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alty, by the rare constancy of his opinions, by his courage and military skill, and by all those chivalrous qualities which our modern civilization daily effaces and has not yet replaced.

for Barillon wrote to Louis XIV. that he had in exile, and, rudely driving before him the received all manner of civility and good treat-eight Irish and French squadrons placed to ment wherever he passed. defend the passage, routed them and formed During the early period of Schomberg's in order of battle. William, witnessing this emigration, passed at Berlin, the Elector had brilliant action, took his army across the river, done everything in his power to attach him to and the combat became general. Allons, his service. He had named him governor- mes amis,' cried Schomberg, addressing the general of Prussia, minister of state, member refugees, bear in mind your courage and of the privy council in which the princes of your resentment; yonder are your persecutors!' the blood sat, and generalissmo of the Branden- Animated by these words, they impetuously burg troops. Schomberg preferred the great charged and broke the French regiments under interests of Protestantism to these honors and the command of the Duke of Lauzun. But, advantages, and accompanied William of in the heat of pursuit, Schomberg, fighting at Orange to England, to find a glorious death the head of his men, was suddenly surrounded by the waters of Boyne. In Ireland, he by Tyrconnel's guards, and received two proved at once his devotion to the cause he subre-cuts and a carbine wound. The venerhad embraced and his own disinterestedness. able hero fell, mortally struck, but, with his When the army was in arrear, and no money dying eyes, he looked upon the flight of James forthcoming, "Je n'oserais me vanter de rien,' II.'s soldiers. He was eighty-two years of he wrote to the king; but if I had in my age when he thus fell in the flush of victory. hands the hundred thousand pounds sterling Few men have attained, during their lives, to your majesty has done me the grace to bestow greater honors and more flattering distincupon me, I would deliver them, by the person tions. He was Marshal of France; Duke and you might appoint, for the payment of your Grandee in Portugal; Governor-General of army.' This sum, which Parliament had Prussia and generalissimo of its armies; in voted to him, but which he delicately attrib-England a duke and peer, and knight of the uted to royal munificence, was actually em- garter. He everywhere justified the confidence ployed to pay the troops, and he contented he inspired by the most irreproachable loyhimself with a pension. What wonder that French refugees flocked from all parts of Europe to fight under his glorious banner?" In Ireland, the marshal found himself in much the same position in which Wellington was placed in the Peninsula compelled to manœuvre, with inferior forces, in front of a formidable enemy, double his own strength; to avoid a battle, which would have been certain destruction, and patiently to prepare the way for future triumph. a mark, the while, for the attacks of fireside civilians in England. William's courtiers accused him of weakness and indecision. He energetically defended himself. 66 I confess," he wrote to William, "that, but for my profound submission to your majesty's orders, I should prefer the honor of being tolerated near your person, to the command of an army in Ireland such as that I had under my orders in the last campaign. Had I risked a battle, I should perhaps have lost all you possess in this kingdom, to say nothing of the consequences in Scotland, and even in England." The numerous refugees in his army seconded him with the greatest vigor. On the banks of the the siege of Badajoz, he lost his right arm, Boyne, at sight of the foe, their ardor was which a cannon-ball carried off as he raised unrestrainable. The following sketch of their it to show General Fagel the spot he intended exploits in that celebrated fight is as spirited to attack. On the 26th June, 1706, ho and stirring as if the writer had himself worn basnet and brandished sabre before he donned the professor's gown and ascended the rostrum at the Lycée Bonaparte.

"Count Ménard de Schomberg, son of the Marshal, passed the Boyne, accompanied by his father and by the élite of his companions

"In this same battle La Caillemotte Ruvigny, younger brother of the Marquis of Ruvigny, was mortally wounded. To glory, my children, to glory!' he shouted to his countrymen, as he was carried, covered with blood, past the French Protestant regiments, then marching against the enemy."

The Marquis de Ruvigny rendered brilliant services, both as a military man and a diplomatist, and William conferred upon him the rank of lieutenant-general and the title of Earl of Galloway. Whilst his brother found a glorious death at the Boyne, he fought and triumphed at Aghrim. "At the battle of Nerwinde, he and his regiment kept at bay, almost unsupported, the entire force of the French cavalry. He was made prisoner for a month, but the French officers let him go their chiefs affecting not to perceive it, and he continued to cover the retreat of the English, fighting like a hero. In 1705, at

entered Madrid at the head of the English and Portuguese troops, and proclaimed Charles III., whilst Philip V. fled before his victorious army. Medals struck at Madrid called the Austrian pretender Catholic King by favor of the heretics." St. Simon reproaches Ruvigny with fighting against his country,

and Louis XIV., after repeatedly notifying his displeasure, which the marquis utterly disregarded, confiscated his property.

