2. GLOSSARY.-V. 1. Publicans, such as Levi and Matthew. They were persons "placed in the Roman provinces, who got what they could by contracting for the taxes gathered by the Romans. The surplus which they collected was their profit.-V. 7. Some have made a distinction between repentance and sorrow for sin. As though the former expresses that violent grief which profligate and abandoned persons, on turning to God, exhibit; the latter, that of persons who have been uniformly correct. This, I think, is inadmissible; because all, without exception, in the Bible, are said to need repentance; and outwardly correct conduct, where the heart is wandering from God, would be as great a cause of grief or true conversion as very dissolute behaviour. Need no repentance, or fancy that they do not, as these murmurers. (Comp. xix. 26. v. 31, 32.) There is joy over sinners repenting, rather than, &c. (Compare xviii. 14.)

GENERAL REMARK.—There is joy in the presence of God's angels over one repenting ; there is sorrow over the careless and hardened sinner; and if among the angels, how much more with Him who died to save the sinner! Oh ! let us hasten to manifest true repentance for our sins, that that joy may be felt for us; or if we have already, to renew our repentance, that they may renew their joy.


GENESIS xxvi. 12–35.—Isaac's Intercourse with the Philistines.

QUESTIONS.-Verse 12. Was Isaac blessed with prosperity this year?–V. 14. When he became so great, how did the Philistines feel towards him? Do not wicked people often feel envy at others ? What is envy a fruit of? (Gal. v. 19, 21, part.)—V. 15. How did the Philistines shew their hatred of Isaac ? When had Abraham dug them? (See xx. 1.)—V. 16. What did Abimelech wish ?-V.17. Was Isaac willing to go? What did this shew ?-V. 18. What did he do with the wells which had been filled up ?-Vv. 19, 20. When Isaac had digged in the valley, and found a spring of water, what did the herdmen of Gerar do? Was this right, when he had so kindly removed from them just before ?-V. 21. And the next well; did they strive for that? Is God pleased with us when we quarrel with each other ? (Gal. v. 14, 15.)—V. 22. What did he call the name of this well, and why so ?-V. 23. Where did he now remove to ? Was not this a proof that he was willing to forego his own? V. 24. What did God say to him when he appeared ? Was not this kind in God to promise him all these blessings, just when he had been giving them up ?- V. 26. Who came to Isaac from Gerar ?



V. 28. What had they come for ?-V.29. What was the covenant to be made for ? Had Abraham ever made a covenant with these same people? (xxi. 23, 24.)-V. 30. Did Isaac agree? Did not this shew that he was willing to forgive their injuries to him? Why onght we to forgive others ? (Matt. vi. 14, 15.)-V. 34. How old was Esau when he married ? Whom did he marry ?-V. 35. Was this pleasing to his father and mother? Why? -The Hittites were of the idolatrous inhabitants of Canaan, with whom it was not good for a religious person to marry. (See xxiv. 3.)

GLOSSARY.–V. 12. An hundredfold, a very large increase. (See Matt. xiii. 8.)-V. 20. Esek, (margin,) contention.-V. 21. Sitnah, (margin,) hatred.-V. 22. Rehoboth, (margin,) room.-V.33. Beer. sheba. Called so in Abraham's time, but the name had been probably forgotten, and the well filled up; so that, when he opened the well, he renewed the name.

GENERAL REMARK.When we love and fear God, we shall shew it in every department of life: in our intercourse with others-our tempers, our habits, our feelings. Isaac did this. When the Phi. listines envied him, and asked him to go away, he went. He did not " resist evil.” When they strove with him about one well, he left it, and went to another. And when, after all, they came to make a covenant with him, and be at peace, he is willing to forgive and forget all, and unite with them. Oh! let us really fear God, that we may shew the like dispositions, when we are called to do so.


LUKE vi. 36-42.-Some of the Duties we owe to others. QUESTIONS.- Verse 36. In what are we to be like God? Is he merciful ? (Joel ii. 13.) And even to the wicked ? (See Matt. v. 45.) If God is merciful to our great transgressions, ought we not to be merciful to the light ones of others ?-V. 37. Why are we not to judge others ? nor to condemn? Why are we to forgive? If we forgive others because of our love to Christ, may we not hope to be forgiven ?-V. 38. Are we to give to others ? Why? If we refuse to give to the poor of what little we bave, can we hope that God will give to us? Does not God say that he will give back to those who are bountiful? (Prov. xix. 17.) How will God give back to us ?-In his own way, either in spiritual or temporal blessings. V. 39. What was this parable which Christ spake to the people? Can you tell me whom he meant by these blind leaders? (Matt. N. 12, 14, part.) How were they so ?--They pretended to teach them God's will, but were leading them to ruin and destruction.- V. 40.

What did Jesus mean by this saying ?--That the disciples would be persecuted like their Master, and be brought through great sufferings, as he was. Was this true ?-V. 41. Why were men not to behold the mote in their brother's eye? What did he mean by the mote ?-Little faults, which people saw in others, but passed over the great ones in themselves. If we know rightly our own failings, shall we not be indulgent to those of others ?-V. 42, end. What was the right course to be pursued ? Ought we not to be watchful over ourselves first of all ? Shall we not find enough to be sorry for, and to occupy our thoughts in ourselves ?

GLOBSARY.V. 38. Mete. Measure out.-V. 39. Ditch. Pit. V. 40. That is perfect shall be, (margin.) “Shall be perfected as his Master ;' that is, in sufferings.-V. 41. Mote. A very small, thin splinter or shiver of wood.

