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aud carefully bred ; and even in the crooked pointed stick driven by hand, hieroglyphics the birds are so carefully whereas this is drawn by an ox, and portrayed that the species designed is has a cross-handle, painted red. Then easily recogoizable. Three species of there are the bearers of the palanquin, domesticated dogs appear with charac- two of whom appear to be shaven, as teristics resembling those of to-day. was the manner of the Egyptians ; There is a great lean-bodied, long- whilst a third wears a full crop of hair legged creature which might be the or a wig, probably to denote superior ancestor of our greyhound; but the rank. In another painting, rank is legs are much thicker, and it is alto-shown by the leopard-skiu robe, worn getber more clumsy and less graceful. apparently by an overseer, who is Then there is a dog possessing the directing two workmen ; and it may be

1 characteristics of the boarhound, but remarked that even to the present day with a mottled coat somewhat resem- the leopard skin denotes the priestly bling that of a tortoise-shell cat. This caste, medicine-man, or chieftainship, coloring is also observable in the third in all parts of Africa. species of dog, which has a strong Perhaps the most interesting of the afinity with the modern spitz or dachs- human figures depicted is a group, or hud, having a long body and short, rather procession, of red-haired, lightbandy legs; but the latter character-skinned, blue-eyed people, supposed to istic is not so decidedly marked as at be Lybians, the men bearing in their the present day. This little dog would hands crooked clubs resembling boomeseem to have been a favorite with the rangs, and having other weapons, Egyptians at that remote period, for notably a huge knife, thrust through two of the kind are depicted, a male their shaggy red hair ; whilst the and female, one accompanying a lady women carry their children in baskets in a close palanquin. It may here be on their backs; and two are depicted remarked that a dog very closely re- bearing monkeys instead of children. sembling the one here portrayed is Conventionally, the Egyptian women still found in South Africa, where it is are always represented as much lighter bred and highly esteemed by the Hot- in color than the men, and two groups. tentots, who even make the women in these paintings are especially repurse the puppies with their own chil-markable. In one, two women are dren. This dog, known as a “brach- represented standing facing each other, hood," is long-bodied and short-legged, one foot raised, touching that of the but not so bandy-legged as the dachs- adversary, one hand being also placed bund; the coloring also is more like on that of the other, whilst a round that of the ancient Egyptian dog, being object, supposed to be a bladder, is mottled, and often spotted with red attached by a long string to the hair of like a cow.

each at the back, hanging down to the There is also a cat, large and gaunt shoulders. This is evidently a game, and fierce, certainly not our domestic in which the performers whirl round tabby, but something approaching to and strike each other with the ball or the wild-cat. Whether this was the bladder attached to the hair ; and it is Fariety dedicated to Pasht, and of easy to see that if the ball were not which so many mummies are found, very light, the game might be an excan hardly be determined by the paint-ceedingly rough one. In the other ing; but probably it was intended to group, two women tossing balls are represent that sacred animal.

seated on the backs of two other The types of mankind shown on women, the supposition being that these very early paintings are of pecul- when they fail to catch, they in turn iar interest. There is the swarthy become horses for the others. These Egyptian ploughman, holding the prim- two games of ball strike one as new, itire wooden plough, not, however, of and especially noteworthy from the the earliest type, which was only a' performers being women.

The great

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peculiarity in all these human figures and have diligently chipped away the is the extraordinary length of the fin- figures from all the fragments which gers and toes. In those days, it was bave fallen into their hands, either out evidently a mark of beauty to have of pure love of destruction, or more a long foot and hand, and the artists probably in order to sell the paiuted must have complimented their subjects hieroglyphs thus detached as amulets. by exaggeration in these points. This shows the necessity for complet

Here, too, we may see the mode of ing the Survey as soon as possible, in making fire in the twenty-fifth century order to preserve these precious relics B.C., for we see a man represented of hoar antiquity from the hands of the using a fire-drill such as is still in use modern spoiler, for the value of these among some uncivilized races, which paintings and hieroglyphs in illustratconsists of a thong or bowstring ing the history of the world cannot be twisted round a pointed stick, inserted over-estimated. In them we see life in a very dry board, the thong being as it existed in the most civilized counpulled rapidly backwards and forwards try of the world three thousand years until fire is produced by friction. This and more before the birth of Christ is of course an advance upon the earlier the manners and customs, dress, and practice of rubbing two sticks together, even the amusements of this remote which is the custom amony very prim- time are here revealed to us. itive savages, and upon the drill twirled trace their

with distant in the hand, which is also still in use. lands, their moles of navigation and

