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strictly authentic, and who, so considering, Constantinople and India whoever attains can venture to treat it with unconcern ? dominion there is sovereign of the world. I am, sir, your obedient servant, With this in view, to excite continual wars,

RICHARD NUGENT. now against the Persian ; establish dock Balbriggan, Ireland, Aug. 9.

yards on the Black Sea ; obtaio, by degrees,

possession of the latter and of the Baltic P.S. - I should be glad if any of your two essential points towards success ; accelfriends could give me any further information erate the decline of Persia ; penetrate toward about this paper. I have no papers or books the Persian Gulf; reëstablish through Syria here to refer to.

the ancient commerce of the Levant- thus

advancing toward the Indies, which are the PETER THE GREAT'S POLICY TO OBTAIN EUROPEAN marts of the world. Once there we can disDOMINATION FOR RUSSIA.

pense with the gold of England. 1. To keep the Russian nation in a con

10. Court, and preserve with care, the tinual state of war, in order to train the Austrian alliance, apparently countenancing soldiers to arms, and retain them always her imperial pretensions over Germany - at active — only perunitting of temporary repose the same time secretly exciting against her to reëstablish the finances, reconstruct the the jealousy of its princes, entangling them in arıny, and select the most favorable moments. positions to reclaim and require the aid of for aggression ; thus adapting peace to war, Russia against each other; exercising thus a and war to peace, to promote the enlargement species of protection of the country, the foreand progressive prosperity of Russia.

runner of future domination. 2. To attract, by all possible means, from

11. Render it the interest of Austria to the most enlightened people of Europe, cap- expel the Turk from Europe, and neutralize tains during war, and learned men during her jealousy on the conquest of Constantipeace, to enable Russia to profit by the ad- nople, either by involving in war with some vantages of other nations without loss to those of the powers of Europe, or dividing a portion possessed by themselves.

of the conquest, which can afterwards be 3. To interfere, on all occasions, in the retaken. transactions and disputes of Europe, more

12. To win over to us the schismatic Greeks particularly those of Germany, which, being inhabiting Hungary and the south of Poland; nearest, most directly interest us.

become their pivot and support. Establish 4. To divide Poland, by nourishing con- by degrees an universal influence under the tinual jealousies and disorder ; gain over the form of royalty or sacerdotal supremacy, thus powerful with gold, influence the diets, cor- possessing so many friends in the midst of rupt them, and thus have weight in the our enemies. elections of kings; obtain the appointment

13. Sweden dismembered, Persia conquered, of partisans, protect them; introduce Russian Poland subjugated, Turkey vanquished, our troops, quartering them until a favorable armies united, the Black and Baltic guarded moment presents itself for permanent occupa- by our vessels, we may then propose first to tion.

the Court of France, then to that of Vienna, 5. Seize whatever we can from Sweden, the partition of the world. endeavoring to excite aggression in order to 14. Should one accept, which is more than subjugate ; to succeed, manage to isolate it probable, when its ambition and self-love are froin Denmark, Denmark ofrom Sweden, Hattered, use it to crush the other crushing nourishing with care the rivalries of both. the remaining one by exciting a struggle

6. German princesses to be chosen as con- which cannot be doubtful, Russia already pussorts for Russian princes ; to multiply family sessing the East and a great part of Europe. alliances, draw interests together thus uniting Germany to our cause, by adding to our influence. 7. To court the alliance of England, in friend, the late Mr. Wyvilí

, of Burton, in York

My father was one day speaking of his old preference to all others, for her trade, her shire, who had married his dairy-mnid, a very maritime interest being most connected with respectable young woman in her situation, and ours, and most serviceable towards the devel- who made him an excellent wife. At the same opment of our marine ; exchange our woods time he adduced another example of these unand other productions for her gold; establish- equal marriages." Bishop Horsley married his ing continual intercourse between her mer- cook, and it was said of her, that she could dress chants and sailors and ours ; to train those of everything well - but herself! our country to navigation and commerce. 8. To enlarge, without intermission, our

On another occasion, my father mentioned the boundaries to the north and south, and along following anecdote, which had been related to the shores of the Black Sea

him by Mr. Child, the banker, who desired to 9. To approuch, as near as possible, to hire a valet. One of these gentry presented him

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self, and inquired what wine Mr. Child allowed | No flowers ; and the stray sunbeam that apat the second table ?

peared “ Port and sherry,” replied Mr. Child.

