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speare forgets that the swap is a fresh- and Tereus runs its course. But I water bird. Why did not the writer veuture to think that its introduction in say “ all the water in the Tiber," which the very words, almost, of one of was flowing past the walls of the pal- Shakespeare's admitted poems, is a ace in which the speaker stood ? Be- coincidence not likely to have been cause he was Shakespeare who makes ventured upon by a contemporary it a sea-bird in " Antony and Cleo- plagiarist. Again, Titus speaking of

, patra.”

Lavinia's mouth as a bird-cage, calls The Moor's child is “a tadpole” her tongue the delightful “engine of (than which no uew-hatched thing is her thoughts.”

The same phrase, bl:icker), as loathsome as a toad," engine of her thoughts,” occurs in the “black” toad of Shakespeare else- " Venus and Adonis.” where a joyless, black, dismal It is to be noted that Shakespeare, issue,” in contrast to the joyful, fair who had unmistakably heard the nightand bappy “issue” in other plays. ingale singing — which few poets who

The crowning wrong of the play have written about it seem to have for wbich the Andronici take revenge done - always makes the bird female. – is the rape and mutilation of La- This is only an illustration of the logi. vivia. It is obvious, of course, what cian's “ fallacy from antiquity,” and of Shakespeare had just “ been reading the influence of the “ Philomela" late," but that does not affect the con- legend upon the poet. tinuity of bis natural history, and, for There is nothing noteworthy of the the

purpose of this article, matters other bird-references of the play. The bothing.


" that croaks the fatal It is sufficient to say that the story of entrance of Duncan” (Macbeth, i. 5), Tereus and Philomela was buzzing in the “nightly” owl, the.“goawing his head. The scene opens iu “ a des- vulture, and the “swift” swallow, are ert part of the forest,” with Aaron all in Shakespeare's usual phrase, and busy burying a bag of gold. To him familiar to us throughout his plays.

a enters Tamora and says :

There are very few “ reptiles" in Everything doth make a gleeful boast; the play – Shakespeare, by the way, The birds chant melody on every bough,

never uses that word once throughout

his works aud such as there are sugThe green leaves quiver with the cooling gest little comment. Aarou describes

his hair, uncurling, even as an adder, And make a chequer'd shadow on the when she doth unroll to do some fatal ground :

execution." This could be better un. Under their sweet shade, Aaron, let us derstood if we pictured to ourselves the sit,

wanton empress displacing with her Now compare this with the Passionate

some turban headdress under Pilgrim's

which Aaron kept his long black locks Sitting in a pleasant shade

coiled," if it were not that the Moor calls it si

a fleece of woolly hair." In and birds did sing, another place he speaks of his offspring Trees did grow and plants did spring,

" thick-lipped,” and so it may be Everything did banish moan.

assumed that Shakespeare by “ Moor" But Aaron replies in another vein, meant really the “black-a-moor,” the " Vengeance is in my heart, death in negro. Now, it is not easy to imagine my hand.” Why?

a negro's hair coming out of curl, and Hark, Tamora,

yet Aaron evidently wishes to draw his Philomel must lose her tongue to-day. paramour's attention to the fact that Sow the Passionate Pilgrim,

his hair is “standing on end,” and uses

the metaphor of the “unrolling adder," Save the nightingale alone. Thereafter the story of Philomela LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 68

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because she happened to say that she

That kiss is comfortless, had just seen “a snake rolled in the As frozen water to a starved snake. cheerful suu.

She has invited him to The other allusion to snakes is in her arms, addressing him thus : Tamora's enumeration of the horrors My lovely Aaron, wherefore lookst thou which Lavinia and her husband were sad,

supposed to have prepared for her, When everything doth make a gleeful thousand hissing snakes ;” and it is a boast ?

coincidence that on the only other occaThe birds chaunt melody on every bush, sion that Shakespeare places a scene The snake lies rolled in the cheerful sun. under a mossy tree, there should . . Let us sit, etc.,


be both beasts of prey aud venomous Aaron replies, taking up each of her reptiles beneath its shade. Tamora points in succession, the joyousness, describes the trees as “ o'ercome with the merry voices, the lazy, happy moss," and here are snakes and, so snake, and her amorousness :

says Aaron, a panther. In “As You

Like It,” Oliver relates how, under a Madam, though Venus govern your desires, tree, “whose boughs were mossed,' Saturn is dominator over mine :

he beheld a snake and a lioness. What signifies my deadly-standing eye, My silence, and my cloudy melancholy?

