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CONTENTS. 1. The Austrian Court in the Eighteenth Century,

Edinburgh Reviere, . 579 2. The Dwarfed Races of Mankind,


595 3. Ten Months among the Tents of the Tuski — Hooper, Spectator,

597 4. The French in the South Seas,

New Monthly Magazine, 599 5. Out-door Recreations,

Chambers' Journal, 610 6. Court Cases at Bombay - Oriental Life,

Edinburgh Review, . 611 7. Lady Lee's Widowhood, Part VIII.,

Blackwood's Magazine, . 619 8. Rhubarb Wine,

Gardener's Chronicle, 638 9. A Tuski Feast,

Ten Months at Tuski, 639 POETRY: A Spinning-Wheel Song - Youth, 577; Noontide, a Chant - Noontide, a Glee

– Evening, 578. SHORT ARTICLES : The Life of Haydon, 609; Post Office Return, 610 ; Papier-Maché Houses,

638 ; Musical Air, 039; Decimal Coinage — Another Challenge to Hobbs — Onions, 640. New BOOKS : Electric Science Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks, 618.

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From the Dublin University Magazine. Merrily, cheerily, noisily whirring,

Swings the wheel, spins the reel, while the

foot 's stirring; Air - "The Little House under the Hill."

Sprightly, and lightly, and airily ringing,

Thrills the sweet voice of the young maiden MELLOW the moonlight to shine is beginning ;

singing. ('lose by the window young Eileen is spinning ; Beut o'er the fire her blind grandmother, sitting, Is groaning, and moaning, and drowsily knit. The maid shakes her bead, on her lip lays her ting

fingers, Eileen, achora, I henr some one tapping.”

Steals from the seat longs to go, and yet 6. 'Tis the ivy, dear mother, against the glass

lingers ; fapping.”

A frightened glance turns to her drowsy grandEileen, I gurely hear somebody sighing."

mother, “ 'T is the sound, mother dear, of the summer Puts one foot on the stool, spins the wheel with wind dying.”

the other. Merrily, cheerily, noisily whirring, Swings the wheel , spins the reel, while the Slowly and lowly is heard now the reel's sound ;

Lazily, easily, swings now the wheel round ; fuot 's stirring ;

Noiseless and light to the lattice above her Sprightly, and lightly, and airily ringing,

The maid steps then leaps to the arms of her Thrills the sweet voice of the young maiden

lover. singing

Slower - and slower - and slower the wheel

swings; “ What's that noise that I hear at the window, Lower - and lower — and lower the reel I wonder?

rings ; “ 'Tis the little bird chirping the holly-bush Ere the reel and the wheel stopped their under.”

ringing and moving, “What makes you be shoving and moving your Through the grove the young lovers by

moonlight are roving. And singing all wrong that old song of The

Coolan'?” There's a form at the casement. the form of her true love

YOUTH. And be whispers, with face bent, “I'm waiting

for you, love ; Get up on the stool, through the lattice step 0, GOLDEN light of youth ! lightly,

How pure and warm thou art, We'll rove in the grove while the moon 's shining When Faith, and Hope, and Truth, brightly.

Like sunshine, food the heart. CCCCLXXIV. LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 37


stool on,




And gaze on their sheen, half awake, half aLike Orient beams that creep

dream, Across the desert lone,

'Till you think they are Naiads that dwell in the And wake up tones that sleep

stream. In Memnon's form of stone

'Tis noontide, 't is noontide, so glowing and

No shade on the meadow, no breeze on the So through our young life steals

hill, The light of love along,

No wave on the waters that languidly glide, Till soon the heart reveals

'Tis noontide in summer, the dreamy noon

tide. Its strange sweet joy in song.

still ;


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Or deep in the greenwood to loiter along,
And list to the blackbird's and grasshopper's

song ;
And mark on the leaves where the sun-showerg

break, 'Till they ripple like waves on a moon-lighted

lake. 'T wixt morn at its rising, and eve at its close, Comes noon, like a spirit of calm and repose Leave toil for the morning, and care for the

night, But each thought of our noon should be peaceful

and bright. 'T is noontide, 't is noontide, so glowing and No shade on the meadow, no breeze on the

hill, No wave on the waters that languidly glide ; 'Tis noontide in summer, the dreamy noon



Thus bright are young life's dreams —

They fade when comes the even ; And what celestial seems

Are mists from earth, not heaven.




