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That bloody mind, I think, they learn'd of me,
As true a dog as ever fought at head.--
Well, let my deeds be witness of my worth.
I train'd thy brethren to that guileful hole,
Where the dead corpse of Bassianus lay:
I wrote the letter that thy father found,
And hid the gold within the letter mention'd,
Confederate with the queen, and her two sons;
And what not done, that thou hast cause to rue,
Wherein I had no stroke of mischief in it?
I play'd the cheater for thy father's hand;
And, when I had it, drew myself apart,
And almost broke my heart with extreme laugh-
I pry'd me through the crevice of a wall,
When, for his hand, he had his two sons' heads;
Bebeld his tears, and laugh'd so heartily,
That both mine eyes were rainy like to his;
And when I told the empress of this sport,
She swoanded almost at my pleasing tale,
And, for my tidings, gave me twenty kisses.
Goth. What! canst thou say all this, and never
Aar. Ay, like a black dog, as the saying is.
Luc. Art thou not sorry for these heinous
Aar. Ay, that I had not done a thousand more.
Even now I curse the day, (and yet I think
Few come within the compass of my curse,)
Wherein I did not some notorious ill:
As kill a man, or else devise his death;
Ravish a maid, or plot the way to do it;
Acease some innocent, and forswear myself;
Set deadly enmity between two friends;
Make poor men's cattle break their necks;
Set fire on barns and hay-stacks in the night,
And bid the owners quench them with their tears.
Oft have I digg'd up dead men from their graves,
And set them upright at their dear friends' doors,
Even when their sorrows almost were forgot;
And on their skins, as on the bark of trees,
Have with my knife carved in Roman letters,
Let not your sorrow die, though I am dead.
Tat, I have done a thousand dreadful things,
As willingly as one would kill a fly;
And nothing grieves me heartily indeed,
But that I cannot do ten thousand more.
Luc. Bring down the devil; for he must not
And say, I am Revenge, sent from below,
To join with him, and right his heinous wrongs.
Knock at his study, where, they say, he keeps,
To ruminate strange plots of dire revenge;
Tell him, Revenge is come to join with him,
And work confusion on his enemies.
Welcome Emilius, what's the news from Rome ?
Emil. Lord Lucius, and you princes of the
The Roman emperor greets you all by me:
And, for he understands you are in arms,
He craves a parley at your father's house,
Willing you to demand your hostages,
And they shall be immediately deliver'd.
1 Goth. What says our general?
Luc. Emilias, let the emperor give his pledges,
Ento my father and my uncle Marcus,
And we will come.-March away.
SCENE II.-Rome. Before TITUS' House.
Enter TAMORA, CHIRON, and DEMETRIUS,
Tam. Thus, in this strange and sad habiliment,
will encounter with Andronicus;
Perhaps this is a stage direction, crept into the text.
Enter TITUS, above.
Tit. Who doth molest my contemplation?
Is it your trick to make me ope the door;
That so my sad decrees may fly away,
And all my study be to no effect?
You are deceiv'd; for what I mean to do,
See here, in bloody lines I have set down;
And what is written shall be executed.
Tam. Titus, I am come to talk with thee.
Tit. No; not a word: How can I grace my
Wanting a hand to give it action?
Thou hast the odds of me, therefore no more.
Tam. If thou didst know me, thou would'st
talk with me.
Tit. I am not mad; I know thee well enough:
Witness this wretched stamp, these crimson lines;
Witness these trenches, made by grief and care;
Witness the tiring day, and heavy night;
Witness all sorrow, that I know thee well
For our proud empress, mighty Tamora :
Is not thy coming for my other hand?
Tam. Know thou, sad man, I am not Ta-
She is thy enemy, and I thy friend: [mora;
I am Revenge, sent from the infernal kingdom,
To ease the gnawing vulture of thy mind,
By working wreakful vengeance on thy foes.
Come down, and welcome me to this world's
Confer with me of murder and of death,
There's not a hollow cave, or lurking-place ;
No vast obscurity, or misty vale,
Where bloody murder, or detested rape,
Can couch for fear, but I will find them out;
And in their ears tell them my dreadful name,
Revenge, which makes the foul offender quake.
