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transactions take place, we constantly see six lectures having began, on Wednesday, with that something must be sacrificed, or some Horace and Juvenal. Point, brilliant fancy, inconvenience incurred, in order to guard and a thoroughly literary tone in both matter against possible default. Were there, on the and manner, were the characteristics. contrary, unlimited confidence between man

All sorts and conditions of men, from the and man, no bargain or barter, great or small, king to the hangman, in turn exercise the satiric tending to mutual advantage and convenience, ning, now to the nettle or broom, to the war

ficulty ; which assimilates now to the lightwould ever be prevented ; and all such ar

rocket in which the wood is apt to preponderate, rangernents would

conducted on a footing and even to the scintillations struck from flint of the utmost economy. We cannot doubt by the hoof of an ass. Mr. Hinnay follows Cathat the general happiness of society would saubon iu holding to an indigenous origin thus be greatly increased. Even those tran- among the Romans for satire — both the word scendental blessings which are dreamed of by and the thing; and we are founded in this rethe votaries of Socialism, what is to prevent spect on the Romans ; whom we must not l'etheir being realized but the ono little unfor- gard as merely a military nation with a peculiar tunate fact, that men are not yet prepared to conformation of nose. Horace, the first proact upon perfectly upright and unselfish prin- fessed Latin satirist of whom more than frngciples? They require to put all their indus- ments exist, was worldly, self-conscious, rather trial operations into the form of a conflict, too fond of good dinners, and the munditiæ of rendering themselves at the best good-humored Pyrrha’s, hair. He was quite a conservative, enemies to each other, and entailing frightful the virtuous cobbler is the supreme of men. Was

aud could laugh at a Stoic, with his notion that misexpenditure of means, sinply because no le a poet intrinsically? It would appear that one can entirely trust his fellows. If men he did not write his Carmina from an impulse were disposed each to do his utmost for the of nature ; they derive from the Greek. Not to commonwealth, not caring for special benefits speak disrespectfully, Horace was a miraculous to himself, it might quite well be that the Italian image-boy. Profundity of sentiment is enjoyments of all would be increased, and the true test of a poet. Horace was on rather earth rendered only a lower heaven. But how good terms with the society he satirizes, but was to bring them to this disposition - and how perfectly free from cant. He would with the to keep them at it!

utmost complacency have dined with the Nasi. As all the losses, inconveniences, drawbacks, denus whom he ridicules. For all this, he may shortcomings of expected good, and miserable be conjectured to have been a homely little man fuilures and disappointments experienced in in the main. . Juvenal lived in a monstrous life from these causes, are capable of being with a tropical glare and miasma, worthy of

period ; a period that looms through history viewed in a positive aspect, it does not seem at all unreasonable to speak of them as form- qualities in its satirist much higher than wit.

Farnestness and heartiness of scorn belong to ing an Iniquity Tax. There is, it may be Juvenal; he was a brawny fighting-man, the sitíd, an Excise from the happiness of us all, champion of old Ronie. Horace was scarcely through the operation of our moral deficiencies ever angry ; le saw the ludicrous side of things, and misduings, although it is not possible to and made society his standard ; Juvenal is alstate in any one instance its exact amount. ways looking for something or somebody to lash; It is very hard that the faithful here suffer for as he says of himself, he laughs and hätes. He the unfaithful, the wise for the foolish, the is more pictorial ; has flashes of fancy, gleams sober for the profligate ; but that is only of poetic pathos, wit, manliness, and energy. accordant with the great law of society

The qualities of Swift, Hogarth, and Gray, would that we are all more or less compromised for go towards making a Juvenal ; those of Addison, each other. The Iniquity Tax may be viewed Chesterfield, Wortley Montague, Campbell, and

Washington Irving, towards a Horace.

The very much as we view what are called War Taxes. As these are strong reasons for main- moderation ; the first a fiery reformer, whose

second was a man of the world, philosophy, and taining peace, so is the Iniquity Tax a power- words are the genuine utterance of emotion. ful motive for our doing whatever is in our Horace's “ nil admirari” doctrine implied that power to improve the national integrity and he could look at the stars with no vulgar dread, advance truthfulness in all things. An im- at common life with no contempt; and was as proved civilization is an improved economy, lofty a principle, perhaps, as a man of the world with increased blessings for us all.

can get out of nature. The tone of our existing society is more Horatian than consonant with that of our own Elizabethan ancestors. Juvenal

had a deeper laugh than Horace something of MR. HANNAY ON SATIRIC LITERATURE. Sa- a prophetic wail, more touching than any tirical literature, from the time of the Romans to polite smile ; he possessed a moral superiority. our own days, is the theme on which Mr. Hannay When the time for a base system to fall has come, addresses his audience at the Institution in Ed- the handwriting of both these men is on the wards street, Portman Square ; the course of wall. Spectator, 18 June.