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minister, was indignant at his obstinacy. How could he refuse the honor of being the proselyte of so great a sovereign? Let him In his first book, entitled "The Protestants but adjure, and there was a pension for his in France," Mr. Weiss records, to the honor father, the rank of major-general for himself. of his nation and of humanity, the disinter- Do you suppose," added the minister, ested and noble conduct of the French" that the king's religion can be false? Would Catholics, who, after aiding the escape of God bless him as he does?" their persecuted countrymen, became depositaries of their fortune, and faithfully transmitted it to them in their exile. In London, in Amsterdam, in Berlin, many refugees, when telling the tale of their disasters, spoke with deep emotion of those of their fellowcitizens whose probity and charity had thus been proof against the prevalent fanaticism. From such probity there were occasional painful and glaring deviations. "Old Ruvigny" (the father of the two we have spoken of), says St. Simon, in a passage cited by Mr. Weiss, 66 was a friend of Harlay, then attorneygeneral and afterwards first president, and, confident in his fidelity, he left a deposit in his hands. Harlay kept it as long as he could not abuse the trust; but when he saw the éclat" (the confiscation of young de Ruvigny's property), "he found himself modestly embarrassed between his friend's son and his master, to whom he humbly revealed his trouble; he pretended that the king already knew of it, and that it was Barbezieux who had found it out and told his majesty. I will not investigate this secret, but the fact is that he told it himself, and that, as a recompense, the king gave him the deposit as confiscated property; and that this hypocrite of justice, and virtue, and disinterestedness, did not blush to take it, and to shut his eyes and ears to the noise his perfidy made."

Mr. Weiss' book teems with facts that are little known, with characteristic details, and with anecdotes that cannot fail to interest and attract all classes of readers. Before laying aside the chapter relating to England, to take such brief glances as we can permit ourselves at the fate of the refugees in other countries, we may say a few words of a remarkable man, the peasant leader of a Protestant insurrection, which some of the best generals in France were long unable to quell. We speak of Jean Cavalier, the hero of the Cevennes. When Marshal Villars, summoned from Flanders for the purpose, at last brought him to terms, the guerilla chief went to Paris, where the eagerness of the mob to behold him impeded his horse's progress through the streets and scandalized St. Simon. Admitted to the king's presence, the peasant's son dared to justify the insurrection, alleging the cruelties of Montrevel, and claiming the performance of Marshal Villars' promises. The king himself condescended to exhort him to conversion, but in vain. Chamillard, the

66 Monseigneur," replied Cavalier, "Mahometanism has possessed a great part of the earth. I do not judge the designs of God." -"I see that you are an obstinate Huguenot!" said the minister, and dismissed him. He was sent to the fortress of Brissach, in Alsatia. Fearing that it was intended to confine him there, he resolved to quit France, and, on arriving in a wooded country, about three leagues from the frontiers, he escaped with a number of companions, and reached Switzerland, where he was joined by his principal lieutenants, and by a great many of his former followers. He stopped at Lausanne, and busied himself with the organization of a regiment of volunteers, with which he intended to enter the service of the Duke of Savoy, to penetrate into Languedoc, and cover the landing of a body of troops from a Dutch fleet. The French ambassador to the Swiss Diet remonstrated, and gave in a diplomatic note- very different in style from the former imperious mandates of the French king to foreign powers. Marlborough's victories had singularly abated the prestige of the Fourteenth Louis. The Diet, without deciding anything, handed the note to the council of Berne, which pretended to expel the chiefs of the refugees, most of whom, however, remained hidden in the Canton of Vaud. Cavalier and his best officers went to Holland, and took service in the Anglo-Dutch army. He received the rank of colonel, and his former soldiers, the famous Camisards, flocked to form his regiment. An unforeseen difficulty then arose. The Anglo-Dutch commissioners required that all the companies should be commanded by gentlemen, whilst Cavalier insisted on selecting his own officers. The commissioners were fain to come to terms with the shepherd of the Gardon, who at last consented that one-half of the officers should be men of noble birth. Thus the captain and lieutenant of each company were taken alternately from amongst the gentlemen and the Camisards. Upon his staff Cavalier admitted none but his mountain warriors, of whose obedience and enthusiasm he was sure, and who had already won him so many triumphs.

