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:started a regular campaign against man had ever worked for them as he Renaudot, and called upon the State to was working. At the Sign of the put in force the law by which foreign Cock there was help for all who stood doctors, i.e., those not holding Paris in need of it. The Relief Bureau dealt cliplomas, were forbidden to practise in out charity to the feeble ; the Register the city. The king, Richelieu, and the Office provided work for the strong; ·court were on Renaudot's side ; the while the free consultations were the Parliament, the city authorities, and means of relieving much suffering ; the great niiddle class were on the side and the Pawnbroking Office helped of the medical faculty, and there was many a poor family to keep the grey soon opeu warfare between the two wolf fron the door. The doctor was parties.

doing what he could too for all classes, The Paris doctors obtained a decree providing them with news, amusement, prohibiting the Montpellier men from and instruction ; and he used even to practising The king promptly an- help the ministers by keeping them mulled the decree, and advised its informed as to what was passing in all authors to show more toleration. They parts of the world. Thus his power replied by summoning their rivals be- was elt throughout the state, and at fore the courts, and refusing degrees this time he had almost as many friends to Renaudlot's sons. Then Renaudot, as enemies. Unluckily for him, howstrong alike by his favor at court and ever, his friends were mortal, his enehis popularity among the masses, car- mies immortal. As Guy Patin once ried the war into the enemy's camp. remarked : “ Tous les hommes particuHe held the antiquated ways of the liers meurent, mais les compagnies ne Paris doctors up to ridicule ; taunted meurent point." them with having slept for years on Father Joseph had died in 1638. Galen's bosom ; and told them that the Thien in 1642, at the very moment time was come when they really must when Renaudot's position seemed most wake up. They revenged themselves assured, just when the Parisiau doctor's by denouncing him as a charlatan and had decided that they must come to a poisoner; and by solemnly averring terms with him, Richelieu, his all-powthat they knew he had a compact with erful protector, was stricken with an the devil. The town was flooded with incurable malady. This was a terrible pamphlets, and the party spirit they blow to the doctor, and a cause of open engendered ran so high that Richelieu rejoicing to his enemies, who at once was obliged to interfere and stop all returned to the attack, with a change publications on the subject. Both the of tactics, though. No sooner king and the cardinal were keenly alive Richelieu dead than they set to work to to the good work Renaudot was doing try to turn the king against Renaudot. among the poor ; and they supported In this, however, they failed comhim against his enemies by all the pletely. Not only did Louis continue means in their power. When the to show the most lively interest in the Medical School refused to sanction the inventions, but he even, as a special study of chemistry, Louis allowed Re- mark of favor, granted Renaudot pernaudot to establish a public laboratory ; mission to build a hospital ou a piece and when the attack on the foreign of common land near the Porte St. cloctors was continued, he threatened Antoine. This led to more quarrels, to establish a free school of medicine in for the Parliament denied the king's Paris.

right to give away the land ; and the The struggle went for years. Duchesse d'Uzès, who owned a house From 1630 to 1642 Renaudot was victo- in the neighborhood, brought an action rious all along the line ; and although against the doctor for damaging her the middle classes

man property. But little he recked either against him, he was much loved by the of Parliament or of duchesse so long poor. And well he might be, for no as he had the king at his back. It had

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been the desire of his life to have a men stood face to face, hurling at each hospital under his own control ; and other accusations, invectives, and all Dow that his wish seemed on the point forms of personal abuse. Amidst a of being gratified, his delight knew no storm of mingled groans, hisses, and bounds. Again all tbings were going applause, Renaudot taunted Guy Patin sell with him ; again he had put his with his poverty ; declared that he enemies to confusion. Never was be hired himself out, at a louis the night, 80 exultant, so sure of himself, so sure to provide amusement at aristocratic of his power to carry all before him, as dinner-tables ; and that his wife passed in that spring which followed Riche-off paper-covered sous as crowns at lieu's death. His triumph, however, church collections. Guy Patin retalwas short-lived ; on the 14th of May, iated by holding up to derision his 1613, Louis XIII. died. Then Renau- rival's personal appearance ; bringing dot knew that the fates themselves against him infamous charges ; and, were against him, for all power in the oddest touch of all, by reviving the old State passed into the hands of Anne of story that it was from the devil he had Austria, his bitter enemy.