GENERAL REMARK.—There are duties which we owe to others, as well as to God. “This commandment have we from him, That he who loveth God love his brother also.” (1 John iv. 21.) Our character will be seen as much by the way in which we behave towards others-our schoolfellows, companions, and friends--as in our duties towards God. And if we are not merciful and kind to them -forbearing; hesitating to judge or condemn them; backward in seeing their faults, but quicksighted towards our own-how can we hope that God will bless us by being merciful and kind to us, in this world and the next.


St. Paul tells us, that the covenant which God made with Abraham, could not be disannulled by the law. The promise was made “to Abraham and his seed :" the sign or seal of it was circumcision, which Abraham received, and his seed, at eight days old. Infants then were included in the covenant, which was never disannulled; and they have, therefore, an equal right to the external sign of it which succeeded to circumcision ; viz., baptism.

Humas, who lived in the days of the Apostles, and wrote his works before the Gospel of St. John was written, represents the church as built of living stones that have received the seal of baptism; and speaks of infants as the fairest of its stones. It is therefore evident, that in the days of the Apostles, infants were received into the church by baptism.

Justin Martyn, born 11 years before the death of St. John, says, “Several persons among us were made disciples of Christ in their

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infancy.” The only form in which any were admitted as disciples, was baptism. He further says, “Baptism is to Christians instead of circumcision,” which took place at the age of eight days.

Irenæus, who was born three years before the death of St. John, says, “Christ came to save all who are regenerated : infants, little children, young men, and aged persons.” In the usual phraseology of those times, the word regeneration was used for baptism. Irenæus had been a disciple of Polycarp, of whom he says, “ Polycarp was taught by the Apostles, and had conversed with many who had seen Christ, and was appointed by the Apostles bishop of Smyrna, and always taught those things which he had learned from the Apostles.” Dr. Gilly in his “Memoirs of Felix Neff,” shews that “It is most probable, that the Alpine churches of Dauphiné were planted while Irenæus was bishop of Lyons," and received the same religious doctrines with the 13 bishops of Dauphiné, over whom Irenæus presided. A letter addressed to Pope Lucius 2nd, in 1144, states one of their doctrines to be, that “sins are not remitted by the sprinkling of water in baptism." Another is, “They have their children baptised.” Therefore, among the doctrines taught in the churches planted by Irenæus and his brother missionaries, were infant baptism, and baptism by sprinkling.

Origen, born about the year 184, says, “The church had from the Apostles an order to give baptism to infants.” Origen's forefathers had been for several generations Christians, and, therefore, had probably been so in the time of the Apostles. He could scarcely therefore be ignorant of what the practice of the Apostles was, nor whether he had himself been baptized in infancy or not.

150 years after the death of St. John, there was an assembly of 66 Christian bishops, who spoke of Infant Baptism as a known, established, uncontested, practice. A question was proposed to this assembly, whether baptism ought to be deferred till the infant was eight days old ; (the time at which circumcision was appointed to be administered,) and their unanimous decision was, that "there was no cause for delaying the baptism of newly born infants.”

St. Ambrose speaks of “those infants that are baptised.”

Chrysostom, 280 years after the Apostles, said, “we baptise infants, that there may be super-added to them a brotherhood with Christ."

St. Augustine, says, “The whole church practises Infant Baptism: it was not instituted by councils, but was always in use."

Pelagius, says, he had “never heard even an impious heretic who asserted that infants are not to be baptised.”

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A passage in an oration over Basil, by Gregory Nasiander, proves that he had been baptised in infancy.

The eleven last mentioned fathers and doctors of the church, flourished between the years 260 and 331 after the Apostles.

It appears, in short, that during the first 400 years, one person (Fidus) urged delay of baptism to infants till eight days; but not one denied its lawfulness.

In the next 700 years, no one questioned it, except that small number who, like the Quakers, argued against all baptism by water.

In the year 1120, one sect of the Waldenses declared against the baptism of infants, because they thought them incapable of salvation; but this sect soon came to nothing.

The next appearance of this opinion was in 1522.

Thus, for 1100 years after Christ, Infant Baptism was the uninterrupted practice of the Church.

It was the Jewish custom to baptise infants. Dr. Lightfoot, says, “The baptizing of infants was a thing as well known in the church of the Jews, as ever it has been in the Christian church." Therefore, when our Lord commandeth his disciples to “baptise all nations,” it seems evident that they were intended to do it in the manner which they had been accustomed to in the church in which they were born, otherwise the baptism of infants, to which they had always been accustomed, would surely have been expressly forbidden.

Infants are capable of regeneration. We believe that those who die in infancy are saved; but man is born in sin, and cannot enter the kingdom of God, unless he be born again. If infants are, therefore, capable of receiving the inward spiritual grace, why should the outward and visible sign be withheld from them ?

We read of St. Paul's baptizing “the household” of Stephanas; “Lydia” and her “ household,” &c. It is evident throughout the Scriptures, that the words “house” and “household,” signify children as well as parents. Calmet, in speaking of the Greek word used to signify the “household” of Lydia, says, “The natural import of the term includes children of all ages.” “It very often expresses the presence of infants.” One thing, however, is certain, that whether Lydia's children were adults or infants, they were baptized in the faith of their mother; and the same may be said of the household of the jailor at Philippi.

The Greek word Baptize, signifies to wash a thing by water coming over it, which may be either by sprinkling or pouring water on it, or by putting it under water. The Pharisee “marvelled” that Christ had not first “washed” before dinner. The Greek word is

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