"After serving for some time in Italy, Cavalier was sent to Spain. At the memorable_battle of Almanza-where Berwick, born English, and become French by a revolution, was opposed to the Marquis of Ruvigny, born a Frenchman, and converted into an

Englishman by persecution - Cavalier's regi- | whose qualities were those of a sailor rather


ment, composed entirely of Protestant ref- than of a soldier. Instead of reconstructing ugees, found itself opposed to a Catholic regi- the fort built by his predecessor, and which ment, which had perhaps shared in the piti- could not but have revived painful associaless war of the Cevennes. As soon as the tions in the breasts of the new colonists. he two French corps recognized each other, they built another near the mouth of the river St. charged with the bayonet, disdaining to fire, John, and called it Fort Caroline. But, in and slew each other with such fury, that, the following year, the Spaniards seized this according to Berwick's testimony, not more Protestant colony, which gave them umbrage; than three hundred men survived. Cava-and their chief, Pedro Melendez, having lier's regiment was but seven hundred strong; made prisoners of most of the French, hung and if, as is probable, the Catholic regiment them to trees, with this inscription: Hung was complete, its almost total destruction as heretics, and not as Frenchmen.' This was a bloody glorification of Cévenol valor. tragical event, which was the first act of hosMarshal Berwick, who had witnessed so many tility between two European nations in the fierce encounters, never spoke of this tragical New World, excited the liveliest indignation event without visible emotion. in France. Dominic de Gourgues, a gentle"Notwithstanding the loss of the battle of man of Mont-de-Marsan, was so incensed at it Almanza, Cavalier received promotion in the that he vowed signal vengeance. He had English army. He reached the rank of once been taken prisoner by the Spaniards, general, was subsequently appointed governor when fighting against them in Italy, and had of the island of Jersey, and died at Chelsea been condemned to the galleys, as a punishin 1740. The valley of Dublin still contains ment for the obstinate valor with which he a cometery formerly devoted to the refugees. had refused to surrender. He was on his It was there that were interred his remains, way to Spain, when the vessel that bore him which, by a strange fatality, repose near one was captured by an Algerine corsair. But a of those military colonies founded by ship, manned by knights of Malta, bore down William III. upon the soil of Catholic upon the pirate, and the captives, who were Ireland." about to be reduced to slavery, were restored About the middle of the sixteenth century, to liberty. Since that day, the outraged gentleAdmiral Coligny, in presence of the disfavor man had turned sea-rover, and had largely shown to the Huguenots, and with a pre- compensated himself, at the cost of the sentiment, perhaps, of coming catastrophes, Spaniards, for his losses and injuries. On conceived the bold idea of forming a vast his return to his native country, he learned Protestant colony in America, which would the crime perpetrated by Melendez. serve as a refuge for the persecuted members instantly sold his patrimony, and, assisted of the reformed church. In 1555, a knight by two of his friends, he equipped three of Malta, Durand de Villegagnon, sailed from vessels in the port of Bordeaux, enlisted two Havre, by Coligny's directions, in command hundred men, and sailed for America in of two vessels full of emigrants. They 1567. Upon his arrival at his destination, he reached the coast of Brazil, ascended to the won, by costly presents, the good-will of the Rio Janeiro and built a fort. But disunion Indians, and prevailed on them to join him grew up amongst them; they had gone out against the Spaniards, whom he attacked by insufficiently provided; they dispersed; some surprise, making a great slaughter of them. perished, others returned to France. A Then, using cruel reprisals, he hung his second attempt, also under Coligny's auspices; prisoners, affixing to them the inscription: to found a Protestant colony-this time in Hung as assassins, and not as Spaniards.' Florida had no better result. A fort was This revenge taken, he returned to France, built, called Fort Charles, in honor of the where a price had just been set upon his head King of France, and garrisoned by a Captain by his Catholic Majesty, with the courteous Albert and twenty-five soldiers. It was the permission of the most Christian king; and first citadel in North America over which the the noble gentleman, who had sacrificed his flag of a civilized nation had floated, and it fortune and exposed his life to revenge the was the scene of a mutiny, provoked by insult offered to his country, was long comCaptain Albert's despotism. That officer pelled to concealment to avoid the scaffold." was killed, and the colony was broken up and Although the French Protestants failed in abandoned. establishing a refuge in America, they largely "These two checks did not discourage Co-availed themselves, a century later, of that ligny. Taking advantage of the reestablish- presented to them by the twelve flourishing ment of peace in France, and of a temporary colonies which the English had then founded return of royal favor, he again solicited in the New World. Some years before the Charles IX., and obtained from him three revocation of the Edict of Nantes, numerous ships, whose command he gave to René Lau-fugitives, chiefly from the western provinces donnière, a man of rare intelligence, but of France, sought an asylum in English