An insignificance, dear sir, no doubt, My fleece of woolly hair that now uncurls,

And yet not all significance without. Even as an adder, when she doth unroll

The toad goes with the snake in To do some fatal execution ?

every accumulation of horrors in ShakeAnd then goes on :

speare, and is therefore found here Vengeance is in my heart, death in my“ ten thousand swelling toads ”), and hand,

not only by direct mention but, as Revenge and blood are hammering in my Shakespeare so very frequently emhead.

ploys it, by suggestion. In “ Macbeth,” when the Thane of The venomous malice of my swelling heart, Glamis has already become Thane of Cawdor, and the idea of fulfilling the says Aaron. So Pericles of the swellwitches prophecy as to his becoming ing ocean :king, by murdering Duncan, first comes Thou storm thou ! venomously wilt thou into his mind, we read :

spit all thyself ?

But a more exact coincidence will be That suggestion Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair,

found in “Henry VI.,” where Gloster And make my seated heart knock at my speaks of ribs!

The envious malice of thy swelling heart, The spake " rolled in the cheerful to the Bishop of Winchester the

is a touch from nature that oc- exact words of Aaron, except that curs elsewhere in Shakespeare. In

takes the place of “envi“ Julius Caesar" is a line, “the bright ous.” Now Shakespeare uses the two day, that brings the adder forth,” and words as synonymous (“envenomed in “ Henry VI.,” Part 2 (in which the with his envy ” in “Hamlet,” and so serpent-folk are curiously numerous), forth), and Envy when symbolized is we have “the svake rolled in a flowery the toad.

- a very common object of My “deadly standing eye" in the the country" to myself and Marlbor- above passage is, of course, an allusion ough schoolfellows, who knew exactly to that special favorite of Shakespeare, the sunny days and sunny spots where the basilisk-cockatrice, with the "faand when snake and adder and blind- tal,” “killing," deadly," "'murderworm were to be found basking. This ing,” and death - darting” orb love of warmth gives the point to the “ whose unavoided eye is murderous.” line (iii. 1): –

Shakespeare never pays much atten

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tion to insects. Nobody did in his means to show us Titus going mad. day. So the entomology of his plays is “Give me thy knife," he says to Marperhaps more peculiar than extensive. cus, “I will ivsult on him," and he In - Titus Andronicus” we find (see stabs the dead fly repeatedly. above) Tamora encouraging her sons Alas, poor man! grief has so wrought on to the unremunerative task of robbing

him, wasps of their honey, and later (v.1) He takes false shadows for true substances, we read :

says his brother, as Titus, having done We'll follow where thou lead'st

with the fly, rises to go. In another Like sting bees on hottest summer's day part of the play (iv. 4) the emperor, Led by their master to the flower'd fields.

complaining of the popular agitation in Shakespeare had been reading transla- favor of the ill-used Andronici, says :tions of the classics in which are sug

These disturbers of our peace gested both of the errors implied in the Buz in the people's ears — lines quoted. When Virgil or Ovid a frequent expression in Shakespeare speaks of leading bees to flowered fields and nearly always used in the same the poet refers to the practice in south- uncomplimentary sense to the fly as ern Europe, doubtless unknown to lying, mischievous, or annoying. Shakespeare, of transporting whole

If I were to follow out all my notes farms of lives on large-decked boats further into the flora, the meteorology, from pasturage to pasturage, but is it the precious stones, and inanimate nalikely that the English dramatist, ad- ture generally, of the play, I could dressing audiences of bee-keepers (for easily treble the matter of this article, bee-keeping was, in those days, an but my argument, I venture to think, almost universal country practice) requires no further strengthening. would speak of “stinging” bees “fol

As a matter of fact, Shakespeare las lowing their master,” in a friendly never yet been seriously approached on spirit, and on the “ hottest summer's the side of his natural history. His day,” too ?