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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE. — No. 484.- 27 AUGUST, 1853.

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CONTENTS. 1. Captain John Smith,

Chambers' Repository, 515 2. Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena,

Examiner, ·

532 3. An Evening with Jasmin,

Chambers' Journal, 537 4. The Aztec People,


540 5. Progress of the Electric Telegraph,

Chambers' Journal, 542 6. The Power-Loom,

Household Words, 544 7. Taylor's Life of Haydon, .


550 8. Nesselrode's Last,


556 9. Russia and Turkey — England's Interest in their Dispute, Examiner and Spectator, 558 10. Bayle St. John's Turks in Europe,

Spectator and Examiner, 571 POETRY: The Infant Kiss — To the Author of “ The Plaint of Freedom,” 513. Short ARTICLES : The Etymology of Stonehenge, 513; Literary Piracy, 514 ; The Naturalist Squallanzani, 532; Cowper, 536; Meaning of Worth, 541 ; Adjustment of our System

– President Taylor, 549. New Books : Infidelity: its Cause and Cure, 576.

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From Eliza Cook's Journal. In looser tendrils than stern Husbandry

May well approve, on thee shall none descend ? THE INFANT KISS.

At Milton's hallowed name thy hymn august “Sweet is thy infant kiss, my child!" Sounds as the largest bell from minster-tower I said ; my little darling smiled :

Above the tinkling of Comasco boy. Sweet ! sweet !” I said, and kissed again I ponder ; and in time may dare to praise ; His cherub cheek : it gave me pain.

Milton had done it ; Milton would have graspt

Thy hand amid his darkness, and with more Was it the small soft lip I pressed,

Impatient pertinacity because Wet with the milk-drop from my breast ?

He heard the voice and could not see the face. Or was it thy young brenth, my boy,

July 14.

WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR. That checked the rising tide of joy? It could not be thy sinless smile, So free from care, so free from guile ;

Froin the Gentleman's Magazine. Ah, no! I only see it there ; It stands so beautifully fair,

THE ETYMOLOGY OF STONEHENGE. Mocking the fleeting joys we share.

At a meeting of the Philological Society held It is thy brother's shade! and he

on the 25th of February the following remarks Too, budded on the self-same tree;

were read on the Etymology of the word StoneAnd, opening sweetly into bloom,

henge, communicated by Edwin Guest, Esq., the Became a flower to deck the tomb.

master of Caius College, Cambridge. He was my joy, as thou art now ;

Mr. Herbert, the author of "Cyclops ChrisAnd I have kissed his fair, bright brow, tianus,”: adopts a legend which makes StoneHis cheek, his lip, and felt no pain ;- henge the scene where the Welsh nobles fell So shall I never do again !

beneath the daggers of Hengist's followers. And he was dear, as thou art dear ;

He thinks this is corroborated by the name of My love for him was void of fear.

the locality — which, in the more ancient And he was mine, now mine no more ;

authorities is often called Slonchenges, and And thou art on that slipp'ry shore,

in one place Simon of Abingdon (a monkWhence I have seen him glide before.

ish writer of the filteenth century) writes it Slunehengest.

The word Stonehenge,

or Stonehenges, or Stonehengest, therefore TO THE AUTHOR OF THE PLAINT OF

means, according to Mr. Herbert, the Stone FREEDOM."

of Hengist. He maintains, and truly, that LAUDER of Milton! worthy of his laud !

it is a law of our language that, in compound How shall I name thee? art thou yet unnamed words of which ono element bears to the other While verses flourish hanging overhead

the same relation as an adjective to its subCCCCLXXXIV. LIVING AGE. VOL. II,


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stantive, then the adjectival or qualifying Or to behold a stonage, taste a spaw, element takes the first place; he would,

Or with some subtle artist to conferre. therefore, have us believe that Stonehenge