The figures and hieroglyphs of these agriculture, their method of trapping tombs, which are situated in the rocky birds, as well as the game they hunted ground on the east bank of the Nile, in and the water-fowl they domesticated, the provinces of Minieh and Assiut, in all so faithfully delineated as to be unUpper Egypt, differ from the general- impeachable witnesses of the truth of ity of Egyptian hieroglyphs, which are ancient historical records ; whilst the usually incised in the granite, whereas, inscriptions enlighten us as

as to the in these the figures having been first names and exploits of their rulers, traced on the stone, the interspaces probably with some exaggerations and were then chipped away, leaving the embellishments, yet on the whole trustdesign in relief, these raised figures worthy as to matters of fact, and incibeing afterwards very carefully and dentally throwing light upon much that beautifully painted. The Arabs have is obscure in the writings of ancient taken advantage of this raised-work, historians, both biblical and secular.

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THE STORY OF ZERO.- The word "zero" scientific discovery, and hastily concluded is from the Spanish, and means empty, that he had found the lowest degree of temhence nothing. It was first used for a perature known in the world, either natural thermometer in 1795 by a Prussian mer- or artificial. He called the degree zero, chant named Fahrenheit. From a boy he and constructed a thermometer, or rude was a close observer of nature, and when weather-glass, with a scale graduating up only nineteen years old, in the remarkably from zero to boiling point, which he numcold winter of 1709, he experimented by bered 212, and the freezing point 32, beputting snow and salt together, and noticed cause, as he thought, mercury contracted that it produced a degree of cold equal to the thirty-second of its volume on being the coldest day of the year. And that day cooled down from the temperature of freezbeing the coldest that the oldest inhabitant ing water to zero, and expanded the onecould remember, Fahrenheit was the more hundred-and-eightieth on being heated from struck with the coincidence of his little the freezing to the boiling point.

Sixth Series,
Volamo II.

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No. 2599. — April 28, 1894.

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From Beginning,

Vol. OOI.

195

204

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CONTENTS.
1. SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE.
By Lieut. Col. Elsdale,

Contemporary Review,
II. MANETTE ANDREY; OR, LIFE DURING
THE REIGN OF TERROR.

Part X.
Translated by Mrs. E. W. Latimer, from
the French of

Paul Perret,
III. FABIAN ECONOMICS. By W. H. Mallock.
Part II.,

Fortnightly Review,
IV. CHAPTERS FROM SOME UNWRITTEN ME-
MOIRS. By Mrs. Ritchie,

Macmillan's Magazine,
V. SHAKESPEARE'S NATURAL HISTORY. A

New Light on “ Titus Andronicus.” By
Phil Robinson, .

Contemporary Review,
VI. A Lost ENGLISH CITY. By H, M.
Doughty,

Blackwood's Magazine,
VII. THE STATE OF SICILY,

Spectator, . VIII. LDLING AT MONTE CARLO,

All The Year Round, IX. DECEPTIVE DOGS,

Saturday Review,

226

233

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forTanded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If deither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do 80. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & CO.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

THE DECENT WIDDIE WUMMAN.

Ay, an' votin', void o'shame. They'll be rinnin' tae the meetin' An' leave the bairns a' greetin',

An' ilka fule

Maun hae Hame Rule That canna rule at hame !

Chorus.

I was born in auchteen twenty,
An' I wad fain acquent ye

How things appears

Wi' changing years Tae decent folk like me. An' the thing that maist impresses me, That positive distresses me,

It's the lassies’ ways,

Which nooadays Is dreadfu' for tae see.

Chorus. For I'm a decent wumman, A decent widdie wumman, An' I think it's no becomin' Their manners is that free. Their conduck' wad amaze ye, Ye'd think they're a' gone crazy, For what they say and what they dae Is extraordinar' tae me !

Ma hairt it's fairly scunnert
Tae think o' nineteen hunnert,

They'll be choosin'

An' refusin'
Baith in merrige an' in law.
At elections a' the threep ’li
Be the lassies," no “the people,”

They'll ootnummer

An' encummer
Things, as losh ! ye never saw.

Chorus.
But I'm a simple wumman,
A simple widdie wumman,
An' the gulf tae which they're comin'
'Tis mair nor I can say.
There'll be nae men ava,
They'll a' be hidden awa,

An' womankind

Be left behind
Tae gang their wilfu’ way!

A. M. C. COWAN, Longman's Magazine. W. A. RAMSAY.

Weel firstly I'm no carin'
For the kind o' things they're wearin',

Wi' their sailor's hats

An' men's cravats
An' shirts an' collars tae ;
I think 'twixt me and you, sirs,
They'll sune be wearin' troosers ;

But the girl I met

Wi’ the cigarette Was the worst o' a' I say.

