland, Reading, C. T., Henry Collins, Reading. Cf. C., Col. Adam Blandy, Reading. C.Cors., B. Challenor (Abingdon), J. C. Pinniger (Newbury), L. Jotcham (Wantage), W. Weedon (Reading). C. C., 68 members. C., W. G. Mount.
Brecon.-Pop., 59,906. Acres, 454,536. L. L., Sir J. R. Bailey, Bt. Q. S., Brecon. C., Sir J. R. Bailey, Bt. C. of P., H. E. Thomas, Brecon. C.T., John Tudor, Brecon. Cf. C., E. R. Gwynne, Llanthetty Hall, near Brecon. C. C., 60 members. C., Charles Evan Thomas. Buckinghamshire.-Pop., 195,534. Acres, 478,691. L. L., Lord Rothschild. Q. S., Aylesbury. C., Lord Cottesloe. C. of Second Ct., C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P. C. of P., William Crouch, Aylesbury. C. T., C. E. Cobb, Bucks and Oxon Union Bank, Aylesbury. Cf. C., Major Otway Mayne, Aylesbury. C. C., 68 members. C., Rt. Hon. Lord Cottesloe.
Cambridgeshire.-Pop., 190,687. Acres, 315,236. L. L., A. Peckover. C. of Q.S., Edward S. Fordham, LL.M. C. of P., S. R. Ginn, St. Andrews St., Cambridge, D. C. of P., Arthur Wright, LL.M., Cambridge. C. T., E. H. Parker, Cambridge. C. S., W. M. Fawcett, Cambridge. Cf. C., Charles Stretten, Cambridge. C. Cor., Algernon J. Lyon, Cambridge. C. C., 63 members. C., Robert Stephenson.
Do.-Isle of Ely.-Pop., 64,494. Wisbech, Ely. C. of Q. S., Sir T. G. Fardell. C. of P. and C. C., E. H. Jackson, Wisbech. T., F. M. Bland, Wisbech. Cf. C., Col. W. Browne Ferris, Ely. C. S., H. F. Simpson, Wisbech. C. C., 56 members. C., Joseph Martin.
Cardigan.-Pop., 60,237. Acres, 443,071. L. L., H.D. Evans. Q. S., Lampeter. C. of Q.S., J. W. Willis Bund. C. of P., Henry C. Fryer, Aberystwyth. D. C. of P., F. R. Roberts, Aberystwyth. C. T., Joseph Denston Perrott, Aberystwyth. Cf. C., Howell Evans, Aberystwyth. C. C., 64 members. C., M. L. V. Davies, M.P.
Carmarthen.-Pop., 135,325. Acres, 541,25).
for G. of B. of Carmarthen, Arthur Lewis. C. of
Carnarvon.-Pop., 126,835. Acres, 360,138.
Cheshire.-Pop., 814,555. Acres, 633,101. L. L., The Earl Egerton of Tatton, Q.S.,Chester, Knutsford. C., His Honour Sir Horatio Lloyd. C. of P., Reginald Potts, Chester. C. T., James R. Thomson, Chester. Cf. C., Lt.-Col. Hamersley, Chester. C. Acct., James Williams, Chester. C. S., S. Bull, Chester. C. C., 78 members. C., Col. George Dixon. V.-C., T. W. Killick.
Cornwall.-Pop., 322,957. Acres, 863,665. L. L., Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. Q. S., Bodmin. C., W. C. Pendarves, F. Buller Howell. C. of P., C. L. Cowlard, Bodmin. C. T., Consolidated Bank of Cornwall. Cf. C., R. M. Hill, Bodmin. C. C., 88 members. C., Earl of Mount-Edg
THE DUCHY.-Office, Buckingham-gate, S.W. L. Wdn. of Stannaries, Earl of Ducie.K. of P., Seal, Earl of Leicester, K.G. Rec. Gen., Col. Sir R. N. F. Kingscote, K.C.B. At.-Gen., C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P. Aud., L. C. Probyn. Kp. of Rec., M. Holzmann, C.B. Min. Insp.,T. Forster Brown. Solr., T. B. Heathcote. Lnd. Std., Mr. Webster. Asst. Sec., J. C. Pearce.
PRINCE OF WALES' COUNCIL.-Rt. Hon. Earl of Ducie; Earl of Leicester, K.G.; Rt. Hon. Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe; Rt. Hon. Earl Spencer, K.G.; C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P.; Col. Sir Nigel Kingscote, K.C.B.; General Sir Dighton M. Probyn, G.C.V.O., K C.B., K.C.S.I., V.C.; Sir W. G. Anderson, K.C.B.; M. Holzmann, C.B. Sec., M. Holzmann.
Cumberland.-Pop., 266,921. Acres, 970,161. L. L., Lord Muncaster. Q. S., Carlisle. C., J. W. Lowther, M.P. C.of P. and C. C., C. B. Hodgson, Carlisle. C. T., T. Godding, Cumberland Union Banking Co., Limited. Cf. C., Sir John Dunne, K.B.D.L., Carlisle. C. Š., G. J. Bell, Carlisle. C. C., 89 members. C., H. C. Howard.
Denbighshire.-Pop., 129,935. Acres, 425,038. L. L., Col. Cornwallis West. Q. S., Ruthin, Denbigh, Wrexham. C., B. T. Griffith Boscawen. D. C., Col. Mesham. C. of P., W. R. Evans, Ruthin and Wrexham. T., Marcell Conran, Bron Dyffryn, Denbigh. Cf. C., Major Leadbetter, County Buildings, Wrexham. S., R. Ll. Williams, Denbigh. C. C., 64 members. C. C., O. Isgood Jones.
Derbyshire.-Pop., 620, 196. Acres, 654,100. L. L., Duke of Devonshire, K.G. Q. S., Derby. C., Tonman Mosley. C. of P., N. J. HughesHallett, Derby. C. T., J. F. Thirlby, The Bank, Irongate, Derby. C. S., J. S. Story. Cf. C., Captn. H. C. Holland, Derby. C. C., 80 members. C., G. H. Strutt, J.P.
Devonshire.-Pop., 660,444. Acres, 1,666,579. L. L., Lord Clinton. Q. S., Exeter. C., Lord Ebrington, Lord Coleridge, Q.C., Joseph Graham, Q.C. C. of P., H. Michelmore, The Castle, Exeter. C. T., Nat. Prov. Bk., Ld., Exeter. Cf. C., F. R. C. Coleridge, Exeter. C. C., 104 members. C., Viscount Ebrington. V.-C., The Earl of Morley.
Dorsetshire.-Pop., 202,962. Acres, 632,272. L. L., Earl of Ilchester. Q. S., Dorchester. C., H. B. Middleton. D. C., J. R. P. Goedden. C. of P. and C. C., E. Archdall Ffooks, Sherhorne. C. T., John Lush, Dorchester. C. S., W. J. Fletcher. Cf. C., Captain Granville, Dor