Tit. Art thou Revenge? and art thou sent to
To be a torment to mine enemies?
Tam. I am therefore come down, and wel-
Tit. Do me some service, ere I come to thee.
Lo, by thy side where Rape and Murder stand;
Now give some 'surance that thou art Revenge:
So sweet a death as hanging presently.
Aar. If there be devils, 'would I were a devil, Stab them, or tear them on thy chariot wheels;
To live and burn in everlasting fire;
So I might have your company in hell,
But to torment you with my bitter tongue!
Luc. Sirs, stop his mouth, and let him speak
And then I'll come, and be thy waggoner,
And whirl along with thee about the globes.
Provide thee proper palfries, black as jet,
To hale thy vengeful waggon swift away,
And find out murderers in their guilty caves :
And, when thy car is loaden with their heads,
I will dismount, and by the waggon wheel
Enter a GOTH.
Desires to be admitted to your presence.
Luc. Let him come near.-
Goth. My lord, there is a messenger from Trot, like a servile footman, all day long!
E'en from Hyperion's rising in the east,
Until his very downfal in the sea.
And day by day I'll do this heavy task,
So thou destroy Rapine and Murder there.
Tam. These are my ministers, and come with
Tit. Are they thy ministers? what are they
Tam. Rapine and Murder; therefore called so,
'Cause they take vengeance of such kind of men.
Tit. Good lord, how like the empress' sons
And you the empress! But we worldly men
Have miserable, mad, mistaking eyes.
O sweet Revenge, now do I come to thee:
And, if one arm's embracement will content thee,
will embrace thee in it by and by.
[Exit TITUS from above.
Tam. This closing with him fits his lunacy :
What'er Irge, to feed his brain-sick fits,
Do you uphold and maintain in your speeches.
For now he firmly takes me for Revenge;
And being credulous in this mad thought,
I'll make him send for Lucins, his son;
And, whilst I at a banquet hold him sure,
I'll find some cunning practice out of hand,
Tit. I know thou dost; and, sweet Revenge, farewell.
Chi. Tell us, old man, how shall we be employ'd.
Tit. Tut, I have work enough for you to do.
Tit. Long have I been forlorn, and all for Publius, come hither, Caius, and Valentine!
To scatter and disperse the giddy Goths,
Or, at the least, make them his enemies.
See, here he comes, and I must ply my theme.
Welcome, dread fury, to my woful house ;-
Rapine, and Murder, you are welcome too :-
How like the empress and her sons you are!
Well are you fitted, had you but a Moor;-
Could not all hell afford you such a devil ?—
For, well I wot, the empress never wags,
But in her company there is a Moor;
And, would you represent our queen aright,
It were convenient you had such a devil:
What shall we do?
But welcome, as you are.
Tam. What would'st thou have us do, An-
Dem. Show me a murderer, I'll deal with him. Chi. Show me a villain, that hath done a rape. And I am sent to be reveng'd on him.
Tam. Show me a thousand that hath done And I will be revenged on them all. [thee wrong, Tit. Look round about the wicked streets of
And when thou find'st a man that's like thyself,
Good Murder, stab him: he's a murderer.-
Go thou with him; and when it is thy hap,
To find another that is like to thee,
Good Rapine, stab him! he is a ravisher.-
Go thou with them! and, in the emperor's court,
There is a queen, attended by a Moor;
Well may'st thou know her by thy own pro-
For up and down she doth resemble thee:
I pray thee, do on them some violent death,
They have been violent to me and mine.
Tam. Well hast thou lesson'd us; this shall
But would it please thee, good Andronicus,
To send for Lucius, thy thrice valiant son,
Who leads towards Rome a band of warlike Goths,
And bid him come and banquet at thy house;
When he is here, even at thy solemn feast,
I will bring in the empress and her sons,
The emperor himself, and all thy foes,
And at thy mercy shall they stoop and kneel,
And on them shalt thou ease thy angry heart.
What says Andronicus to this device?
Tit. Marcus, my brother!—'tis sad Titus calls.
Go, gentle Marcus, to thy nephew Lucius!
