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those provinces of Spain from which it had been
long banished, to discover a new world, to
which she might communicate the light and
blessings of divine truth; that if now she did
not decide instantly, the opportunity would be
irretrievably loft ; that Columbus was on his
way to foreign countries, where some prince,
more fortunate or adventurous, would close
with his proposals, and Spain would for ever
bewail the fatal timidity which had excluded
her from the glory and advantages that she had
once in her power to have enjoyed. i
. These forcible arguments, urged by per-
fons of such authority, and at a juncture so
well chofen, produced the desired effect. They
dispelled all Isabella's doubts and fears; she or-
dered Columbus to be instantly recalled, decla-
red her resolution of employing him on his own
terms, and regretting the low state of her fi-
nances, generously offered to pledge her own
jewels, in order to raise as much money as
might be needed in making preparations for the
voyage. (1492) Santangel, in a transport of
gratitude, kissed the queen's hand, and in or-
der to save her from having recourse to such a
mortifying expedient for procuring money, en-
gaged to advance immediately the sum that was
requisite o).

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The conditions of his agreement with Spain. Columbus had proceeded some leagues on his journey, when the messenger from Isabella overtook him. Upon receiving an account of the unexpected revolution in his favour, he rea turned directly to Santa Fé, though some re. mainder of diffidence ftill mingled itself with his joy. But the cordial reception which he met with from Isabella, together with the near prospect of setting out upon that yoyage which had so long been the object of his thoughts and wishes, foon effaced the remembrance of all that he had suffered in Spain, during eight tedious

years of folicitation and fufpence. The negoI ciation now went forward with facility and die i spatch, and a treaty or capitulation with com i lumbus was signed on the seventeenth of April,

one thousand four hundred and ninety-two. The chief articles of it were, 1. Ferdinand and Ifa. bella, as sovereigns of the ocean, constituted Columbus their high admiral in all the feas, ifa lands and continents, which should be disco. yered by his industry ; and ftipulated, that he and his heirs for ever should enjoy this office, with the same powers and prerogatives which

belonged to the high admiral of Caftile, within ll the limits of his jurisdiction. 2. They appoin

ted Columbus their viceroy in all the islands and continents which he should discover; but if, for the better administration of affairs, it Caould hereafter be neceflary to establish a fe

parate governor in any of those countries, they authorised Columbus to name three persons, of whom they would chuse one for that office; and the dignity of viceroy, with all its immunities, was likewise to be hereditary in the family of Columbus. 3. They granted to Columbus and his heirs for ever the tenth of the free profits accruing from the productions and commerce of the countries which he should difcover. 4. They declared, that if any controversy or law-suit shall arise with respect to any mercantile transaction in the countries which should be discovered, it should be determined by the fole authority of Columbus, or of judges to be appointed by him. 5. They permitted Columbus to advance one eighth part of what should be expended in preparing for the expedition, and in carrying on commerce with the countries which he should discover, and intitled him , in return to an eighth part of the profic p).

(1492). Though the name of Ferdinand appears conjoined with that of Isabella in this transaction, his distrust of Columbus was still fo violent. that he refused to take any part in the enterprise, as king of Aragon. As the whole expence of the expedition was to be defrayed by the crown of Castile, Isabella reserved for her subjects of that kingdom an exclusive right

p) Life of Columbus, c.15, Herrera, dec. 1. lib, 1, c.9.

to all the benefits which might redound from its success.

. The preparations for his voyage.

As soon as the treaty was signed, Isabella, by her attention and activity in forwarding the preparations for the voyage, endeavoured to make some reparation to Columbus for the time which he had lost in fruitless solicitation. By the twelfth of May, all that depended upon her was adjusted, and Columbus waited on the king and queen, in order to receive their final in- , structions. Every thing respecting the destination and conduct of the voyage, they committed implicitly to the disposal of his prudence. But, that they might avoid giving any just caufe of offence to the king of Portugal, they strictly enjoined him not to approach near to the Portuguese settlements on the coast of Guinea, nor in any of the other countries to which the Portuguese claimed right as discoverers. Isabella had ordered the ships, of which Columbus was to take the command, to be fitted out in the port of Palos, a small maritime town in the province of Andalusia. As the guardian Juan Perez, to whom Columbus had already been so much indebted, resided in the neighbourhood of this place, he, by the influence of that good ecclefiaftic , as well as by his own connection with the inhabitants, not only raised among them what he wanted of the sum that

he was bound by treaty to advance, but engaged several of them to accompany him in the yoyage. The chief of these affociates were three brothers of the name of Pinzon, of considerable wealth, and of great experience in naval affairs, who were willing to hazard their lives and fortunes in the expedition.

But, after all the efforts of Isabella and Columbus, the armament was not suitable either to the dignity of the nation by which it was equipped, or to the importance of the service for which it was destined. It confifted of three vefsels. The largest, a ship of no considerable burden, was commanded by Columbus, as ad. miral, who gave it the name of Santa Maria, out of respect for the Blessed Virgin, whom he honoured with fingular devotion. Of the second, called the Pinta, Martin Pinzon was captain, and his brother Francis pilot. (1492) The third, named the Nigna, was under the command of Vincent Yanez Pinzon. These two were light vefsels, hardly superior in burden or force to large boats. This squadron, if it merits that name, was vi&tualed for twelve months, and had on board ninety men, mostly sailors, together with a few adventurers who followed the fortune of Columbus, and some gentlemen of Isabella's court, whom she apa pointed to accompany him. Though the expence of the undertaking was one of the circumItances which chiefly alarmed the court of Spain,

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