G. Tooke's Belides,p. 11. cannot mean the hanging stone, the pierres pendues of Wace. Further, he says that the

Hence we may understand how oar older rule above stated admits of one exception, and authorities generally write the name Stonethis is, that when the qualifying element is a henges. Each of the trilithons was, strictly proper name it may take the last, place, as

speaking, a stonage; and the entire monuPort-Patrick, Fort-William, &c. But here ment might either be called the Slonages, we must remind Mr. Herbert that such com- or, if the word were used in its collective pound' terms as Port-Patrick, &c., are in- be a clerical blunder for Stonehenges. Be

sense, the Stonage. Stonehengest can only stances of a Norman idiom which affected our sides the word hang-e, there seems to have language only froin the fourteenth century, been another word which did not take the while Stonehenge is clearly an English compound. Its eleinents are Ènglish ; it may be final vowel

, and from which the Germans traced to the twelfth century; we cannot, got their vor-hang, a curtain, and we the therefore, give to Stonehenge the meaning.

word Ston-heng in Robert of Gloucester. Mr. Herbert assigns to it.

(154.) Some reviewer in the “ Quarterly” of last Arst was the kyng y heryed, er he myghte come September " conceives that henge is a mere thero termination of the genitive or adjectival kind, Withinne the place of the Stonheng, that he letto such as Mr. Kemble has given a list of in one of his papers for the Philological Society,' the absurdity of which “conception” is too This word hang is used in Norfolk for, first, glaring to need exposure.

a crop of fruit, i. e., that which is pendant The true etymology is the one which tradi- from the boughs; secondly, a declivity — see tion has handed down to us. In many of the Forby: It enters into the west of England, Gothic languages words are found closely re-stake-hang; the east (Sussex), herring-hang sembling, henge, and signifying something

- the place in which herrings are hung on suspended, as a shelf, a curtain, an ear-ring, sticks to dry. Hardyng calls the trilithons &c., as brol-hänge, G. shelves to hang bread at Stonehenge, or, perhaps we might inore on; quirke hänge, a frame to dry curds and correctly say their imposts, Stonehengles, in cheese upon; thal-hünge, the steep side of a which hengle or hengel is nothing but a derivvalley ; òr-hùnge, Sw., an ear-ring. In the ative of hang; and, like its primitive, means south or west of England you may hear in something that is suspended. In some parts apy butcher's shop of the head and hinge” of the north of England the iron bar over the of certain animals — the head with some por- fire on which the caldron is hung is, with its tions of the animal thence dependent." In appartenances, called the Hangles. Another the Glossary of the “ Exmoor Ścolding” we word, scallenge, may be noticed. It is used find Hange or hanje, the purtenance of any

in the west of England for the lych-gate, creature, joined by the gullet to the bead, often found at the entrance of our churchand hanging together, viz., the lights, heart, yards. The Dutch call a slate, schalie; in and liver." These are only other applica- our old English dialect we find it called tious of the word which appears in the final skalye; a construction which supported a roof element of Stonehenge, where henge signifies formed of slates may have been called a scallthe impost, which is suspended on the two henge. uprights. And in this signification it is used in our literature. Stukeley tells us he has been informed that in a certain locality in LITERARY piracy is extending from American Yorkshire certain natural rocks were called publishers to American authors, as Messrs. Stonehenge. Again, “ Herein they imitated, Ingram and Cooke have learned to their cost. or rather emulated, the Israelites, who being how to get, how to keep, and how to use it,

Reprinting an American work entitled “ Money ; delivered from the Egyptians, and having they found themselves pounced upon by the trampled the Red Sea and Jordan (opposing English publisher of Mr. Henry Taylor's works, them) under their feet, did, by God's com- from which the American writer (?) of the book mand, erect a stonage of twelve stones,” &c. had filched a quantity of matter, and quietly (Gibbons. A fool's bolt soon shot at Stone-incorporated it with his own lucubrations. henge.) Nares gives — —“Would not every- English publishers must be careful how they rebody say to him, we know the stonage at print American books, or they may be becoming Gilgal." — (Leslie.)

receivers of stolen goods. Messrs. Ingram and

Cooke have had to cancel the leaves containing

As who with skill the matter stolen from Mr. Taylor, and to And knowingly his journey manage will, make public acknowledgment of the whole Doth often from the beaten road withdraw, transaction. - Critic.

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From Chambers' Repository. alludes in a copy of verses addressed to the CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH, FOUNDER OF THE great adventurer : COLONY OF VIRGINIA.