obtained his inventions. Twelve years before this time, he The verdict was, of course, a forebud mortally offended the queen by gone conclusion. The provost forbade stating, in the Gazette, at the request Renaudot and all other foreign doctors, of Richelieu, that the king intended to under a penalty of five hundred crowns, divorce her. This, as she knew, was either to practise, or hold free consulonly the cardinal's way of giving her a tations, or conferences, within the prehint to stop her intrigues with the cincts of the city. Renaudot's only Spaniards ; but she was not the woman resource, and it was a desperate one, to take such a hint in good part; and was to appeal against this decree to she never forgave the doctor for pub- Parliament. The greatness of the danühing it. Louis XIII, was hardly in ger which threatened him restored to his grave before she began to give him his old coolness. In his address proof of her enmity. When the med- to Parliament there is not a touch of ial faculty applied to her for permis- that personal rancor which had disfigsion to carry the dispute with Renaudot ured his speeches before the provost. before the provost of Paris, she readily For once, at least, he cast aside all panied it, although she knew that the thought of self, and pleaded only for ate king had repeatedly refused to do the poor. For their sake he implored 34. Renaudlot was well aware that he Parliament not to condemn him to bad nothing to hope for from the pro- stand aside helpless and see them sufTost, who was his personal enemy; fer. Was their misery not great enough aill, he was resolved that his cause already, he asked, that men should should not be lost for want of fighting. combine to render it greater ? His Tnfortunately for his reputation, low- appeal made a profound impression on erer, bis temper and his nerve began all who heard it. Unfortunately for to fail him, just when he stood most him, however, the lawless element in in need of them. Moderation had never the city, with the Duchesse de Che. been a characteristic of his ; and at this vreuse at its hcad, had rallied around time he cast all restraint to the winds, him ; a fact which prejudiced against and wrote and talked with a reckless- him the law-abiding. Besides, Parliabess which alienated many who wished ment still bore him a grudge for the him well.

yeoman's service he had rendered its When the case came before the pro- old opponent, Richelieu. It therefore Tost, the court was crowded, for it was confirmed the provost's decree, and known that Renaudot and Guy Patin even increased its severity ; for not rould cross swords, and an encounter content with pronouncing the free conbetween such combatants was not a sultations illegal, it ordered the Bureau thing to be missed. For days the two d’Adresse to be closed. It added, it is

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true, a rider to its judgment, requiring chance of paying off some of his ol the faculty of Paris to carry on the scores against the Parliament. S work the foreign doctors were doing completely did he throw in his lot wit among the poor, so far at least as it the cardinal, that when the queen fle related to attending them gratis when to St. Germain, he accompanied her

and took with him his printing-pres: Thus at one fell swoop, all the in- Before he left the city, however, feai ventions — Renaudot's life's work as iting lest the Parliament should, durin were — were swept away.

For the his absence, start a newspaper of it future it was to be imputed to him as own, he organized the Courrier Fran a crime, if he attempted to relieve the çais. under the editorship of his tw sufferings of those around him! Truly, sons, and placed it at the service of hi - evil days were come upon him. Finan- bitterest opponent. cially he was ruined, for every farthing The Parliament, only too glad t he possessed was invested in the bu- have a journal ready to hand, entere

