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The Rev. Mr. ROBBERDS exhibited, in illustration of the state of art at various times between the 14th and 16th centuries, the Palæographia Sacra of Westwood; and Mr. Yates described the Liber Aureus, which he had lately examined at Treves.
The first part of a Paper, “ On the Resources of Russia,"* by Wilhelm Ihne, Ph.D., was communicated to the Society.
FOURTH ORDINARY MEETING.
ROYAL INSTITUTION.—November 27, 1854.
JOSEPH DICKINSON, M.D., F.R.S., &c., PRESIDENT, in the Chair.
Henry Slack, Esq., M.R.C.S.E., was duly elected a member.
The PRESIDENT alluded to the death of Professor Edward Forbes, a corresponding member, which had filled the scientific world with the utmost sorrow.
Mr. MARRAT exhibited a new moss from Bidston Marsh, thought to be the Hypnum Salibrosum.
The concluding part of Dr. Ihne's Paper, “On the Resources of Russia,"* was communicated to the Society.
FIFTH ORDINARY MEETING.
Royal INSTITUTION.—December 11th, 1854.
JOSEPH DICKINSON, M.D., F.R.S., PRESIDENT, in the Chair.
The following gentlemen were balloted for, and duly elected Ordinary Members :-SAMUEL H. THOMPSON, Esq., Alex. M'ILVEEN, Esq., THOMAS R. MITCHELL, Esq., M.D., CHARLES MILLWARD, Esq., GEORGE H. PUCKLE, Esq., M.A., the Rev. HENRY GRIFFITHS, and John ANDREW, Esq.
* It is to be regretted that owing to the author's long continued and severe illness during the Session, together with the fact that the paper was not written out when delivered, no part of it can be given.
The SECRETARY read to the Society a document which had been "served personally” upon him by the Rev. ABRAHAM HUME, LL.D., D.C.L., and laid before the Council.*
Mr. BYERLEY exhibited a coloured drawing of the Antiopa Hyalina, found at Hilbre Island, and a fine specimen of the Nephrops Norvegicus, taken in the Dee.
Mr. A. Higginson exhibited a fine specimen of the Moschus Javanicus, also a piece of packing paper made from the Triticum Repens.
Mr. T. Gray exhibited several valuable specimens of Australian
• The following is a copy of the Reverend Doctor's “ Notice," and the Council's reply:“Literary and
“To the Secretary of the Literary and Philosophical Society Philosophical Society.
“Sir,--I have been credibly informed that it is the inten"YOTICE.
tion of the Council of the Literary and Philosophical Society “ To the Council in General.
to send to the members, along with the volume entitled and to the Treasurer and
• Proceedings of the Lilerary and Philosophical Society of Secretary in particular.
Liverpool,' during the Forty-third Session, 1853--54, a voluine " Rev. A. Home, LL.D. which forms no part of said proceedings, viz., a private book
on the Fauna of Liverpool, compiled and edited by Isaac “ 25th November, 1851. Bverlev, Esq. I have also been credibly informed that the
“Served personally by said private book is not a donation to the society, but that, on the contrary, the Council have resolved to pay for its production out of the funds of the Literary and Philosophical Society which remained at the close of Session 1833--4, and out of such other monies as the Society may procure this session. I, therefore, being a member of the said Society, and acting as the nature of the case requires, as well as under suitable advice, do hereby issue through you the following Notice to the several parties concerned; that is to say :
“ To the Council in General, “). That the Suciety only authorised them to print papers actually read, or abstracts of them.
“ 2. That they are not authorised to print even the Proceedings' at intervals of more than one year.
“3. That no appeal has been made to the Society for any extraordinary expenditure of funds according to the laws of the Society, iu reference to the said Fauna of Liverpool.
“4. That if any private book whatsoever be issued by the Council without such authority, the act is a direct violation of the trust which they have voluntarily accepted, and is also a violation of the Act of Parliament 17 and 18 Victoria, cap. 112.
"To the Treasurer. "}. That any payment whatever made on account of the said book will be made at his personal risk and peril.
“ 2. That Mr. Byerley himself, who had a personal and pecnniary interest in the matter, was present at the meeting of Council at which this act was resolved upon, his presence being necessary to constitute a quorum.
“To the Secretary. “1. That I, and other members of the Society whose sentiments I here represent, require him to deliver to us the Proceedings of the Society, No. VIII., withvut any such addition, or
" 2. That in case he fail to do so, our acceptance of any additional printed matter,
gold, with a large quantity of gems, sapphires, rubies, &c., taken from the washings at the Buckworth Diggings, near the “Ovens ;" likewise some leguminous plants from “ the Bush.”.
A paper was read to the Society by the Rev Mr. ROBBERDS, B.A., “On the Personal Character and Scientific Labours of the late Dr. Dalton."