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From the Edinburgh Review. lasting struggle of repression, as the Turks doon Geschichte des Oestreichischen Hofs und Adels, the yellow-haired Russians as those who are

und der Oestreichischen Diplomatie. (His- destined, sooner or later, to take away their tory of the Austrian Court, Nobility, and place and nation. Their rules of conduct, Diplomacy.) By Dr. EDWARD VEHSE (form- their professed principles, even their favorite

. ing part of a series of Histories of the Ger- maxims — the alors comme alors of Kaunitz, man Courts since the Reformation.) Ten the après nous le déluge of Metternich -- all Parts. Hamburg : 1852.

seem to indicate the thorough consciousness A RECENT Swiss traveller describes a village that what exists is provisional only, while to in the Grison country, situated on the slope attempt to fashion the unknown future out of of a great mountain, of which the strata the present is but the hopeless task of a visshelve in the direction of the place. Huge ionary. Yet the empire subsists ineanwhile, crags directly overhanging the village, and and gives every now and then ample proof ipussy enough to sweep the whole of it into that its institutions, whatever their real the torrent below, have become separated strength may be, possess at least a superficial from the main body of the mountain in the vigor and tenacity sufficient to repel outward course of ages by great fissures, and now invasion, and to reconsolidate the fabric after scarcely adhere to it. When they give way, temporary shocks from within. the village must perish; it is only a question We do not inean to recommend the gossipof time, and the catastrophe may happen any ing volumes before us as throwing any peculiar duy. For years past, engineers have been and direct light on these great questions of the sent from time to time to measure the width day. But they form a compilation which the of the fissures, and report them constantly political inquirer will find useful no less than increasing. The villagers for more than one the antiquarian, and contain a world of anecgeneration have been fully aware of their dotic talk, industriously collected from all danger; subscriptions have been once or kinds of sources, trustworthy and otherwise, twice opened in the cantops and in Germany combined in German fashion with a very painsto enable them to remove; yet they live on taking register of the official history of the in their doomed dwellings from year to year, Austrian monarchy ; its succession of mipisfortified against the ultimate certainty and ters, diplomatists, and pedigrees and vicissidaily probability of destruction by the com- tudes of its noble families, from the reign of mun sentiment things may last their time Maximilian down to the present time. and longer.

Unlike the fortunes of the other great It is needless to say how much of this European monarchies — those of Russia, popular fatalism is exhibited in the habitual Prussia, and Great Britain, showing a conacquiescence of modern society in the politi- stant and continuing increase of power; that cal institutions under which it lives. The of France a steady increase for centuries cracks and crevices in the mountain which followed by a stationary period — that of overhangs our old privilege-founded European Austria (separating her history as far as system are constantly sounded by explorers, possible from that of the Germanic Empire and their reports are never very reassuring; with which she was so long connected) exhibits we are more and more convinced of the inse- several remarkable alternations of advance curity of thrones and commonwealths, and and decline. The first military monarchy of political sagacity wholly fails to reveal to us Austria was that founded by Maximilian and the manner of their reconstruction. Yet we Charles the Fifth, which attained its height live on in a kind of provisional safety, recon- of power after the battle of Mühlberg in 1547. ciled to the constant neighborhood of dangers The lanzknechts of Maximilian, the Austrian against which, apparently, we can no better heavy cavalry, and the “ hussars” of Hungary guard ourselves than the villagers can pre- (first known by that name in Germany durvent the fall of their rocks. And certainly ing the campaign of Mühlberg), had trino existing portion of that system more fre- umphed in turn over the French in Italy, the quently reminds us of the case of our Grison Turks in the East, and the Swabinns and villagers, than the fabric of the Austrian Saxons at home. And the monarchy which Empire ; an edifice raised by a succession of they upheld was, as it were, the first offspring accidents, on the surface of a mass destitute of the mediæval chaos — briliunt in youthful of all the ordinary political principles of strength, confident in its destinies, animated cohesion, and doomed for generations past, at once by the fire of old chivalry and modern by seers of all political sects, to speedý de- improvement. struction. Yet the fatalist principle seems to

But all its fair prospects were overcast by prevail there as elsewhere. "Its statesmon live the political storms which arose from the on, not as disbelieving in the destiny predicted Reformation. Charles the Fifth, in an evil to thein, but as conscious of inability to escape hour for the immediate fortunes of himself from it. They look on the revolutionary and his race, had, after much wavering, cast enemies with whom they maintain their ever- his sword into the balance on the side of the