Two grentest shires of England did thee bear To see bright honor sparkled all in gore,

Renowned Yorkshire, Gaunt styled Lancashiro. Would steel a spirit that ne'er fought before ;

His parents died when he was about thirAnd that's the height of Fame, when our best blood Is nobly spilt in actions great and good :

teen years of age, leaving him in comparaSo thou hast taught the world to purchase Fame, tively affluent circumstances, but under the Rearing thy story on a glorious frame; And such foundation doth thy merits make it,

care of guardians, who would appear to have As all detraction's rage shall never shake it.

neglected his education, made away with his BRIAN O'ROORKE.

property, and inspired him with disgust for One of tho most agreeable duties of litera- the tranquillity of a domestic life. I'he love ture is that of doing justice to neglected of roaming, however, and a thirst for the merit. We seem, when thus engaged, to be excitement of war, seemed to have pervaded initating one of the functions of Providence. the whole British population. Swarms of History, however, is often unjust ; because, restless spirits constantly quitted their homes while taking care of the reputation of a few in search of fortune or glory, and too frefarorite characters, and blazoning forth the quently found obscure graves in distant lands. pomp and pageantry of the world, it refuses Recent discoveries appeared to have enlarged to bestow adequate notice on men who de- the limits of the universe -golden visions served perhaps to act a prominent part on the of power and fortune dazzled the imagination stage of public business, but were condemned of the whole civilized world - men thought by circumstances to consume their energies in of nothing but the planting of colonies and an obscure course of action, and among indi- the founding of empires --everything seemed viduals altogether incapable of appreciating possible to a strong hand and a sharp sword their great qualities.

- and it was not until age and experience The career and fate of John Smith very bad taught their saddening lessons, that the strikingly illustrate the truth of this observa- intrepid visionaries relinquished their hopes, tion. Few men in any age or country were and returned, perhaps to end their days in ever engaged in more surprising adventures, dreary obscurity by their paternal firesides. or exhibited greater fertility of resources, or Defoe had, in all likelihood, carefully studbore up against evil fortune with a braver ied the history of John Smith before he spirit. Truth in his story is so extraordinary planned his romance of Robinson Crusoe. and startling, that the boldest fiction would At all events, the descendant of the Smiths scarcely dare to imitate it. What happened and the Rickards bore a strong resemblance to him would suffice to impart interest to the to that renowned personage, and at a very lives of a hundred romantic adventurers. early age foriped the design of running away Fortune seemed to lavish all her choicest from home, and going, as the phrase is, to caprices in her dealings with him. By land sea. In order to check this disposition, he and sea, in war and peace, in freedom and was, at the age of fifteen, apprenticed to a captivity, in the decaying civilization of the merchant of Lynn; but not finding a tall Old World, in the fresh and fierce savagery stool and a desk at all suited to his taste, of the New, in the depths of poverty, in the John took French leave of his master, and elevation of honor and power - he gave proof accompanied Mr. Peregrine Berty to the conof being equal to all conditions. He was an tinent. His youth, probably, stood someEnglishman in the finest sense of the word. what in his way on this occasion. His paNothing could subdue his intrepid courage ; trons soon found out, it seems, that they could nothing could corrupt his principles. In make no use of him, and, therefore, in the erery situation, he seems to have had the course of a month or six weeks, dismissed glory of his country at heart; and contrived him, very much chop-fallen; but the indeat length, through many dangers and diffi- fatigable John was not to be discouraged. culties, to connect his name with the history He had evidently made his guardians uncomof the United States a history which, in fortable ; and in order to rid themselves of proportion as it is studied and understood, what, no doubt, they considered a nuisance, will be found, in some of its earliest pages, to they had given him at parting, out of his derive lustre from this humble plebeian name. own estato, the inagnificent sum of ten shil

John Smith was born at Willoughby, in lings, with which he resolved to carve his Lincolnshire, in the year 1579. He is care- fortunes in the world. He repaired, accord. ful, in his autobiography, to inform us, that ingly, to the Low Countries, where, during his father was descended from the ancient the space of four years, he hacked and bewed, Smiths of Crudley, in Lancashire, and his and performed numerous deeds of gallantry, mother from the Rickards of Great' Heck, in which history has perversely passed over in Yorkshire. To this circumstance, Bob Brath- silenco wait, one of the minor poets of those times,! Before entering upon this service, Smith