SIXTH ORDINARY MEETING.
Royal INSTITUTION.-January 8th, 1855.
JOSEPH DICKINSON, M.D., F.R.S., &c., PRESIDENT, in the Chair.
Mr. H. Cauty resigned his membership.
John ROBERTS, Esq., JAMES FITZHERBERT BROCKHOLES, Esq., and GEORGE Morton, Esq., were balloted for, and duly elected Members of the Society.
Dr. IHNE was elected Vice-President, in the room of Dr. Inman, who had retired from the Council.
Mr. KEATES exhibited, chiefly to draw attention to the wood-cuts, an Italian translation of Agricola's work on the metals. Its date was 1563.
without our wish, and contrary to our directious, will in no respect implicate us in this transaction, nor be a bar to any such proceedings as may hereafter be taken in the matter.
"A. HUME. "9, Clarence-street, Everton,
25th November, 1854.
Royal Institution, Dec. 1, 1854. “ To the Rer. A. Home, LL.D.
"SIR,-I am requested to forward to you the following extract from the minutes of proceedings of the Council of this Society of the 30th ult.
Your obedient servant,
“DAVID P. THOMSON, Hon. Sec. “ Resolved UNANIMOUSLY,—That the Council of the Literary and Philosophical Society having received and considered Dr. Huime's communication, have in reply to state, that they believe they have acted in strict conformity with the regulations of the Society in the publication of their eighth volume of proceedings in its present form."
Mr. YATES exhibited the rare .“ Musæum Tradescantianum," by John Tradescant, 1656 ; and entered into an explanation of the collection enumerated, noticing many curious things in it. He also referred to the recent renovation of the monument erected in the churchyard of Lambeth.
Mr. GRAY exhibited several drawings illustrating punishments in China.
Mr. HUNTER drew attention to Seechi's Observations on Terrestrial Magnetism, and gave a short sketch of the laws laid down by that celebrated astronomer.
Dr. Thomson referred to the late observations of Struve on the contracting of Saturn's rings upon the body of the planet, and to observations made about a century ago ; also to Seechi's reference to the drawing made by Campani in 1664.
A communication was made to the Society by Dr. Inman, “On Spontaneous Combustion, and Suggestions for Extinguishing Fire."
This paper was subsequently published by the author.
SEVENTH ORDINARY MEETING.
Royal INSTITUTION.—January 22nd, 1855.
JOSEPH BROOKS YATES, Esq., SEN. V.P., in the Chair.
The Council was requested to revise the list of Corresponding Members, and submit a corrected list to the Society.
The following gentlemen were balloted for, and duly elected Ordinary Members :-GEORGE ATKIN, Esq., JAMES Hakes, Esq., and A. FINLAYSON, Esq.
The Chairman read several extracts from “ broad sheets" printed in 1702, entitled, “Characters of the Royal Family, Ministers of State, &c., in the French Court, written by a French nobleman to his friend in England."
Mr. J. Jones exhibited a curious specimen of Chinese paper bearing coloured designs, apparently woven like cloth, suitable for walls.
The following paper was then read :
OBSERVATIONS ON THE PHENOMENON OF ODOUR,
BY THOMAS C. ARCHER, Esq. Ir is, I believe, generally supposed that all odoriferous bodies give off particles, which, coming in contact with the olfactory organs, communicate the sense of smell to the brain. This probably is the case in some instances, but I have been led to doubt it as a general fact. If the sensation of smell resulted from the absolute contact of atoms given off by the odorous substance, it would follow as a matter of course that such circumstances as would be likely to increase the evaporation or elimination of those particles would increase their power of producing the sensation of odour ; but I think I can prove that this is not always the case. For instance, many flowers are very much more fragrant when the atmosphere is moist, especially after rain, and thunder showers more particularly, circumstances which cannot be so favourable to the evolution of essential or volatile oils as hot sunshine would prove to be. There are, too,
• Flowers which wake when others sleep," and
“ Timid jasmine buds that keep
To every wind that roams about." The words of the poet express the truth, for the fact of many flowers being odorous by night only is well known. The jessamine mentioned by the poet only posseses this quality partially, but the beautiful Enothera biennis is scentless by day, and has an exquisite odour of primroses at night. No flower, however, is so remarkable in this respect as the night-flowering stock, Matthiola trista, which, previous to the dusk of evening, is perfectly inodorous, but afterwards becomes so powerfully fragrant, that a plant carried into a room becomes oppressively sweet. Many others might be cited, but these are sufficient to show that the odour of some plants increases when the temperature is lowered, and the fact that most plants are most fragrant after rain is too well known to require examples. Hence it follows that some plants are most fragrant upon a decrease of temperature, a condition always opposed to volatilization : and others are most fragrant wben the