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images, applauding his every persecution of the Church, and heartily concurring with him in his most violent measures against the witnesses whose names are written in the book of life and even now, after the Reformation, only one of the ten horns has protested against his tyranny, and resolutely sheltered the mystic woman and the remnant of her seed from his implacable rage †. The others either still adhere to their ancient abominations, or have embraced the yet more blasphemous tenets of Antichrist. Notwithstanding their recent severe sufferings, they repent not of the works of their hands, their idolatry, their murders, their sorceries, their spiritual fornication, their thefts; or they repent of them, only to blaspheme the name of the God of heaven, and to refuse to give him glory. The Roman beast still retains all the characteristics of a beast: and in this state he will at length go into perdition on account of the great words of the little horn.
IV. It will not be improper at the end of this long discussion to give in one point of view the scheme of interpretation which I have adopted in preference to that of Bp. Newton. Whatever
I use the phrase here in a general and indefinite sense, as it is used by the prophet himself. (Rev. xvii. 16.) Of the ten original horns France alone now remains, unless England be considered as one.
+ Neither Denmark, Sweden, nor Prussia, are even modern horns of the beast, because they never were comprehended within the limits of the old Roman Empire.
may be its other faults, it at least preserves all the members of the seven-headed and ten-horned beast perfectly distinct.
The beast then is the secular Roman EmpireHis seven heads (the last being his double or septimo-octave head) are 1. Kings; 2. Consuls; 3. Dictators; 4. Decemvirs; 5. Military Tribunes; 6. Augustan Emperors; 7, 8. Carlovingian Patricio-Emperors-His ten primitive horns are 1. The kingdom of the Huns; 2. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths; 3. The kingdom of the Visigoths; 4. The kingdom of the Franks; 5. The kingdom of the Vandals; 6. The kingdom of the Sueves and Alans; 7. The kingdom of the Burgundians; 8. The kingdom of the Heruli, Rugii, Scyrri, and other tribes, that composed the Italian kingdom of Odoácer; 9. The kingdom of the Saxons; 10. The kingdom of the Lombards-His little horn, which grew up among his first ten horns, and which was different from them all, is the ecclesiastical kingdom of the Pope; which, small as it originally was, afterwards became a great ecclesiastical empire—His three primary horns, that were plucked up before the little papal horn, are 1. The kingdom of the Heruli; 2. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths; and 3. The kingdom of the Lombards.
The apocalyptic ten-horned beast is not represented, like the same beast in the book of Daniel, with a little horn: because St. John wished to describe the power symbolized by the little horn, as having now, at the revival of the secular beast,
become a great spiritual empire by being declared supreme head of the universal Church. Accordingly the two-horned beast, which is not mentioned by Daniel, occupies the place of the little horn, which is not mentioned by St. John. This twohorned beast, or false prophet, is the same as the great scarlet whore, who rides triumphant upon the secular beast: that is to say, they both equally symbolize the adulterous tyrannical church of Rome, or the spiritual catholic empire of the Pope.
V. The prophecy awfully concludes with a call to attend to the just judgments of the Lord. "If any man have an ear, let him hear. He, that leadeth into captivity, shall go into captivity: he, that "killeth with the sword, must be killed with the "sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the "saints."
Hitherto we have beheld the secular beast triumphant, wearing out the saints at the instigation of his little horn by leading them into captivity or by mercilessly putting them to death*: we are now summoned to attend to the just retribution of a righteous God. The full execution of this sen
* Perpetual confinement, or the galleys, was the fate of those French protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantz, who escaped the stroke of the sword. To the eternal disgrace. of Louis the fourteenth, many of the female protestants, even young girls, were transported as slaves to the West-India colonies, merely because they refused to worship idols, and invocate dead saints. Would that protestant Englaud was as little stained with the atrocities of the African slave-trade as with religious persecution!
tence, long since pronounced upon the beast, is as yet future: for it will not take place till the last decisive battle of Armageddon at the termination of the 1260 years. Then, we are taught by St. John, that the beast shall go into perdition, being taken along with his associate the false prophet and cast into the lake of fire; and by Daniel, that the beast shall be slain, and his body destroyed and given to the burning flame.
This I apprehend to be the ultimate meaning of the prophecy; nevertheless it seems, in some measure, to have begun already to receive its accomplishment. They that lead into captivity, and they that kill with the sword, is so general and comprehensive an expression, that it seems necessarily to include, not only the secular instruments of papal persecution, but likewise the ecclesiastical promoters of it: accordingly both Daniel and St. John connect the fate of the beast with that of the little horn or the false prophet: We have beheld then in France the descendant and successor of those, whose memory has been rendered infamous by the diabolical crusade against the protestants of Provence, by the blood-stained eve of St. Bartholomew, by the perfidious revocation of
* i The French king gloryeth in his letters to the Pope, that "he had slain 70,000 heretics in a few days." Isaacson's Chron. cited by Sharpe in An inquiry into the description of Babylon P. 33. Bossuet acknowledges the murder of only 30,000.
the edict of Nantz*, himself led into captivity and slain with the sword. We have beheld numbers of his papal clergy crowded together into goals, and put to death. We have beheld the sovereign Pontiff, that man of sin who had led so many thousands captive, himself go into captivity. The voice of the seven last thunders hath long been sealed but now it hath begun to shake both heaven and earth.
We are not however to imagine, that the infidel tyrant of the last days is allowed to prosper for his own sake. He is doubtless a mere instrument
* "Louis peremptorily required the Protestants in France "to sign a declaration of submission and strict obedience to "his royal orders; and that they should promise to attend the 66 mass, and entirely omit their own religious meetings; for otherwise they should forfeit, not only their lands and all "other property, but also their personal liberty; the men being "doomed to slavery in the king's galleys for life, and the women
to be shut up for life wherever their enemies should choose "to immure them." It is supposed, that, in the course of this detestable persecution, about a million of protestants saved their lives by quitting their country, and that at least 100,000 were murdered. (Sharpe's Inquiry into the description of Babylon P. 35-39.) Among those, who fled from their disgraced country at that dreadful period, was a pious ancestor of my
+ "The decree was passed on the 15th day of May 1792, which condemned the non-juring clergy to banishment. "About the time of the federation which followed, many of "the clergy were put to death with circumstances more or less sanguinary; great numbers also were crowded together in goals, and other places of confinement." Hist. the Interp. Vol. 11.