Thou shalt inquire him out among the Goths:
Bid him repair to me, and bring with him
Some of the chiefest princes of the Goths:
Bid him encamp his soldiers where they are:
Tell him, the emperor and the empress too
Feast at my house: and he shall feast with them.
This do thou for my love; and so let him,
As he regards his aged father's life.
Mar. This will I do, and soon return again.
Tam. Now will I hence about thy business,
And take my ministers along with me.
Tit. Nay, nay, let Rape and Murder stay with
Or else I'll call my brother back again,
And cleave to no revenge but Lucius.
Tam. What say you, boys? will you abide Whiles I go tell my lord the emperor, [with him, How I have govern'd our determin'd jest ? field to his humour, smooth and speak him fair, [Aside.
I take them, Chiron and Demetrius.
Tit. Fie, Publfus, fie! thou art too much de-
The one is Murder, Rape is the other's name :
And therefore bind them, gentle Publius;
Caius and Valentine, lay hands on them:
Oft have you heard me wish for such an hour,
And now I find it: therefore bind them sure;
And stop their mouths, if they begin to cry.
[Exit TITUS.-PUBLIUS, &c. lay hold on
CHIRON and DEMETRIUS.
Chi. Villains, forbear: we are the empress' sons.
Pub. And therefore do we what we are com-
Stop close their mouths, let them not speak a
Is he sure bound ↑ look that you bind them fast.
Re-enter TITUS ANDRONICUS, with LAVINIA;
she bearing a basin, and he a knife.
Tit. Come, come, Lavinia! look, thy foes are
Sirs, stop their mouths, let them not speak to me;
But let them hear what fearful words I utter.—
O villains, Chiron and Demetrius !
Here stands the spring whom you have stain'd
This goodly summer with your winter mix'd.
You kill'd her husband; and, for that vile fault,
Two of her brothers were condemn'd to death;
My hand cut off, and made a merry jest ;
Both her sweet hands, her tongue, and that,
Enter PUBLIUS, and others.
Pub. What's your will?
Tit. Know you these two?
Pub. Th' empress' sons,
Than hands or tongue, her spotless chastity,
Inhuman traitors, you constrain'd and fore'd.
What would you say, if I should let you speak
Villains, for shame you could not beg for grace.
Hark, wretches, how I mean to martyr you.
This one hand yet is left to cut your throats;
Whilst that Lavinia 'tween her stumps doth hold
The basin that receives your guilty blood.
You know your mother means to feast with me,
And calls herself Revenge, and thinks me mad,—
Hark, villains; I will grind your bones to dust,
And with your blood and it, I'll make a paste;
And of the paste a coffin I will rear,
And make two pasties of your shameful heads;
And bid that strumpet, your unballow'd dam,
Like to the earth, swallow her own increase.
This is the feast that I have bid her to,
And this the banquet she shall surfeit on;
For worse than Philomel you us'd my daughter,
And worse than Progne I will be reveng'd:
And now prepare your throats,-Lavinia, come,
[He cuts their Throats.
Receive the blood, and, when that they are dead,
Let me go grind their bones to powder small,
And with this hateful liquor temper it;
And in this paste let their vile heads be bak'd.
Come, come, be every one officious
To make this banquet; which I wish may prove
More stern and bloody than the Centaur's feast.
So, now bring them in, for I will play the cook,
And see them ready 'gainst their mother comes.
[Exeunt, bearing the dead bodies.
SCENE III.-The same.-A Pavilion, with
And tarry with him, till I come again.
Tit. I know them all, though they suppose:
And will o'er-reach them in their own devices;
A pair of cursed hell-hounds, and their dam.
Dem. Madam, depart at pleasure, leave us
Tam. Farewell, Andronicus: Revenge now goes To lay a complot to betray thy foes.
Enter LUCIUS, MARCUS, and GOTHS, with
Luc. Uncle Marcus, since 'tis my father's mind
That I repair to Rome, I am content.
• Crust of a raised pye,
Mer. Rome's emperor, and nephew, break † the parle ;
These quarrels mast be quietly debated.
The feast is ready which the careful Titus
Hath ordain'd to an honourable end,
For peace, for love, for league, and good to
Enter TITUS, dressed like a cook, LAVINIA,
veiled, young Lucius, and others. TITUS
places the dishes on the table.
