sincerely and honestly side by side, mutual | her prestige both in Europe and Asia will be prejudices, jealousies, and mistrust would be shaken to its foundation. Whatever it may worn away we should do justice to her gal- cost, she must row make good her ground. lantry, and she would learn to recognize our It is well known that the Emperor of Russia integrity and disinterestedness; and we has been emboldened to his aggressive course should have prepared the way for future coöp- of action by three deliberate calculations : eration in other and even holier causes. For, that England could not act cordially with whatever may be our opinion of the actual form France under her present government in any of government in France however we may cause whatever; that she would not be able regret that it should be so little in accord- effectively to man her navy; and that the ance with what, according to our insular no- Peace-at-any-price and the Economy-at-anytions of freedom, befits an enlightened and cost School were powerful enough to prevent emancipated country – still we can look at her engaging in a war for any European purthe nation through whatever disguises of con- pose. How far the language of our Press and stitution or administration she may tempora- of the party alluded to in Parliament may rily assume; and it is impossible not to per- have justified him in these calculations, we ceive that on the sincere and enduring union will not here discuss. But it is the more imof England_and France hang all the best portant that we should show him now, by our hopes for European liberty and progress. words, by our attitude, by our resolute beWe should, therefore, be disposed to hail the havior, by our ready acceptance of all risks, impending rupture ns almost a blessing if it that he has mistaken our position, misconshould prove a vinculum between the two ceived our temper, under-estimated our great nations of the West - which, united, strength, and presumed far too much on our are invincible and beneficent — and whose forbearance ; and that no voice will be raised separation or hostility must ever be fraught to oppose, and no subsidies refused to supwith desolation and peril to the dearest inter- port, our government in the management of ests of humanity. Finally, a war between a struggle at once righteous in its origin, imthe coloseal despot of the East (aided, possi- portaut in its objects, indubitable in its issue, bly, by his semi-vassal of the House of Haps- and necessary to the vindication of our honor burg) and the two advanced and enlightened and the security of our position. peoples of the West, armed in defence of an injured and faithful ally, cannot but be of

From the Economist, 16th July. hopeful omen to the trampled liberties and the crushed civilization of Italy, Hungary, RUSSIA'S PAST AND TURKEY'S FUTURE. und Germany. If Austria takes part with Russia, she is doomed : the flames of insurrection would burst out simultaneously in WHATEVER may be the immediato iggue of every quarter of her ill-organized and op- the present crisis in the East - whether the pressed dominions ; Italy, is always on the contending parties come at once to blows, or eve of a revolt ; thousands of Magyars and whether, after maintaining a hostile attitude Poles are awaiting on the frontiers of Turkey for a respectable length of time, after exthe first signal-gun of a war out of which they changing reciprocal growls and some trilling are prepared to carve their own way to ret- mutual concessions, they retire into their reribution and to freedom; and, a contest spective boundaries – it is evident to all that once begun between the despotic spirit of the the real object in dispute will only be postEnst and the progressive spirit of the West, poned, not settled : - the snake will be the issue could be neither doubtful, insigniti- scotched only, not killed. As long as matters cant, nor noxious – however greatly to be remain on their present footing – as long as deprecated were the scenes which must be there is the same ambition on the one side, encountered before that final issue be and the same weakness on the other - the achieved.

danger which will have been averted for the In conclusion. The honor and reputation moment will revive on every critical occasion. of England is pledged, that on her part at In order, therefore, satisfactorily to solve the least there shall be no step backward. She present, we must louk a little into the future ; owes this to Turkey, which has acted by her in order effectively to deal with the actual advice - to France, which relies upon her symptoms, we must ascertain precisely the steadiness and fidelity — to herself, for she root and tho nature of the menacing disorder. has much at stake upon the issue of the It does not consist either with the dignity, crisis. She is now fairly face to face with a the safety, or the peace, of a great nation like powerful antagonist, in a quarrel not of her England to be satisfied with a hand-lo-mouth own seeking. She has sent her feet to the policy diplomacy of expedients, delays, Dardanelles, on a special mission, and she temporary palliatives, and delusive anodynes. cannot recall it till that mission is accom- We must look the danger and the necessity plished. If she now recedes before Russia, fairly in the face; see clearly the purpose