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old religion. His hereditary subjects are still Styria, kept Easter, 1596, at Gratz, he was under the strong influence of early Protestant- almost the only individual there who followed ism. The reigns of Ferdinand I., Maximilian the Catholic rite ; the whole town had heII. (regarded by inany as himself a secret come Protestant. A little more, and the Protestiint), Rudolph II., and Matthias triumph of the Reformation would bave been (1556–1610), were, regarded from a general complete from the Baltic to the Adriatic. point of view, nothing but a continued and Theological divisions, and the rapacity of unsuccessful struggle against religious and Protestant nobles, began its defeat; but few secular innovation. In that struggle the first secondary causes more contributed than the military monarchy of Austria was broken inflexible character of Ferdinand himself, down ; the central authority reduced to the who never stinted until he had trampled it narrowest limits. Throughout her Gerinan out in blood in all the German provinces of provinces (not to mention the endless com- Austria. Its ebb was as rapid as its flow plication of Hungarian affairs), confederacies had been. Easter 1626, just thirty years of Lutheran nobles, burghers, and peasants after the time above mentioned, was apencroached with increasing boldness on the pointed by Ferdinand as the latest term at shrunken prerogatives of the crown.

which Protestant worship could be tolerated Many of our readers will remember how in Upper Austria, its last stronghold. Eighty mnch light the German historian Ranke has thousand peasants took up arms in their recently thrown on that comparatively ob- despair. Pappenheim, who suppressed their scure and unnoticed field of history, the revolt, declared that even he, the ferocious Protestant conversion and Catholic reconver- soldier of the Thirty Years' War,“ had never sion of Austria. Dr. Vehse's third and fourth in his life seen such wild fury as that with volumes add amplo anecdotic inatter to the which the Boors, singing psalms, or with the more general statements of that philosophical frightful war-cry, writer. He shows in detail the rapidity and

Weil's gilt die Steel' uud auch das Blut, heartiness with which the Austrian nobility

So geb' uns Gott den Heldonmuch, and townsfolk, in the several German provinces, embraced the Reformation. Even rushed on his cavalry, pulled them from their among the peasantry the old religion found horses, and set on them with pikes, clubs, and it difficult to hold its own against the ardent morgensterns.” The slaughtered peasants incursions of the reformed preachers. It is sleep under a green hillock on the shore of the common enough to speak of unchangeable Traun See; a few scattered mountain comtraits in national and local character. But munes in the neighborhood still retain their the fact is, that great revolutions will in faith ; but, substantially, the “ evangelical” some rare cases as completely transform the cause perished with thein in the Danubian character of a people in two or three genera- provinces of Austria. Its fate in Bohemia is tions, as if it had been exterminated, and a better known, being more connected with the new one substituted for it. Those who best leading events of European history. On that know what the population of Vienna now is, occasion, as on subsequent ones, the monarchy will find it the most difficult to realize the of the Hapsburgs was rescued from internal fact, that the ancestors of her burghers of the dissolution by the effort which it made to present day were those who went out, by tens resist outward violence ; by the encroachof thousands, an armed civic pilitia, to ments of the Elector Palatine, the Catholic listen to the sermons of the Calvinist Opitz, reaction which followed, and the Thirty Years' and who plunged into the Flacian controversy War. The reigns of Ferdinand II., and III.

“ irreversible decrees” with all the zeal of (1619-1657) comprise this period of flow in a Scottish hill congregation. The change the fortunes of their house, and the establishfrom what the fathers were to what the ment of wbat the historical student may rechildren have since become, was wrought in gard as the second military monarchy of a few years by the determined, uncompro-Austria, under the banners of Tilly, Wallenmising, root-and-branch industry of the stein, and Piccolomini. Jesuits. About the merits of that change It was an era of almost unequalled misery men will never be agreed, until it is settled to a large portion of Christendoin. It seemed whether Thought, with its concomitant con- as if the ordinary restraints of civilized wartroversial turbulence, be or be not better than fare had become obsolete, and the combatants thoughtlessness, dividing its leisure hours were bent on destroying all that neither could between superstition and dissipation. finally wrest from the other. The populous

At the end of the sixteenth century it was North became a desert; we can scarcely besaid that in all Austria Proper only five lieve, what some writers seriously allege, that noble landed families, in Carinthia seven, in the whole population of Germany, East of the Styria one, remained Catholic, or, according Rhine, sank during the Thirty Years' War from to Hormayr, in all the hereditary states only sixteen to four millions ; but never had any thirty. When Ferdinand II., theu Duke of Christian kingdom presented such an aspect