Tit. Welcome, my gracious lord: welcome,
Welcome, ye warlike Goths: welcome, Lucius:
And welcome, all: although the cheer be poor,
'Twill fill your stomachs; please you eat of it.
Sat. Why art thou thus attir'd, Andronicus?
Tit. Because I would be sure to have all well,
To entertain your highness and your empress.
Tam. We are beholden to you, good An-
Enter SATURNINUS and TAMORA, with Tri-
bunes, Senators, and others.
By uproar sever'd, like a flight of fowl
Scatter'd by winds and high tempestuous gusts,
Sat. What, hath the firmament more sunsO let me teach you how to knit again
This scatter'd corn into one mutual sheaf,
These broken limbs again into one body.
Luc. What boots it thee, to call thyself a
Sen. Lest Rome herself be bane unto her.
Tit. An if your highness knew my heart,
My lord the emperor, resolve me this;
Was it well done of rash Virginius,
To slay his daughter with his own right hand,
Because she was enforc'd, stain'd, and de-
And she, whom mighty kingdoms curt'sy to,
Like a forlorn and desperate cast-away,
Do shameful execution on herself.
But if my frosty signs and chaps of age,
Grave witnesses of true experience,
Cannot induce you to attend my words,-
Speak, Rome's dear friend; [To LUCIUS.] as erst
When with his solemn tongue he did discourse
Please you, therefore, draw nigh, and take your
places. Sat. Marcus, we will. [Hautboys sound. The Company sit down To love-sick Dido's sad attending ear, The story of that baleful burning night, When subtle Greeks surpris'd king Priam's
Sat. It was, Andronicus.
Tit. Your reason, mighty lord!
Sat. Because the girl should not survive her
Sat. Go, fetch them hither to us presently.
Tit. Why, there they are both baked in that
And by her presence still renew his sorrows.
Tit. A reason mighty, strong, and effectual;
A pattern, precedent, and lively warrant,
For me, most wretched to perform the like:-
Die, die, Lavinia, and thy shame with thee;
[He kills LAVINIA.
And, with thy shame, thy father's sorrow die !
Sat. What hast thou done, unnatural, and
Tit. Kill'd her, for whom my tears have made
ain as woful as Virginius was: [me blind.
have a thousand times more cause than he
do this outrage; and it is now done.
Sat. What, was she ravish'd? tell, who did
Tit. Will't please you eat? will't please your highness feed?
Tem. Why hast thou slain thine only daughter
Whereof their mother daintily hath fed,
Eating the flesh that she herself hath bred.
'Tis true, 'tis true; witness my knife's sharp
Sat. Die, frantic wretch, for this accursed
Luc. Can the son's eye behold his father
Tit. Not I, 'twas Chiron aud Demetrius :
ravish'd her, and cut away her tongue,
they, 'twas they, that did her all this wrong.
↑ Begin the parley.
Mar. You sad-fac'd men, people and sons of
Tell us, what Sinon hath bewitch'd our ears,
Or who hath brought the fatal engine in,
That gives our Troy, our Rome, the civil
My heart is not compact of flint nor steel;
Nor can I utter all our bitter grief,
But floods of tears will drown my oratory,
And break my very utterance: even i'the time
When it should niove you to attend me most,
Lending your kind commiseration :
Here is a captain, let him tell the tale;
Your hearts will throb and weep to hear him
Luc. Then, noble auditory, be it known to you,
That cursed Chiron and Demetrius
Were they that murdered our emperor's brother;
And they it were that ravished our sister:
For their fell faults our brothers were beheaded;
Our father's tears despis'd; and basely cozen'd
Of that true hand, that fought Rome's quarrel
And sent her enemies unto the grave.
Lastly, myself unkindly banished,
The gates shut on me, and turn'd weeping out,
To beg relief among Rome's enemies;
Who drown'd their enmity in my true tears,
And op'd their arms to embrace me as a friend:
And I am the turn'd-forth, be it known to you,
That have preserv'd her welfare in my blood;
And from her bosom took the enemy's point,
Sheathing the steel in my advent'rous body.
Alas; you know, I am no vaunter, I;
My scars can witness, dumb although they are,
That my report is just, and full of truth.