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which we have in view; examine deeply the desiring it, and feeling it to be essential to
best means of attaining that purpose; and the completion of her vast designs and the
then pursue that purpose and adopt those satisfaction of her natural and consistent
means resolutely, pertinaciously, in spite of ambition — the possession, namely, of Con-
all distractions, in defiance of every obstacle, stantinople and Roumelia — which would give
in contempt of any cost. We have to deal ber the most admirable harbors and the com-
with a rival and antagonist whose main mand of the Levant, and would enable her to
strength consists in her consistent aims and overlap, surround, menace, and embarrass all
her dogged perseverance in never varying the rest of Europe. Did she possess this, the
her object, never losing sight of it, never geography of all the other great states —
overlooking or neglecting a favorable opportu- England, France, Spain, Sweden, Austria,
nity for making a step towards it; -- and we and Prussia - might be thus simply defined :
shall contend with her at a grievous disadvan- " bounded by the sea on one side and by
tage if our policy is vacillating, slumberous, Russia on the other."
or fitful — if we awake to our danger only at We have said that the desire on her part
the moment of attack, and retire to repose to possess Turkey in Europe, and its magniti-
and security as soon as we have beaten off cent capital and unrivalled harbors, is a inost
the foe.

natural one. Any one may see why it is so. There is something really grand and im- For so vast an empire to possess only one serposing in the steady march of Russian domin- port, and that in a situation where she is ion since Peter the Great first consolidated blockaded by ice half the year and can be his empire into a substantive state. On his locked in by England the other half, is no accession in 1689, its western boundary was doubt mortifying and irritating enough. It in longitude 30 deg., and its southern in lati- is certain that she will make every effort to tude 42 degrees; these have now been pushed escape from it. She will always be itching to longitude 18 deg, and latitude 39 deg. re- for Constantinople — always striving for itspectively. Russia had then no access to any always creeping towards it. Her desire for European sea ; her only ports were Archangel it will be a perpetual source of danger to the in the Frozen Ocean, and Astrakhan on the peace of Europe and the equilibrium of power, Caspian ; she has now access both to the Bal- unless it can be placed utterly and hopelessly tic and the Euxine.

beyond her reach — unless some arrangement Her population (mainly arising from in- can be entered into and made perinanent and crease of territory) has augmented thus : to a great extent self-sustaining, by which it

may cease to become an object of rational desire, At the Accession of

because ccasing to be one of possible attainment.
Peter the Great in 1689 it was 15,000,000 If Russia was once convinced that she never
Catharine II. " 1762" 25,000,000

could, and never would, be allowed to gain
« 1796 " " 36,000,000
Nicholas 6 1825 “ 58,000,000

possession of European Turkey, at any time

and under any circumstances, she would By the treaty of Neustadt in 1721, and by probably cease to struggle for it. It is the a subsequent treaty in 1809, she acquired supposed ease of the acquisition

the conmore than half the Kingdom of Sweden and viction that sooner or later it will be hers the command of the Gulf of Finland, from the belief that Turkey unaided is too weak to which before she was excluded. By the three defend herself, and that France and England partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1795, will not always unite in defending her, or and by the arrangements of 1815, she ac- may some day or other be in a position in quired territory nearly equal in extent to the which they cannot defend her effectually – whole Austrian Empire.

that causes the acquisition of Constantinople By various wars and treaties with Turkey, to occupy the fixed and paramount place in 1774, 1783, and 1812, she robbed her of which it unquestionably does occupy in the territories equal in extent to all that rernains Russian policy. What we have to conof her European dominions, and acquired the sider, then, is how the Ottoman Porte can be command of the Black Sea.

permanently preserved and enabled to inainBetween 1800 and 1814, she acquired from tain itself; or 'rather how European Turkey Persia distriots at least as large as the hole can be most effectually, obviously, und indisof England, and from Tartary a territory putably, and forever, placed wholly out of the which ranges over 30 degrees of longitude. reach of Russia.