Was pale and spectral as a dying nun, I like a glass Madeira, sir,” returned That hasteth bome ; the weltering rill careered the valet.

In noisy revel ; und the gaunt woodlands dun Wby," said Mr. Child, “ there is the curate Had scared all songbirds, save the Redbreast of the parish here cannot afford himself a glass

lone, of wine of any sort.”

Whose plaint, like summer's wail, came aye “ Ah !” replied the valet, shrugging his

with fitful tone. shoulders, “ I always pitied that sort of gentle- Sadly the thin leaves futtered to and fro, man.” Life of the Bishop of Norwich.

Then fell, as withered hopes fall from the

heart,

When the band, late in ours, directs the blow, From Hogg's Instructor. Which plunges in our soul the murderous

dart, THE CONTRAST.

Wrenching it round, till from the gash hath sped I stood alone beneath the midnight stars All the warm sunny life on which its verdure The solemn, glorious stars - and could dis

fed. No wrinkle on their foreheads, trace no scars,

The death around me struck a slumb’ring chord Gained in the weary couiict, long and stern,

In my life's harp ; obedient to the call, With the gray Vandal of the Ages — Time !

A solemn cavalcade, unmarshalled, poured But all seemed bright as when heaven heard

From the dim niches of my memory's hall; their morning chime.

Long, leaden hours of gloom, and desert sun,

And fiery conflict stern the victory scarcely A wondrous brotherhood ! whose beauty claims The homage of the universal heart ;

The changed, the distant, and the dead were What myriads of great thoughts and lofty aims

there, To huinan souls their vestal fires impart ! Loved faces last beheld through blinding tears; Alike to roamer in the desert wild,

Calm in their mortal struggle, for the air And to man's highest type, Religion's cherished Of heaven was round their souls, no curdling child.

fears Since the first gush of rapture they instilled Gloomed on their chceks, but steadfast beauty Into the breast of Adam, until now,

lay A mighty ministry of love they've filled, Above Death's thickening, wreck-like springLaving with holy hopes the furrowed brow

flowers on the clay. Of a world's agony, as with a balm,

Again I communed with that ghostly band, Stilling its maddened pulse into a summer's

With a strange sort of melancholy joy calm.

Feeling that Change and Time's oblivious hand Stars cannot rise upon the night of hell

Their bridal with my soul could not destroy ; They make night holy as an angel's prayer :

Blent with a pang, as once again I knew, Hate dies beneath the burden of their spell ;

That earth's best gifts are only shadows of the Fierce passions cannot breathe the starlit air ;

True ! So pure, so hushed, they span the eternal road ; Or rather crumbs that fall from heaven's great They seem as if they walked in company with

feast, God.

The famished soul from utter death to save, Gazing upon the stars, methinks I stand (And lure the wanderer back): sharpening her

zest Iu presence of Eternity, and see An awful glory flood bis native land,

For that immortal food she aye doth crave From his veiled forehead rayed infinitely ;

With the pure instincts of her native home ; And while awed Silence forward bends to hear,

And which, though far and madly she may The Hours return from earth with hist’ries

roam, drear,

Still form her inner life, and point whence sho

hath come. And, dying, gasp them out into their Monarch's

ear.

MINT was said by mythologists to be the I stood alone beneath a wintry sky ;

metamorphosed form of a beautiful nymph The hard, cold earth lay like a corpse un- Mintha, the daughter of Cocythus - changed

shriven, Round which the lean winds coursed with famished was jealous of the admiration with which Pluto

into this aromatic herb by Proserpine, who cry, As if they chased the shrieking soul from beheld her. Ovid alludes to the fable in the heaven ;

eleventh book of his MetamorphosesAnd the glad voices of the wood and plain

an tibi quondam Were like heart-songs of which the discords but

Fæminoos artus in olentes vertero menthas remain.

Persephone licuit.