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had met in Paris one David Hume — an an- and amused bimself with lance and ring. cestor, probably, of the historian — who gave His strange manner of life soon rendered him him letters to his friends in Scotland, with an object of great interest to the whole neigha design of recommending the young adven-borhood. The portly squires and fair dames turer to King James. During his first war- spoke, by their firesides, of the wild soldier like fit, this epistolary wealth lay neglected; who had come thither, surrounded by an at, but growing weary of hard knocks, with lit- mosphere of romance, from beyond sen ; and tle corresponding profit, our hero took his through their intervention a companion was leave of the Low Countries, and proceeded to found for him, from whom he probably deScotland. Here he met with much hospi- rived much advantage. This was Teodoro tality, indeed, but found the way to court Polaloga, a noble Italian gentleman, and exclosed against him. He returned, therefore, cellent horseinan rider, as he was called, to Willoughby, in Lincolnshire, where he the Earl of Lincoln. With this foreigner, gave the neighborhood a taste of his humor, Smith was pleased to converse ; and in order not at all calculated to augment his reputation to enjoy his society, he abandoned his pafor prudence. England, to be sure, was in vilion of boughs, and went to reside at Tatthose days a half-savage country, abounding tersall. with woods, morasses, and fells, so that But so peaceful a course of life soon ceased things now impossible were then of daily oc- to have any charms. He longed to be enJoh

heme life gaged in some great theatre of war, in which which, at the present day perhaps, would be he could display his knowledge and valor ; thought Quisotic even on the banks of the and, as the Turks were at that time ravaging Ohio or Missouri.

Hungary, be formed the design of joining the On first arriving at his native place, the Christian army, and rising to distinction by good folks made a lion of him, and glutted exbibiting his prowess against the infidels. him with too much company, in which, he In the prosecution of this plan, however, he says, he took sınall delight. He therefore soon showed how little he had profited by the yielded to his solitary instincts, and, instead study of Machiavelli. He might, indeed, of taking lodgings at a milliner's in a first have learned how to draw out a squadron in floor at Willoughby, he retired to a little the field ; but in the far more difficult art of woody pasture, a good way from any town, divining the characters of men, and defendivg environed with many hundred acres of forest. self from their villany, he was still a liere, by a fair brook, he built a pavilion of child. On board a ship bound for France, boughs, where, to avoid all dealings with he fell in with four adventurers, who, seeing upholsterers, be slept in his clothes. His him elegantly attired, immediately formed a grand object at this time was to make pro- scheme for enriching themselves by his plun. gress in two studies war and morals; der. One, therefore, pretended to be a nothings extremely little inclined to go together. bleman of high distinction, while the other He therefore pored incessantly over Machia- three agreed to act the part of his attendants. relli and Marcus Aurelius ; and thus proba- They undertook to introduce Sınith to a bly laid the foundation of that brilliant suc- French duchess, whose husband was at the cess in the field, and that stoical integrity in time commander for the emperor in Hungary. all situations, for which John Smith deserves Our unsuspecting countryman fell easily into to be remembered forever. At tho game the spare ; while his mind was filled with time, it must not be concealed that bis no- gorgeous visions of military success, to be tion of ethics belonged rather to the savage achieved through the patronage of the French than to the civilized state. He looked upon duke aforesaid, the vessel which bore this the earth as a large domain, bestowed indif- new Cæsar and his fortunes arrived through ferently upon all Adam's children, who might, dark and blustering weather in the roads of without blame, make use froely of what they St. Valery-sur-Somme. Here the pretended found in their way. In other words, John nobleman undertook, with his attendants, indulged a little in poaching - not person- and the captain of the vessel, who was in ally, but by proxy ; for he had a man with league with him, to convey ashore Sinith's him, who, while he was deep in Marcus baggage, with which, as might have been Aurelius' ethics, or Machiavelli's art of war, foreseen, they instantly decamped. On strolled with bag and fowling-piece about the board were several soldiers, who, to their country, brought home venison, and made credit, resented the injury which had been him savory meats, such as John delighted in. done the Englishman; and one of them, a

We should do him great injustice, how- gallant and generous fellow, offered to conever, if we imagined that, in this retirement, duct him, at his own expense, to Montague, he was satisfied with books and venison. He in Normandy, where the relatives of the robhad along with him a ine horse, and when bers resided. tired of turning over the pages of the Floren- In all this part of France, Smith was retine secretary, he mounted this fiery animal, ceived with great hospitality, and might

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