During this period of 150 years she has There are three several ways of attempting advanced her frontier 500 miles towards Con- this ; and it behoves all the states which are stantinople. 630 miles towards Stockholm, 700 interested in this question, and Great Britain piles towards Berlin and Vienna, and 1,000 most especially, to adopt one of them decimiles towards Teheran, Cahool, and Calcutta. sively and without delay, and to pursue it,

One only acquisition she has not yet mude, when adopted, upswervingly and perseverthough steadily pushing towards it, earnestly ingly. In the first place, we may resolve to


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maintain the Ottoman power in Europe, as it | stipulate for the maintenance of fortified posts now stands. This is not so hopeless a and sufficient garrisons along the passes of scheme as is generally imagined by those the Balkan, for the erection of such really who, knowing nothing specially or personally powerful batteries at the entrance of the of the matter, have been accustomed to hear Bosphorus as no Russian fleet would dare to Turkey spoken of as the symbol of decrepi- encounter ; we might stipulate, finally, for tude as, in the language of Burke, "a such improvements in administration and barbarous anarchic despotism, where the finance, under our advice and aid, as would finest countries in the most genial climates in ere long entirely change the whole aspect of the world are wasted by peace more than any affairs in that mismanaged country. Were others have been worried by war; where this plan cordially adopted and systematiarts are unknown, where manufactures lan-cally carried out, under the encouragement guish, where science is extinguished, where and surveillance of England and France ; agriculture decays, where the human race it- were the Ottoman Porte clearly made to comself melts away and perishes under the eye of prehend that the condition of our alliance and the observer.'' This is far less true now protection was the immediate commencement than it was wheo Burke wrote it. There are and steady carrying out of such amelioraelements of strength in Turkey, as there are tions in the civil and military system as were elements of weakness in Russia, which have calculated to render her in time independent never been properly appreciated or taken ad- of any external aid – we entertain little vantage of." The Ottomans themselves are not doubt that before many years had elapsed degenerate ; — they are pretty much what Turkey would again have become a real and they were two centuries ago; indolent, like substantive power instead of a helpless all Orientals, but capable of great exertions phantom, able to do nothing for herself, but and great sacrifices when roused into action dependent entirely on her allies ; pot indeed by adequate stimulants ; proud of their race, that she would be able, single-handed and devoted in their loyalty, fanatical in their alone, to stand against the colossal power of religion, warlike in their tastes, high-minded Russia- (that, probably, is what no state and honorable (many of them at least) in save England, France, and '

America could do) their notions. Under a good government - but that, with a compact friendship with they would make fine materials ; under a reso- Persia, and such moderate aid in case of lute and aggressive government they would necessity as England and France might make formidable warriors. The countries willingly and without inconvenience afford to they rule over are splendid, and of vast re- a faithful ally, she would be able to present source, and many of them inhabited by a such a manly and formidable front, that race of great activity and more perpetual Russia could no more hope to absorb her than energy than the Mussulmans, and needing to annihilate Prussia or to swallow Austria. nothing but a steady, just, vigorous adminis- This course of proceeding would be a practitration to develop their gifts and consolidate cable, an intelligible, and, we believe, a suctheir powers. Now, for many years back, cessful line of policy, if at once initiated, great efforts have been made by the more en- and consistently, resolutely, and conscienlightened of the Turkish statesmen to reform tiously pursued. and iin prove their administrative system. Or, secondly -- looking at the elements of English and French engineers have been sum- which Turkey in Europe is composed, observmoned to Constantinople to direct public ing that its population contains probably not worship and instruct native artificers.' Eu- more than 3,000,000 Mussulmen to 11,000,000 ropean officers have been introduced into Christians, and that of the former not more their army and navy, and have vastly im- than 700,000 are pure Osmanlis ; seeing, too, proved both their artillery department and how completely divided into natural provinces their vessels of war. The actual command the empire is - Bosnia, Servin, Albania, ing Turkish Admiral is, we are informed by Bulgaria, Roumelia, Moldavia, and Wallaone who knows him personally, an English chia, being even more distinct and separate daval officer. It would not be difficult for the than Castile and Arragon, or England and other principal states of Europe, if they de- Wales used to be ; and knowing also what a cide finally on the maintenance of the Turkish loose hand the Porte has long kept over many government, to insist, as the condition of of these dependencies, and how largely the their guarantee, on the adoption of such municipal element of self-government is desteps under their superintendence as should, veloped in nearly all of thein

we cannot in the course of a few years, place Turkey in but feel that another and perhaps even more a position to maintain and to defend herself. hopeful solution of the problem is suggested We might stipulate for the establishinent of to us. Moldavia and Wallachia are already an adequate permanent army to be kept in a governed by Hospodars, under joint Russian state of real efficiency, which should be and Turkish protection, and are merely ascertained by our inspection ; we might | tributary to the Porte ; Servia has a prince