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From the Spectator, 6th Aug. is sufficiently strong to check many provocaTHE SUNSHINE OF STATISTICS.

tives to ill-feeling. There has arisen a con

stant question respecting the proper rate for Tus general prosperity, as we noticed last wages ; prejudices as well as interests are arweek, is amongst the adverse circumstances rayed to urge the claims of both sides; there with which the Chancellor of the Exchequer have been victories, too, on both sides, and has had to contend ; and, to complete the for the most part on that side whose demands present anomaly of the season, it may be are least usually recognized, least usually said that some of the most striking charges successful, and most usually accompanied by upon the community are amongst the proofs offensive exultations. Yet, although the ex. and causes of its prosperity. It used to be ceptions are by their nature glaring, they are regarded as a fatal sign that the population remarkably few in comparison with the innuof a country should be decreasing, and yet we merable prompt agreements, reconcilernents, find the prosperity of our own country keeping and concessions made on both sides. We pace only with the steadiness of its depletion. | know of many instances in which working The returns of the Registrar-General show, in people, having the case fairly. laid before the quarter endin June, 1853, that the net them, have given up their claims; and it increase of the births (158,718) over deaths would be impossible to enumerate the count(107,861) in the registered districts was 58,- less instances in which masters have done the 857; in the whole United Kingdom, probably same; but, even where conflict has been folthe excess is 79,820. The number of emi- lowed by a sheer victory, we have scarcely a grants, however, is for the quarter 115,959, single case to record of rioting or vindictive. exceeding the net increase of births by 36,- conduct. 139 : in other words, the population contin- Now, why is this? The reason is, that the ues steadily to decrease, the last return iodic beaten side is still not in a bad condition. If cating 36,000 as the rate per quarter. Al- it is the employer who is forced to pay more though the Emigration Commissioners report wages, trade is good, his circumstances are that the enigration has not yet had a very comfortable, and he puts up with the outluy. decisive effect on the rate of wages, it is evi- If it is the workman, he is not making so dent that this steady decrease is amongst the good a rate as some of his fellows, but employcauses that sustain the wages movement; ment is steady, his wages are not beggarly, the more forcibly, since, while emigration is he is not in fear of the house ;' and so, removing so many adults from the labor-mar- crying 6. Better luck next time!” he will go ket, the increase to the population by new-born on for the present. If we set aside those children replaces that abstraction only at a singularly few and exceptional cases of conlong date.

fict, we see an unprecedented extension of All the statistics of Revenue, Board of the common feeling which deserves no other Trade, and so forth, have continued to prove epithet than that of willingness. a constantly accelerating ratio of production And it has many manifestations besides that amidst this decreasing population an in- of willingness to agree upon wages. Amongst crease of production in necessary and ex- the demands of the working-classes are an changenble commodities, which draws to ns extension of leisure — short time Saturday wealth from all parts of the world. For the half-holiday, or other form; and although increased value of labor is not only brought prejudice in some instances checks the concesabout by the comparative diminution in the sion of this boon, although brisk trade makes number of hands; it is also becoming of a employers greedy of work, still progress is higher character. The agricultural dinners made. The Chancellor of the Exchequer have publicly noted that fact; and there are asks for more taxes, that most unpleasant of many consequences of this improvement. demands, and more taxes are given with great The laborer takes a higher grade in pay; the willingness. Why? Because free trade and returns of his labor become more certain, not a better distributed industry are increasing only to himself but the community; the pro- our resources fuster than the Chancellor of duce becomes more exchangeable; and thus, the Exchequer seems likely to spend them. not only is the direct return larger, but the Besides, we are convinced that, errors extrue balance of trade ”- that is, the advan- cepted, he means to do well, and is upon

the tage derived from exchange — is increased in whole doing extraordinarily well. The Horse a still higher ratio.

Guards thinks it desirable to have a great We have, as usual, our crosses and our con- camp at Cobham for brigade exercise, and dicts ; yet, upon the whole, if there is one in there is not a Hume that can raise an ohjeccident at the present time more striking than tion. The camp is mustered ; and if anything another in our own country, it is not only the can parallel the pleased readiness of the pubprofound tranquillity -- that would be far too lic to make the demonstration, it is the cheerpoor a phrase — but it is the good feeling ful behavior of the men under the restraints which is observable on all hands, and which and small privations of camp life. The Scc