To add to his troubles, too, his into the arrangement most cordially wife, to whom he was devotedly at- During the civil war, Renaudot wa tached, died about this time ; and what practically the inspirer, manager, and was peculiarly trying to one of his director of the organs of the rival par temperament, his splendid physique ties. In the Gazette he denounced the began to show signs of weakness. Still Frondeurs as traitors of the deepes he was not the man to sink down un- dye, and swore that hanging was to der defeat. Before his enemies had good for them ; whilst in the Courrier well begun their hymn of triumphi, old, he hurled threats at the queen and he weary, and poor as he was, he was at ministers, and called upon the people work again. He had still his Gazette. to rally around the Parliament. The Why that too had not been confiscated Fronde affords many odd spectacles it would be hard to say, unless, indeed, but none odder, surely, than that of the the Parliament thought it more dan- editor of the official organ of a govern gerous to deprive the rich of gossip ment acting also as the editor of the than the poor of help. His paper was official organ of a party in rebellion his only instrument, and he resolved to against that government. Aristocrati use it vigorously. He threw himself Frondeurs found the combination o heart and soul into his work as a jour- rôles amusing, but the populace failed nalist, straining every nerve to win to see the joke. They were furious back his old position in the city. As too, that their old favorite should, as the editor of the only authorized news- they said, have donned the livery o paper, he could still make his influence the foreign gang; and when Renaudot felt; and before many months bad returned with the court to Paris, le passed, he was again a personage to be was received with an outburst of popu reckoned with. Mazarin entered into lar anger. No blow he ever received an alliance with him, and made the touched him so keenly. When the queen understand, for the time at least, great had turned against him, he had the folly of indulging in petty spite at given them back scorn for scorn ; bu the expense of the smartest pam- when the rabble, for whom he hace phleteer in the kingdom. In 1646 he done so much, hissed and hooted him was appointed royal historiographer, it was otherwise. and a few months later he was allowed From that day he was never quite to reopen his Labor Bureau.

the same man. A certain Ishmaelitish Renaudot had to pay a heavy price feeling took possession of him, and he for Mazarin's support.

Frondeur of secmed for the first time to realize how Frondeurs as he was by instinct, he completely he stood alone in the world had to fight tooth and nail against the But he had no time for mourning, for Fronde. Perhaps, though, he did this troubles were crowding in upon hin the more readily, as it gave him the from every side. Mazarin did not dare

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to relurn to Paris, and the queen, tak- | Then it was evident the end was drawing advantage of his absence, began ing near. He passed away quite sudagain to show her ill feeling to Renau- denly on the 25th of October, 1653. dot. She refused to repay to him the To the last he retained his mental noney he had spent transporting his vigor, and continued editing the Gazette printing - press to St. Germain, she to the day he diedl. Some of his best stopped the State subsidy to the Ga- work, indeed, as a journalist was done zelte, and even forbade the ministers to when death was within bail, as it were. continue supplying its editor with offi- The article he published when Dunkirk cial information. He had his revenge, was captured, is a model in its way. though, speedily ; for when Anne was It is an appeal vehement in tone, obliged again to retire to St. Germain, yet not lacking in dignity to his in spite of her threats, persuasions, countrymen to cease their petty wranand entreaties, he refused to go with glings, and unite before it be too late her. She had better start a journal of for the defence of the Fatherland. Nor her own, he told her. In the crowd is the exhortation less admirable which which surrounded her she might pos- he addressed to the Parisians, when sibly, though he doubted it, find some Louis XIV. returned to the city at the me with brains enough to act as editor. conclusion of the civil war. A someVeanwhile the constant strain under what pathetic interest is attached to Thich he was living had overtaxed his this article, for it was written when strength, and in 1649 he had a paralytic things were at the very worst with stroke. He soon, however, threw off hin, when he was alone in the world, is effects, and was once more to the in suffering, gueux comme un peintre, fore.

as Guy Patin sneers, and, cruellest In 1651 Renaudot was guilty of an touch of all, when he was being held act of folly, of the sort which those up to the town as a laughing-stock. who knew him best were least able to Yet, far from bearing any traces of understand. No man had jibed and gloom or despondency, his words ring jeered more mercilessly than he at the with gladness and hope. He bids his weaknesses of his contemporaries, and fellow-citizens be of good cheer, for all lis cruellest speers had always been their troubles are at an end, and bright reserved for those whom

those whom love led days are coming, days of glory and astray. Yet, in his old age, at a time prosperity. when he could hardly plead passion as For them yes, perhaps, but not for an excuse, he married a young and him, for he was face to face with death, beautiful woman, Louise de Mascon by and he knew it. And tant pis pour

The marriage proved a most moi, he seems to call down to his felunhappy one ; the husband was jeal-lows from his Mount Pisgah, shrugging cas, and lacking alike in tenderness his shoulders as he does so. and consideration; while the wife was I can rejoice that your lines are cast cond of pleasure, and none too careful in pleasanter places than mine have s her good name. Before long their been.” There is always a touch of quarrels supplied gossips with endless heroism in the man who, worsted in piquant stories, which were speedily the fight himself, can still rejoice with put into verse for the very boys in the those who rejoice. street to sing and whistle. The knowl.