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and army:

of desolation, since the age of the Huns. , among the names which underwent this fiery We read of cultivated provinces relapsing into re-baptism, the heads of both having once forest; cities which had shrunken until the been Lutheran. But the greater portion are houses of whole deserted quarters were burnt sprung from new men - men who rose, in the for fire-wood by the scanty inhabitants of the troublesome times, from the ranks of the lower remainder. Men began, in their despair, to gentry by acquiring confiscated property cease from those common labors on which the strangers from various parts of Èurope, folinaintenance of society depends. To the lowers of the Austrian court and camp. Thus, starving remnant of mankind which listened in Bohemia alone, we find the houses of Colto the trumpeters proclaiming the peace of loredo, Piccolomini, Gallas, Isolani, derived Westphalia, the name of peace was alınost from Italy ; Maradas and Verdugo, from unknown except in their prayers, but it con- Spain ; Bucquoy, from the Netherlands ; many veyed the idea of blessings for which they from different Gerinan states. The history of were only too ready to sacrifice, not only the the greater family of Schwarzenberg presents independence for which their fathers had a singular instance of postliminium. They striven, but the customary rights of earlier are originally Bohemian; their Sclavish name generations. Accordingly, resistance to the is Czernahora. Driven out by the Hussites implacable reaction conducted by the Jesuits, in the fifteenth century, they settled in Franwas impossible alike in church and state. copia, and after various migrations returned Not only was the spirit of opposition extin- to their own country in the Thirty Years' guished, but all that was powerful and distin- War, to obtain an enormous share of the rebel guished among the recalcitrants was extir- confiscations. So at least says Dr. Vehse. pated. The princes of the House of Haps. We believe the family genealogists make out burg, after the peace of Westphalia, reigned a Franconian origin, and discourse of certain over a new country, a new aristocracy, church, kings of tho Allemandi. But family trees,

says the cynical antiquary, Baron Hormayr, Against the nobility, in particular, the grow in Austria like poplars. watchword of the counter-reformation was in- To complete this brief sketch of Austrian deed " Thorough.” The old families of Aus- noblesse, we may add that, according to our tria, Styria, Bohemia, and Moravia, be me author, their titles of nobility are very modern. almost extinct. The great majority, as we The first Austrian prince was a Lichtenstein have seen, were Lutherans; and, apparently, (1608); and few, if any, existing titles of were either not to be won back to the Church, Count, seem to have an earlier origin. or conversion was not enough to save them. We have entered at some length into this The really old Austrian names those of the chapter of pedigrees, because, in truth, the indigenous chivalry of the Danubian valley - anti-national character of much of the AusKühnring, Eytring, Thonradtel, Hoffinann, triun nobility, its modern and superficial conHofkirchen, Bucheim, Stein von Schwartzenau nection with the soil, seem to have been among

appear no more from that time in history. the causes which have prevented its combinaThe neighboring counties soon became full of tion for national purposes, and placed it, exiles, who had made their way out of polit- wealthy and numerous as it is, and great as ical or religious persecutions with such prop- its privileges once were, in close dependence erty as they could save from the wreck. on the court, ever since the peace of WestFriedrich von Roggendorf, one of the family phalia. Thus the new monarchy of the latter of the hereditary High Stewards of Austria, Hapsburgs much more nearly approached the was promised "mercy' by Ferdinand, if he character of despotism (except in Hungary, would return home. “ Which mercy?" he the history of which is throughout to be asked. “ Bohemian mercy ? - Head off. viewed apart) than that of Charles V. It Moravian? – Imprisonment for life. Aus- was moderated rather by the inberept weaktrian ? Confiscation."

ness of the central authority, the inert strength Hence a greater change took place in the of local usages and local corporations, than by proprietary body of the German-Austrian any spirit of independence existing either provinces, in the seventeenth century, than among nobles or people. Such as it was, its has been the case in any other modern state culminating period was short; its decay, like except Ireland. Their present land nobil- that of the imperial race itself, slow but unity may be regarded, like that of Ireland, checked. as in great measure a body established in its The reigns of Leopold I., Joseph I., and estates by conquest, and enriched by confisca- Charles VI. (1657–1740), compriso this lattertion. Few comparatively are descended from period the last age of the male line of the the small minority which remained Catholic Hapsburgs — which may, on the whole, be throughout-- that of the Princes Lobkowitz, regarded as one of progressive decline. The we believe, is among the number. The an- Jesuits remained all powerful through most , cestors of some were re-converted from Prot- of it; but their rule had lost its energy for estantism ; Lichtenstein and Esterhazy are lack of serious opposition; the spiritual man-

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