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retary to the Admiralty wants more men and latter was evidently held too formidable to be a reserve unprecedented to his predecessors; seriously invaded, until the brief campaign and Parliament grants both at once, as Par- of the British bad taught even the Chinese liament granted the Militia. But, what is how despicable and easily overcome were the more, the Militiamen granted themselves, regular armies of the Celestial Empire. The with a willingness that has superseded the present insurrection had long smouldered in ballot, and which appears so indicative of a the mountain provinces which gave it birth. generous feeling, that the Secretary of the It was only after the attack on Canton, and Admiralty reckons upon it for making up his the other successful operations of that war, Coast Reserve

that the insurgents of Kouang-Si took courage Perhaps no section of the cominunity has to advance into the plain, defy the imperialshown a more striking access of willingness ists, and take by force of arins possession of than Parliament of late years. Better courses important towns. have wade decided way. Not only have we

Nevertheless, a more marked peculiarity of free trade, with improved taxation, and proin- this Chinese revolution is the fact of its being ises of electoral reform, but many great prin- in course of accomplishment as much by opinciples are now laid down for the guidance of ion as by arms. Of course, martial feats and Parliament with its own consent. If any one prowess stand prominent in the insurgent great reform flags, it is that which Lord bulletins, but on looking a little closer we Palmerston has diplomatically undertaken descry no bold, numerous, and victorious sanitary reform. The same statistical au- army marching froin conquest to conquest thority which records the hopeful decrease of over the bodies of its enemies. On the conthe population, with that usual sign of pros- trary, when we arrive at anything like an perity a prevalent willingness to get married, exact account, we remark very small armies also marks the mortal effect of permanent (the insurgents are said to have but 8,000 of causes which might be removed in our great their regular force in Nankin) which advance towns - - causes which make the deaths of very gradually, taking a town or two, and people living in town as 5 to 4 in comparison perhaps winning a district each year. And with the country; to say nothing of disease, this is achieved evidently as much by winning suffering, pauperism, and degeneracy, induced over the adherence of the local inhabitants, by such tuwn life. We could not be so prog- as by triumphs over the imperial troops. The perous as we are if we did not pay those provinces appear to be quite unprovided with heavy wages ; we could not be so well gov- a defensive force, the walls of each town erned if we were not willing to be governed; being considered sufficient preservation. Howwe could not hope to meet the enemy of our ever, when the province or town has been country if we were not full of trust in our entered and taken possession of by the insurselves and of regard for our country. Such a gents, and not till then, the emperor issues season of willingness appears to be precisely bis edict, appoints his general, and sends his that in which we might give unity to this army, all of which are in due course ignomingood feeling, and fill up more than one hiatus iously repulsed, the inhabitants being eviin the work of advancing improvement. To dently in every case more contented under the do good for the sake of the good of our coun-insurgents than under the Tartars. try, shows a reviving moral health, as well Details are given with respect to one. The commercial as physical health. Perhaps the town and district of Lo-Nyan were taken by day has come back when it may be recognized the insurgents in March, 1851. The victors as a practical reason for improving the condi- levied a contribution, and compelled the rich tion of our population in towns, that the na- head of the state-pawnbroking establishment tion will be rendered the stronger by it. to pay 1,000 taels. The imperialists, sud

denly returning in great force to recover the

town, for once succeeded, and forthwith levied From the Examiner, Aug. 8. a contribution of three times the former THE REBELLION IN CHINA.

amount. On this the inhabitants plotted to

call in the insurgents again. This they did ; Swall and unsatisfactory as our knowledge the imperialists were driven out, and the in. may be of the nature and origin of that great babitants, cutting off the tails from their insurrection which is already triumphant over crowns, proclaimed the insurgent emperor, the better half of the Chinese empire, it is and denounced him of Pekin. It would thus impossible not to discern among its more appear to be rather the insurrection of the active causes newly-imported ideas from Eu- Chinese populations Ainging off the Tartar rope and the West. Whatever local discon- yoke, than the march of an able leader at the tent existed hitherto in the provinces of China head of any portion of the armies of the remote from the seat of government, and how- empire. Indeed, there seems to be no regular ever this may at times have arisen to rebellion army in China save what is hastily assembled against the Tartar monarchs, the power of the and got together. The despotic power of the