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of her own, is nearly independent, and con- moment, but of preparing for – a Greek tent and peaceable in being 80: — why not kingdom ; --- not the miserable principality, adopt a similar system with the rest ; erect with its miserable prince, which we now call a federal state, composed of five or seven in- such, but one on a great scale, which shall dependent principalities - five, if the Danube embrace the whole of Turkey in Europe, the be taken as their northern boundary seven, inain part of whose population are already if we make the Pruth the boundary, and in- bound together, partly by a common origin, clude the Hospodarships — leave them free partly by a common religion. It is true to develop each their own resources, and to that our petty experiment has not succeeded. follow their own peculiar phase of civiliza- The Kingdom of Greece, which we cstablished tion — Greek, Sclavonic, or mixed, as it in 1832, has turned out a wretched, disastrous, might be ; but unite them in a bond which and disgraceful failure. But what it would would render them a powerful and probably have been under different auspices ; what it impassable barrier against Muscovite encroach- would have been if, instead of an imbecile inents, with liberties worth maintaining and Bavarian boy, we had placed at its head a strength adequate to maintain them. This is statesipan of princely birth and powerful no idle dream

no paper project suggested connections ; what it would have been if the hy a glance at the map. Those who kuow intrigues of Capodistrias had not prevented those provinces know how much energy lies Leopold from accepting the proffered crown hid among their people - how much advance we cannot possibly pronounce.

Tbus inany of them have of late made — what a much at least we know that in that country resolute and warlike spirit of independence are materials which, in proper bands, could prevails among some of the Sclavopian tribes certainly be elaborated into something good

- what restless activity and ingenious talent and great; a territory abounding in admiand commercial cupidity characterizes the rable harbors and unrivalled facilities for Greek population. They know also how little commerce, and inhabited by a people of native disposition the inhabitants of these districts and ineradicable commercial propensities, as have to be absorbed by Russia, and amalga- marked as those of Holland or our own; a mated and lost in her vast dominions — how population dreadfully demoralized, no doubt, much they prefer the rule of the Sultan to the but wonderfully active, shrewd, and persever

protection" of the Czar -- and how stub- ing — needing only a strong hand and an bornly they would fight for their freedom if it iron will to curb their lawless habits and were once conferred upon them. Already control and guide their restless and wayward ideas of some such future are spreading energies into a regular and profitable channel. and prevalent among them; already the With the Greeks everything will depend upon country is overspread with a net-work of the government ; the materials are tine, rich, Hetairas or secret societies, to an extent and teeming, though untutored and untamed ; that few are aware of; already do they feel with a Leopold, the success of the Kingdom strong sympathies, even if they have not of Greece would have been probable - with close connection, with the struggles of the a Napoleon, a Cromwell, or a Clive, it would Italian and Hungarian patriots ; already is have been certain, signal, and magnificent. the old jealousy and separation between the Erect a Grecian Monarchy with the Danube, Greek and the Sclavonian element fast melt- the Adriatic, the Ægean, and the Bosphorus iny, away, and opening the way towards a as its boundaries, give it Constantinople for fusion of the two into one harmonious na- its capital, place at its head the right man, tionality. Indeed, the knowledge of this protect his existence under the guarantee of fact is supposed to be one of the reasons the Western Powers for ten years - and our which make Nicholas 80 ansious to press on statesmen need give themselves no further his designs at the present moment; he is anxiety about what now so troubles and peraware that every year weakens his hold over plexes them : on the Eastern Question" the Christian population of the Turkish would be solved forever. provinces ; and he is therefore naturally and Now, any one of these three lines of policy, proportionately anxious to be formally con- wo believe, will afford us a way out of our stituted their official - Protector” without difficulties - an escape froin thein not merely delay. Here, again, in preparing the way for the moment, but forever. But, if we are for a federation of independent provinces not to be baffled, defeated and disgraced which, united, will form a powerful state, we sooner or later one of the three we must have another feasible and beneficent solution adopt at once, finally, and irrevocably — and of the Eastern question, which needs only to work for it as occasion serves, and as the be adopted, avowed, kept in view, and time and the circumstance suggest. The worked at, in order to be crowned with ulti- first is the easiest, the most temporizing, the mate and certain success.

least daring, and that which involves the Thirdly, and lastly, we have the option of least change — and is, therefore, the most establishing — not suddenly nor at this likely to be adopted. But, looking to an