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America. In 1662, some La Rochelle ship-| begged him to transmit to the court of Verowners were fined for affording passage to sailles. It was a memorial signed by four emigrants, and conveying them to a country hundred families who had fled to Carolina belonging to Great Britain. "One of them, after the revocation. They begged permisnamed Brunet, was condemned to produce, sion to settle in Louisiana, stipulating only within one year, either thirty-six young men, for liberty of conscience. Count Pontcharwhose escape he was accused of favoring, or train replied, that the king had not driven a valid certificate of their death, under penalty them from his European dominions that they of one thousand livres' fine, and of exemplary should form a republic in his American punishment." The amounts of these fines colonies. This refusal destroyed their last were characteristically applied to the support hopes of preserving their nationality. Mr. of Catholic churches and convents. The Weiss thinks their request, although refused, refugees, whose escape was the cause of their must have deeply touched the heart of Louis being levied, settled in Massachusetts. Soon XIV. - an amiable surmise, in which we, who various states received similar accessions to believe that during the latter part of that their population. "At sixteen miles from king's life he had little heart, or sympathy for New York, on East river, some refugees anything but self, find it difficult to coincide. founded an entirely French town, which they called New La Rochelle. Too poor, at first, to build a church, they used to set out, on Saturday evening-after passing the whole week in the rudest toil-for New York, which they reached, on foot, in the course of the night. The next day they went twice to church, started again in the evening, walked a part of the night, and reached their humble dwellings in time to go to work on Monday morning. Ilappy and proud that they had conquered their religious liberty, their letters to France informed their persecuted brethren of the favor God had shown them, and urged them to go out and join them." South Carolina was the favorite province of the French emigrants, especially of the Languedocians, whom the warm climate well suited. After the revocation, very large numbers of refugees settled there, and the province received the name of the Huguenot's Home. The sufferings of many of these poor people, before they got settled, were terrible. Mr. Weiss quotes, from Bancroft, the touching narrative of Judith Manigault, whose family, after quitting their dwelling in the night-time, leaving the soldiers in bed, and abandoning all their house contained, succeeded, after remaining some time concealed in France, and after a long circuit through Germany, Holland and England, in reaching Carolina. Deeply sensible though the emigrants were of the blessings of that freedom of conscience for which they had sacrificed everything, many of them long regretted their native land. From Gayarre's History of Louisiana, Mr. Weiss supplies an affecting instance of the intensity of this patriotic feeling. The governor of Louisiana, Bienville, ascending the Mississippi, met an English ship of war taking soundings. The peace of Ryswick had just been concluded, and England and France vied with each other in their efforts to explore and colonize those distant regions. Bienville went to visit the English captain, and whilst on board, a French engineer employed in the vessel handed him a document, which he CCCCLXXXIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. II. 30

Holland, which, in the time of Queen Mary, received upwards of thirty thousand English Protestants, fugitives from her persecutions, was not slow to show hospitality to the Huguenots of France. Mr. Weiss' fifth and longest book is allotted to the refugees in the Netherlands. The emigration thither commenced, to a considerable extent, when Louis XIV. promulgated his first edicts against his subjects of the reformed church. 1668, more than eight hundred French families passed into Holland. When Louvois began his dragonnades in 1681, the stream augmented tenfold, and the emigration became an important political event. Some of the fugitives brought large sums of money, or received them subsequently from agents in France to whom they had intrusted the sale of their property. In this manner, a Paris wine-merchant, named Mariet, saved a fortune of six hundred thousand livres, and retired into Holland with a false passport, which afterwards served for fifteen of his friends! In 1687 and 1688, a great number of rich merchants emigrated. As early as 1685, the French ambassador at the Hague informed the king that twenty millions of livres had already been taken out of France. And, subsequently, many wealthy Protestants left Normandy, Bretagne, and other provinces, in ships of their own, on board of which were sometimes as much as three or four millions in specic. The ambassador, Count d'Avaux, was frightened, and made representations to his sovereign, who heeded them not.

In the foremost rank of the emigrants to Holland there figure about two hundred and fifty preachers, learned and zealous men, amongst whom were some of high distinction for talent and eloquence, and for the influence they exercised on their brethren, and on the affairs of the reformed church. Mr. Weiss gives a list of the most important, from which we may content ourselves with quoting the names of Ménard, appointed preacher at the court of William III.; of Claude, already mentioned, who was deemed a worthy adver

waters, or hewn down by the swords of our soldiers, or trampled by the feet of our horses, or loaded with our chains. Here are whole provinces submitted to our obedience. Here our generous warriors covered with the most beauteous laurels that ever met our view. Here is this fatal power which had risen to the sky-behold, it totters, it falls! My brethren, let these events teach us wisdom. Let us not estimate by our ideas the conduct of God, but learn to respect the profoundness of His providence."