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emperor has been based more upon authority, marks of Christian ideas, of a desire to subupon the habits of administrative rule, and stitute the Christian account of the creation the terror of a name, than upon any organized for the old cosmogonies, and of the resolution and permanent military force.

to sweep away the more stupid and debrating The strength of the insurgent cause, there- part of Chinese superstitions, in order to subfore, lies less in generalship than in popu- stitute for them something more akin to the larity. It is by the force of ideas, more than religious ideas of Europe. Here is another by that of legions, it advances. And as the wide breach for European powers to enter at, Tartars want alike the moral authority and by means of missionaries, if not with the help the physical force, their reign may be held to of more menacing forces. The Roman Cathbe approaching to its end. The pussession of olics have already their missionary legions in Nankin, the second city of the empire in ad-China. Soine zealous Protestants are also ministrative rank and commercial inportance, said to bave sown their doctrines in secret and the first in the estimation of the old societies, which like eggs were to protect and Chinese race, seems to ensure that already. hatch the future religion. Should these The wealth and fertility of the empire lie in become hereafter fully developed, we may provinces already subdued. The more north- bave European powers interfering with artilorn ones, which are the seat of mere imperial leries and armies to protect the Christians of authority without its resources, cannot long the Celestial empire, as Russia claims to prohold out by themselves.

tect certain subjects of the Turkish Sultan. What, then, will be the consequence of The introduction into China, however, even the revolution when it has been fully effected, of any approach to the forms of Christianity and Tien-té, representing the old Ming dy- would prove a blessing to the far East, not nasty, shall have taken the place of the merely in a real and spiritual sense, but as an present young Tartar sovereign upon the element of civilization. If the insurrection throne ? The principal characteristic and ter- should effect this, and restore some adminisdency of the insurgents is undoubtedly to trative life and local freedom to the empire, destroy the centralization which at present without absolutely dismembering it, Europe exists in China, and to replace the nullity of will not fail to benefit in increased commerce governors sent from Pekin by local authorities and trade, and in having obtained a new and better acquainted with the wants of the powerful lever for the regeneration of Asia. natives of the provinces they govern. The rebels avow in their proclamations that the federal principle is theirs, and they have acted We preserve by law our coasting trade for upon it by the erection of local chieftaiories our own people. At present it is maintained and kingdoms, of which the leaders are of more from revenue than commercial consideriCourse to own the supremacy of the Emperor tions, or considerations of national defence. The Tien-té, but are nevertheless to wield all advantages, however, of carrying on a coasting essential authority each in his dominions. trade are so exclusively on the side of the natives, This we have no doubt had become indispen- hands if they have any shipping. It will be the

that it must, as the rule, always fall into their sible. It was absolutely, required for the first trade they will engage in – the last they contentment of the provincial populations, I will be supplanted in. There are some things which hitherto have felt the extortionate which it is utterly superfluous for the Legislarather than the protecting hand of the impe- ture to prohibit, and amongst them are suicide rial government. On the other hand, there is and foreigners engaging in the coasting trade of no denying that a revolution which not only a thoroughly maritime nation. Our practice, overthrows the reigning dynasty, but divides however, has a pernicious effect ; and because the empire into a number of local authorities by law we continue to prohibit an American or kingships of inore or less power, must open from carrying goods from London tu Hull, to foreigners a large scope for ambition and through the dangerous Swin, which native pilots intrigue. How far the province of Kiacta is have a difficulty in navigating, the Americans to resist Russian influence, or that of Canton prohibit us from carrying goods from New York contend against English dictation, when local to California, where the passage is wholly on the authorities shall be all in all, is perhaps what open sea, every part of which is as well known

to us as to the Americans. Such restrictions Tien-té and his followers have not taken into

answer no good purposes, and they are mischievaccount.

ous by their effects on other nations.- Econ. Another peculiarity of the insurgent party, equally important to Europeans, is their unquestionable enmity to Buddhism and to The sweet CAERVIL (cerefolium), formerly bunzes, and to the entire system of Chinese prized for its warm aromatic qualities, was 80 idolatry. It would be going greatly too far to great a favorite with the Emperor Tiberius, say that the insurgent emperor is actually that he exacted from the Germans a large Christian, or that he prefers any sect of Chris- quantity of it annually as a tribute. It is a tians. But his proclamations boar undoubtedl native of Austria and Silesia.

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