But, soft: methinks I do digress too much,
Citing my worthless praise: O pardon me;
For when no friends are by, men praise them-
Mar. Now is my turn to speak: Behold this
[Pointing to the child in the arms of un
The villain is alive in Titus' house,
Damn'd as he is, to witness this is true.
Now judge, what cause had Titus to revenge
These wrongs, unspeakable, past patience,
Or more than any living man could bear.
Now you have heard the truth, what say you,
Many a time he danc'd thee on his knee,
Sung thee asleep, his loving breast thy pillow;
Many a matter hath he told to thee,
Meet, and agreeing with thine infancy;
In that respect then, like a loving child,
Shed yet some small drops from thy tender
Because kind nature doth require it so: [woe :
Friends should associate friends in grief and
Bid him farewell; commit him to the grave;
Do him that kindness, and take leave of him.
Boy. O grandsire, grandsire! even with all my
Have we done aught amiss? Show us wherein,
And, from the place where you behold us now,
(The poor remainder of Andronici)
We'll hand in hand, all headlong cast us down,
And on the ragged stones beat forth our brains,
And make a mutual closure of our house.
Speak, Romaus, speak; and, if you say we
Lo, hand in hand, Lucius and I will fall.
Emil. Come, come, thou reverend man of
And bring our emperor gently in thy hand:
Lucius our emperor; for, well I know
The common voice do cry, it shall be so.
Rom. [Several speak.] Lucius, all hail; That hath been breeder of these dire events.
Rome's royal emperor !
Luc. Set him breast-deep in earth, and fa-
1 Rom. You sad Andronici, have done with
Give sentence on this execrable wretch,
LUCIUS, &c. descend.
Mar. Go, go into old Titus' sorrowful house;
[To an Attendant.
And hither hale that misbelieving Moor,
To be adjudg'd some direful slaughtering death,
As punishment for his most wicked life.
Rom. [Several speak.] Lucius, all hail;
Rome's gracious governor !
Luc. Thanks, gentle Romans; May I govern
Would I were dead, so you did live again !→,
O lord, I cannot speak to him for weeping;
My tears will choke me, if I ope my mouth.
Enter Attendants, with AARON.
There let him stand, and rave and cry for food;
If any one relieves or pities him,
For the offence he dies. This is our doom:
Some stay, to see him fasten'd in the earth.
Aar. Oh! why should wrath be mute, and fury
I am no baby, I that, with base prayers,
I should repent the evils I have done :
Ten thousand worse that ever yet I did
Would I perform, if I might have my will;
If one good deed in all my life I did,
I do repent it from my very soul.
Luc. Some loving friends convey the emperor
To heal Rome's harms, and wipe away her woe!
Brt, gentle people, give me aim awhile,-
For nature puts me to a heavy task ;-
Stand all aloof :-but, uncle, draw you near,
To shed obsequious tears upon this trunk :-
O take this warm kiss on thy pale cold lips,
These sorrowful drops upon thy blood-stain'd
The last true duties of thy noble son !
Mar. Tear for tear, and loving kiss for kiss,
Thy brother Marcus tenders on thy lips :
Oh were the sum of these that I should pay
Countless and infinite, yet would I pay thein !
Luc. Come hither, boy; come, come, and
learn of us
To melt in showers: Thy grandsire lov'd thee
And give him burial in his father's grave:
My father, and Lavinia, shall forthwith
Be closed in our household's monument
As for that beinous tiger, Tamora,
No funeral rite, nor man in mournful weeds,
No mournful bell sball ring her burial;
But throw her forth to beasts and birds of prey :
Her life was beast-like, and devoid of pity;
And, being so, shall have like want of pity.
See justice done to Aaron, that damn'd Moor,
By whom our heavy haps had their beginning:
Then, afterwards, to order well the state;
That like events may ne'er it ruinate.
LITERARY AND HISTORICAL NOTICE.