Critics need hardly have references to nature in some departdiscussed such nonsense. The other ments have been catalogued, but there error, which Shakespeare's audience has never been any intention hitherto shared with him, was that bees had a to establish the individuality or idenking. Pliny is delightful on this theme, tity of the man Shakespeare from his and Virgil has some charming refer- natural history, nor to study it as a ences to the male monarch of the hive, whole with relation to the writer. It and it is this mistake, a sufficiently may be a matter for surprise that it simple one,

and not the other, obvi- should have been left for me, an unacously foolish, that Shakespeare made. credited student of the bard, and at the

- the magister of the hive,” end of this century, to look at Shake"the master-bee,” that led them. Not speare from a new point of view. But the human owner of the hive. Else- the fact remains. where, he makes the male bee produce

PHIL ROBINSON. boney, and calls the neuters, as every other poet does, she.

There is a very striking passage in * Titus Andronicus” of which a fly is

From Blackwood's Magazine. the subject. Shakespeare hated flies

A LOST ENGLISH CITY. as heartily as Martin Luther - and ALONG the coast of East Suffolk, beespecially their buzzing. So in this tween the fertile, well-wooded country place, where Titus affects a great indig- and the North Sea, extends for many nation with his brother for killing a fly, miles a strip of moor, now wider and and talks pitifully of its poor “father now parrower, and broken here and and mother,” its “gilded wings,” and there by patches of cultivation, an un"pretty buzzing melody,” Shakespeare dulating waste of heath and gorse

It was

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bushes, dotted with little woods of tir, near the port of Orwell, and settling at

a desolate district in winter time, Dunmoc, began to preach the faith of but when whin or heather is in blos- Christ to the heathen. Where he som, by no means devoid of beauty. landed the priory of St. Felix To the eastward, where once projected founded afterwards. Modern golfers the southern horn of Sole Bay, the know the place well -- it is called after moorland ends at a low cliff of crum- the saint - Felixstowe. bling sand. There are no buildings on St. Felix and his three next sucthe cliff save the stark walls and cessors had jurisdiction over all East cracked tower of an old church, which, Anglia. Then, by direction of Archon the very edge, stands tottering to bishop Theodore, whom Green calls the its fall, doomed to be undermined ere founder of the Church of England, the long by the encroaching sea.

see was divided, and eleven prelates This ruined and deserted church and followed as bishops at Dunwich for the a petty hamlet near by are known by South Folk only. the name of Dunwich.

After 818, while the Danes harried A famous name! A proud city it the country, the see was left vacant was that once bore it - in medieval more than a century, and there has not times a great city. Where is it now? been a separate see of Dunwich since. Gone utterly, – vanished off the face Later again, Harold ruled here, thane of the earth. Founded literally upon of East Anglia. There are traditions the sand, the sea undermined bit by bit of battles about that time on the the soft cliff it was built upon, and heaths westward of the town. And house by house and street by street it the sea even then was wasting the land fell, and the tides swept it all away. east of it, for it is on record that one of The city of Dunwich is a sandbank. the two carves of land taxed by the Fishermen shoot their nets over the Confessor had disappeared before the site of it. Only the name, the old date of the Domesday survey. church on the cliff, and a few bits of In Domesday-book, Dunwich appears ruined wall remain.

as paying a great yearly sum, and sixty Stow's “ Chronicle” depicts its opu- thousand herrings yearly, to the king. lence in the Middle Ages. " It was,” A hundred years after, it had grown he says, “surrounded with stone walls yet greater, well stored," we read and brazen gates, and in it there were it was, “ with all sorts of riches." fifty-two churches, chapels, religious In Henry II.'s reign Dunwich was houses, and hospitals, a king's palace, a fortified, Camden tells us, “to awe bishop's seat, a mayor's mansion, a Robert, Earl of Leicester, who overran mint, as many top ships as churches, all the parts far and near.” and not fewer windmills.”

King John conferred on it liberties And moreover, we know that beyond and privileges by successive charters. the city, yet farther east, between it One, dated the year of his accession, and the then seashore, there once cost the burghers three hundred marks, stretched a royal forest, where tradi- ten falcons, and five gerfalcons ; at tion has it that an old family, yet extant which price they secured "wreck of in the neighborhood, were permitted to the sea, and liberty to marry their sons hunt and hawk in the time of the Con- and daughters and to dispose of their queror. Roots of great trees were, it lands and houses in the city, at their is said, descried far out at sea at low pleasure.” The second is thus quoted water by fishermen after a storm some by Gardner : one hundred and fifty years ago.