Chorus.

Ye'll see the limmers playin'
At gouf, instead o' stayin'

An' sittin'

Wi’ their knitten' Like ladies, i' the room. But the way they ape the men is Maist observable at tennis,

It's “deuce” they ca’

At ilka ba'
It fills ma soul wi' gloom.

Chorus.

Then a' they learn them's statics, Or French, or mathematics;

For at college

Usefu' knowledge Doesna' seem to be the rule. They're leavin' cakes an' griddles Tae get scrapin' on their fiddles

We didna speak

That heathen Greek When I was at the skule.

Chorus.

BALLADE OF WORLDLY WEALTH. MONEY taketh town and wall,

Fort and ramp without a blow ; Money moves the merchants all,

While the tides shall ebb and flow; Money maketh evil show

Like the good, and truth like lies ; These alone can ne'er bestow

Youth, and health, and Paradise. Money maketh festival,

Wine she buys, and beds can strow ; Round the necks of captains tall,

Money wins them chains to throw, Marches soldiers to and fro,

Gaineth ladies with sweet eyes ; These alone can ne'er bestow

Youth, and health, and Paradise. Money wins the priest his stall ;

Money mitres buys, I trow, Red hats for the cardinal,

Abbeys for the novice low ;
Money maketh sin as snow,

Place of penitence supplies ;
These alone can ne'er bestow
Youth, and health, and Paradise.

ANDREW LANG.

There's ithers wha's ambeeshuns
Wad mak' them politeeshuns,

An' they're seekin'
Tae get speakin',

I.

BY LIEUT. COL. ELSDALE.

From The Contemporary Raview. SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS OF THE FUTURE. THE conquest of the air is the first

of them. Aërial navigation has been

the dream of enterprising and inventive An able writer, Mr. Pearson, bas men in all the ages, and that dream is recently observed in his work, “Na- now drawing near to its realization. tional Progress and National Charac- The invention of balloons has no ter," that few or no further leading doubt given some impetus to the study discoveries or new departures in phys- of the subject, and navigable balloons ical or mechanical science are to be of increasing speed and importance are expected ; that future generations have at this moment being made on the now only to fill in the details and to Continent. Thus, the latest improved supplement what has already been machine now under construction for done.

the French War Office is expected to I cannot agree with him. We must obtain a speed of forty kilometres, or not thus set limits to the inventiveness nearly twenty-five miles, an hour. The of mankind. The well-known epithet navigable balloon, however, at its best, atpLoparís úvíp will justify itself in the will, on a broad view, provide nothing future as in the past. Nor can we set more than a convenient stepping-stone arbitrary bounds to the inexhaustible or intermediate stage, to pave the way secrets of nature, and to the impor- for the flying-machine proper, which tance of the new arrangements and will certainly follow and supersede it fresh combinations which are open to in the future. Meanwhile, unless some further research into them. An ever bold inventor should bring forward larger and larger number of fertile speedily a true flying-machine, we may brains are continually at work in dis- expect to see successive modifications covery and invention, as is clearly in, or progressive forms of, navigable shown by the most cursory study of balloons introducing the principle of the annual publications of any of the the flying - machine proper gradually Farious State patent offices. And these and tentatively. fresh braids start from an ever-widen- Thus, whereas at present all the ing vantage ground of accumulated re- weight is sustained by the balloon, in search and proved experience. The future models the greater part of the result must surely be that important weight only will probably be gas-susinventions and new discoveries will tained, and the rest of the lifting power, crowd thicker upon the world in the and necessary changes of elevation, twentieth than in the nineteenth cen- will be provided for by the lifting actury. I think that we have now loom- tion of air screws. By and by the air ing before us in the immediate future, screw, or air propulsion in some form, darkly, no doubt, but still very dis- will predominate. The balloon will be tinctly, leading discoveries in science first reduced to an auxiliary appliance, which will constitute new departures and then laid aside altogether. The fully as large as, if not larger than, result, of course, of its final rejection ihose which have resulted from, let us will be an immense gain in a greatly say, the introduction of railways or diminished resistance and a correspondtelegraphs in the past. Their number ing increase in speed and power. may possibly be legion. I propose When first it became my duty to bere to confine myself to the considera- study this subject, some thirteen or tion of four leading problems, some, if fourteen years ago, the flying-machine not all, of which seem practically cer- proper was a demonstrable impossibiltain of solution in the next generation, ity, in the then condition of mechanical if not in our own. And their solution science. Since that time the problem will involve results of enormous and has been attacked, and its great acalmost incalculable importance to the knowledged difficulties steadily minifutute of mankind.

mized, from three different quarters

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