THIS tragedy was written about the year 1602, and Shakspeare is supposed to have taken the greatest part of its
materials from the Troye Boke of Lydgate, an author who derived many of his particulars from a History of
Troy, ia Latin, by Guido of Columpna. Chaucer had previously celebrated the loves of Troilus and Cressida.
in a translation from a Latin poem of one Lollius, an old Lombard author. The characters in this play
(which was not originally divided into acts) are strikingly assimilated to the portraits which history has pre-
served of them---the aged loquacity of Nestor---the insinuating eloquence of Ulysses---the boasting confidence
of Ajax---the sulien self-importance of Achilles---the conscious dignity of Agamemnon, and the sneaking in-
significance of the cuckold Menelaus, are excellently displayed in the development of the piece; whilst the
scurrile malignity of Thersites most humorously and ingeniously advances its interest throughout. The
mode of Hector's death is, however, at variance with historical record, and was probably accompanied with
such baseness on the part of Achilles, to perfect the amiable attributes in which the poet chose to invest the
character of his Trojan opponent. Troilus, the hero of the play, has little to recommend him beyond per-
sonal intrepidity, and the sincerity of a youthful attachment---some authors rank him among the elder of
Priam's sons; others (and among them Virgil, who describes in the 1st book of the Eneid, line 474, the manner
of his death by the hand of Achilles) call him the youngest. Anachronisms are of frequent occurrence in
this play; such as Hector's citing Aristotle, and Ulysses alluding to the "bull-bearing Mile," who did not
live till many years after the Trojan war. It must, nevertheless, be remembered, that the greater part of
Shakspeare's library consisted of ancient romances; and nothing could be less correct than their computation
of dates. The language of the piece is greatly tinctured with the peculiarities of the age in which he lived;
and although Dr. Johnson considers it more correctly written than many of its companions, he exempts it
from any extent of view or elevation of fancy. "The vicious characters (says that discriminating critic)
sometimes disgust, but cannot corrupt; for both Cressida and Pandarus are detested and condemned. The
comic characters seem to have been the favourites of the writer: they are of the superficial kind, and ex-
bibit more of manners than nature; but they are copiously filled, and powerfully impressed,”
PRIAM, King of Troy.
HECTOR, TROILUS, PARIS,} His Sons.
ENEAS, ANTENOR, Trojan Commanders. CALCHAS, a Trojan Priest, taking part with the Greeks.
PANDARUS, Uncle to Cressida.
MARGARELON, a bastard Son of Priam.
AGAMEMNON, the Grecian General.
MENELAUS, his Brother.
ACHILLES, AJAX, ULYSSES,
THERSITES, a deformed and scurrilous Gre-
HELEN, Wife to Menelaus.
ANDROMACHE, Wife to Hector.
CASSANDRA, Daughter to Priam; a Pro-
CRESSIDA, Daughter. to Calchas.
Trojan and Greek Soldiers, and Attendants.
SCENE: Troy, and the Grecian Camp before it.
ALEXANDER, Servant to Cressida.
Servant to Troilus.-Servant to Paris.-Ser-
vant to Diomedes.
In Troy there lies the scene.
The princes orgulous, their high blood chaf'd,
Have to the port of Athens sent their ships,
Fraught with the ministers and instruments
of cruel war: Sixty and nine, that wore
Their crownets regal, from the Athenian bay
Put forth toward Phrygia: and their vow is
To ransack Troy; within whose strong immures
The ravish'd Helen, Menelaus' queen,
With wanton Paris sleeps:
And that's the
To Tenedos they come;
And the deep-drawing barks do there disgorge
Their warlike fraughtage; + Now on Dardan
The fresh and yet unbruised Greeks do pitch 4 Freight.
• Proud, disdainful
From isles of [Their brave pavilions: Priam's six-gated city,'
Dardan, and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan,
And Antenorides, with massy staples,
And corresponsive and fulfilling bolts,
Sperr up the sons of Troy.
Now expectation, tickling skittish spirits,
On one and other side, Trojan and Greek,
Sets all on hazard :-And hither am I come
A prologue arm'd,-but not in confidence
of author's pen, or actor's voice; but suited
In like conditions as our argument,-
To tell you, fair beholders, that our play
Leaps o'er the vaunt and firstlings of those
'Ginning in the middle; starting thence away
To what may be digested in a play.
Like, or find fault; do as your pleasures are;
Now good, or bad, 'tis but the chance of war.
Avaun what went before,