Also we have graunted unto our sayd The records of Dunwich Dommoc

Burgesses and their heires Sok and Sak or Dunmoc Bede calls it — go back and Toll and Tame and Infangenthef ; and long before the Conquest. In 636 that they and theire men, with theire catFelix, sent for from Burgundy by Sige- tells and shipps, and all other theire goodes bert, king of the East Angles, landed and possessions, shall and may staunde

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of the sea.

and be discharged and quit from Murage, Five of the churches were swallowed Lastage, Passage, Pontage, Stallage, and up in the fourteenth century : St. Miof and from Lede and Danegelt, and from chael's, St. Bartholomew's, St. MarGaywite, and of and from all other cus- tin's, St. Leonard's, St. Nicholas'. tomes taxes and exactions, by and through Of these we know little save that all our power and Jurisdictions, as well

they existed. But the last, whose within our realme of England, as in all

saint was the special patron of sailors, other our lands and countreis.

must have been sore missed at DunIn the sixth year of John a list was wich. This legend has come down to made of all galleys and ships of war us :then ready for service, and of the ports where they then were.

At no port

On a Day as a shippe with marreners

were in perysshyng one the See, they were there more than five and among prayed, and required devoutly Nicholas those with five were London and Dun- Servaunt of God saying (pie Nicholæ oray wich.

pro Nobis), If those thinges that we have In Henry

III.'s reign Dunwich herde of the sayd ben true, preve them touched her highest point of prosper- nowe, and anone a man apered in Lyknes ity, yet we find that that king had to and sayd (vos vocastis me ecce adsuin Ave command his barons of Suffolk to aid Rex Gentis), Loo see ye me not, ye called

me ; and then he began to help them in the burgesses in stopping the ravages

theire Exploite of the See, and anone the

Tempest ceased. And when they were Those who have seen an old walled

come to hys Chyrche they knewe him town in Germany cau well imagine without any Man to shew hym to them; the then outward aspect of Dunwich, and yet they had never seen hym; and her walls, her gates, her gables, her thene they thanked God, and hym of towers ; and those who know the ar- theire Deliverance; and he bad theym chaic Dutch craft, or Humber“ keels,” attrybute it in the Mercy of God and to

faint idea of what the theyre Byleve and nothynge to hys Merquaint shipping was like that fie- ytes. quented the old harbor. How strange Another church, St. John's, lasted, to modern

the names of the we may surmise, till some time in the Tessels : “Great ships, long ships, dro- sixteenth century. We know that in mons, sornecks, busses, nascellas, pas- 1499 its tenure of life was precarious, serettes, caracks, doggers, lodeships, for a legacy of ten marks was that year tarics, Auves, besides farecoasts, and bequeathed for its orvaments, with the passages, galiots, balingers, helibots, proviso that “ if it fortune the Church cogs, hocboats, segboats, lynes, pikards, to decay by Adventure of the Sea, the pessoners, shutes, spinaces."

ten Marks to be disposed of by my Two of the 6 brazen gates” were Attornies where they think best.”' still standing in Henry VIII.'s time, Three fair chantries, St. Anthony's, the South Gate and Guild Gate ; the St. Francis', and St. Catherine's, also sea did not destroy the market-place survived till the fifteen hundreds. The till Charles II.'s reign ; the town-house church of the Templars stood till the set stood in the first years of last cen- reign of Charles I. And St. Peter's tury.

toppled over the cliff in the early years Not all the “ fifty-two churches, of last century. chapels, religious houses, hospitals,” When it was that fate overtook the can be traced now, nor can the “ kiug's great church of St. James's Hospital, palace, the bishop's seat, the mayor's and that belonging to the Maison Dieu, mansion, or the mint ;

" but there are and the churches of the two religious records of two great convents, Fran- houses, we do not know with cerciscan and Dominican, and of sixteen tainty. churches, the successive disappearance Dunwich soon fell from the high esof which may serve to illustrate the tate it had reached in Henry III.'s strange story of the doomed town.

reign. In the next reign it yet pos

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