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extended future, we may doubt whether the Danube or indeed


government that arrangement would perinanently be the at all. The Greeks, too, whom our projector most self-sustaining. The country in dispute selects as the dominant people, have not is mainly inhabited by Greeks. The great given such an example of aptitude for civilizacity, so much coveted, was the former seat tion, progress, and national virtue, in their of a Greek Empire. There is no vitality so own kingdom, as to tempt other countries to indestructible as that of race. There is no embark in a crusade to set up for them a principle so tenacious as that of Nationality. more extended empire. It is• doubtless inYou may, by a wise system resolutely pursued, convenient for Europe to be periodically sustain Turkey permanently against Russia, kept in hot water, its commerce interrupted, but you would have to sustain her, or at least the discussion of its domestic affairs susaid her to sustain herself. A Greek Empire pended,” and so forth, in favor of the xaioonce established, and endowed with Constan- tenance of “ that abstraction the integrity tipople as its dowry and its diadem, would of the Ottoman Empire. It is by no means yield it only with its last breath of life ; clear, however, that this evil would be altoand might become in time one of the “ Great gether removed, though the form might be Powers” of Europe -- the effective and changed, by the enthronement of the Greeks natural and much needed balance to Russian at Constantinople. All has not been fair and encroachments towards the west and Russian aboveboard at the court of Athens, either us influence in the Levant. Whatever we decide regards honesty or friendly feeling. The upon, however, let us adhere to and follow scheme is worth bearing in mind as a future résolutely out: – let us not be content with contingency; but the ignorance, servility, merely tiding over the present menacing bigotry, and corruption of the Oriental Chriscrisis, leaving it to recur upon us in a more tians render them a very rotten reed to rely formidable shape and at a more inconvenient upon. time.

The project itself forms only the introduc

tory portion of Mr. St. John's book; the From the Spectator.

greater part consisting of an exposition of the

public and private character of the modern BAYLE ST. JOHN'S TURKS IN EUROPE. Turks. As this is avowedly done to show The project which this volume aims at admits that his object compels him to select

their unfitness for empire. Mr. St. John fairly inculcating would hardly deserve notice at

the worst features, or in other words the any other time; for, although the idea of a Christian empire established on the ruins of

vices, of the Mahoinetans. This fact nearly Turkey is entertained by more persons than surns up the criticism on the book, so far as Mr. Buyle St. John, it is at present impracti- habits.

it is an exposition of manners, morals, and cable, however desirable. If Russia is bent

There is little, perhaps nothing, upon forcing war or dishonor on Turkey and untrue in the account of the ill-training or the two great powers of Western Europe, for po-training of the public officials (which in an ulterior advantage of uncertain result, it is part, however, springs from Mr. St. John's not likely that, until she were prostrated by

beloved equality); the moral domestic corsuccessive defeats, she would consent to the ruption induced by polygamy and Mahomets overthrow of her long-cherished hupes by the encouragement to licentiousness ; the ignoestablishment of a modern Byzantine or Greek rance and bigotry of the mass of Turks who empire, avowedly to baffle Russian policy and are not sceptics ; the childishness, intrigue, act as a permanent barrier against her power. the total failure of the new reform to amelio

and now even drunkenness, of the harem ; or Neither might the Turks altogether relish

rate the condition of the Christian population, being compendiously trundled out of Europe ; and possibly the new Crusaders might have to inces. In some of these statements, indeed,

or even the Mahometans of the reinote provencounter Russia and Turkey in alliance. As Mr. St. John admits « that if the Turks Mr. St. John is supported by passing travelbe now put to the test, they may make a

lers, wbo write without a purpose if not much more gallant stand than their inconsid- without a bias. At the same time, those erate enemies will give them credit for," the virtues which ohservers quite equal to Mr. St.

John have ascribed to the Turks are supvictory might not be with the Byzantine theorists. Even if the thing were noro ready pressed; while much of what is said to show of attainment, it is doubtful whether the men

the necessity of destroying the national exexist for the establishment of what Mr. St. istence of the Turks inight be applied to other John stipulates for, a constitutional govern: Austria, for example.

nations — the foreign provinces of Russia and ment, to embrace all the countries south of

The long residence of Mr. St. John in Egypt * The Turks in Europe : a Sketch of Manners and the Levant as a member of native families, and Politios in the Ottoman Empire. By Bayle St. has given him a knowledge of Oriental dumess John, Author of “ Village Life in Egypt,” &o., &c. I tic doings which few Europeans and no mere

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