EDITH SELLERS. edge that he was being thus exposed to public derision drove the old man Tilid; and scenes of such violence occurred between him and his wife, that

From The Contemporary Review.

VILLAGE LIFE IN FRANCE. Butual friends were forced to step in and arrange a separation. But this Tas not done until he had been stricken A GREAT deal of attention has been at the second time with paralysis. given of late in English papers and

name.

- At least,

BY A FRENCH OFFICIAL.

reviews to the condition of the inhab- | ants, whose means do not allow theïr itants of the rural districts in France. sons to learn a trade. For the most It is alleged that their condition, owing part they work on the farms; the to the parcelling out of the land, which wages they get, and the number of dates from the Revolution, is better bours they work, vary according to the than that of the rural population in seasons, which one may designate the England. The question is an impor- fine and the bad seasons. The fine tant one, because on its solution will, season begins in February ; then the perhaps, depend new laws fostering work consists chiefly of hedging and the establishment of la petite propriété ditching, the hours of labor lasting in England, with the consequences en- from dawn until sunset, and the labortailed by it. It appears to me that ers earning about 1s. per day. Iu many of the writers of these articles April the wages rise to ls. 3d. and 1s. draw their conclusions from obser- 8d. With the hay harvest the work vations made during a residence in increases ; labor commences at 4 A.M France, of more or less short duration, and lasts until sunset. If one deducts under favorable circumstances. They the time taken up by the four meals also seem somewhat biassed by their one finds that they work twelve hours political opinions, which tend to make and are in the field no less than sixthem see the subject from their own teen. At this time the wages have in particular point of view. It is my creased ; the men earn between 2s. 6a endeavor to cast a true light on this and 4s. a day. During the corn har point; careful data, gathered from vest the wages are still high, the maxi many districts situated in different mum being 5s. parts of France, form the basis of this After the harvest comes the thiraslı article ; moreover a stay of more than ing of the corn, with the steam-engine fifteen years in the country in France as the days shorten, the wages lessen will, I think, enable me to interpret 4s., 2s. 61., and 1s. 6d. In Novembe rightly the facts which fell under my begins the bad season, which lasts unti notice, and, at any rate, not to be one- February. These are bad days for the sided on a many-sided question ; be- laborer, he thrashes oats with the flai sides, as I am myself to a small extent to provide the cattle with fresh forag a landowner, I can speak from personal and straw. He commences his day' experience on that head. As the ma- work by having breakfast at the farn terial condition of the French rustics is at 5 A.M. (for in France, in adaition t not the only one which ought to inter- his daily wage, the laborer receives hi est us, I will try to give here a com- food), 1 work begins at 5.30 A.M. an plete picture of country life in France, lasts till 6 P.M., as a rule till the “ An such as the Revolution has mostly gelus.” Then he earns only 100. o made it.

1s. a day. Some are employed i The economical and intellectual con- ploughing during October and Novem dition of French country people, their ber. They breakfast at 5.30, an political and religious opinions, will plough until 2 P.M. when ploughin each be successively dealt with.

with oxen; if with horses these ar I. Economical Condition. — The pop- unharnessed at 11 A.M. to rest unt ulation of French villages is mainly 2 P.M., when ploughing recommence composed of day laborers, farmers, and and continues until sunset. small landowners. With the country The meals which the laborer receive squires, the few belonging to the are very frugal : in winter soups, vege

: learned professions, and those follow- tables — i.l., potatoes

and haricd ing landicrafts, we need concern our- beans, bread and cheese in the .more selves only as far as necessary. At the bottom of the social scale are

1 At present there commences to be a tendeng

in some parts of France to discontinue feeding t. the day laborers ; they are recruited laborers at the farm ; instead a small increase from the families of the poorest peas- I wages, about 6d. a day, is given.

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