"One cannot read," remarks Mr. Weiss, "without a feeling of bitter sadness, this eloquent invective of a Frenchman alienated from his native land, and rejoicing in its reverses. The sadness, doubtless, for the hard lot of the persecuted Protestants; the bitterness and indignation for the tyranny that had extinguished in their breasts the last spark of patriotism.

sary for Bossuet; of Jurieu, ardent, fiery, and onergetic; and of Jacques Saurin. This last, the most brilliant orator of the Refuge,* was of a generation subsequent to the others, and belonged to the second period of the emigration. Born at Nismes, in 1677, he followed his father to Geneva, and quitted his studies, at the age of fifteen, to enter a regiment raised by the Marquis de Ruvigny, for the service of the Duke of Savoy. When that prince detached himself from the coalition against Louis XIV., Saurin returned to Geneva, completed his studies, and had scarcely taken orders when he was named minister of the French Protestant church in London. He took Tillotson for his model, and, by so doing, perfected the admirable talents nature had bestowed upon him. In 1705, he went to the Hague, where he preached with immense success at the church of the French nobles, to which he had been appointed. The Dutch, as well as the French, We draw to a close. In the short conflocked to hear him. Mr. Weiss quotes pas- cluding chapter, already referred to and quoted sages from some of his discourses-master-from, Mr. Weiss takes a general view of the pieces of fervid eloquence. We will translate influence exercised by the refugees in foreign a short extract from one -a magnificent and countries, and of the consequences to France exulting invective levelled at Louis XIV., of the edict of revocation amongst which then humbled and bowed down by the dis- he especially dwells upon the weakening of asters of Blenheim and Ramillies. The style the kingdom and the progress of scepticism. is Latin rather than French, and its vividness Bayle, addressing himself, in 1685, to the and power lose nothing by that. persecuting party, told them that their tri"I see him at first," said Saurin, "equal-umphs were those of deism rather than of ling-what do I say?-surpassing the superb- the true faith, and that the cruelties and vioest potentates, arrived at a point of elevation lence committed during six or seven hundred which astonishes the universal world, numer-years, in the name of the Catholic church, ous in his family, victorious in his armies, had led men to infidelity. "As Bayle had extended in his limits. I see places con- predicted, sceptics and scoffers gathered all quered, battles won, all the blows aimed at the fruits of the apparent victory of Catholihis throne serving but to strengthen it. I see cism. The eighteenth century behield the an idolatrous court exalting him above men, growth of a generation which rejected Chrisabove heroes, and equalling him with God tianity because it hated intolerance, and himself. I see all parts of the universe over-recognized no authority but that of reason. run by his troops, our frontiers menaced, re- Protestants, whom dragoons had dragged to ligion tottering, and the Protestant world at the altar, revenged themselves thus, perhaps, the term of its ruin. At sight of these storms, for their compelled submission. Strange to I await but the last blow that shall upset the say, the two brothers Condillac and Mably, church, and I exclaim-O, skiff beaten by who so powerfully contributed to shake a the tempest! art thou about to be swallowed despotic church and monarchy, were grandup by the waves? sons of a gentleman of Dauphiny, converted by the soldiers of St. Ruth. Reviving philosophical and social theories which the seventeenth century had left in the shade, and placing, the first, intelligence in matter, the second, all sovereignty in the people, they sapped the bases of religion and royalty. These principles, popularized by Diderot and Rousseau, triumphed upon the day appointed by divine wrath. The throne was upset, the altar broken, and society disappeared in a frightful tempest. Who shall say that the Revolution of 1789 might not have taken another course, and have remained pure of the greater part of the crimes and excesses that sullied it, had France possessed the nu


Behold the Divinity, who discovers the arm of His holiness, who comes forth from the bosom of chaos, who confounds us by the miracles of His love, after having confounded us by the darkness of His providence. Here, in the space of two campaigns, are more than one hundred thousand enemies buried in the

"The word Refuge, applied to the whole body of the refugees in the various countries which served them as an asylum, is not, we are aware, a French word. We borrow it from those expatriated writers whom a new position more than once compelled to create new words." Note by Mr. Weiss. Preface, vol. i., p. x.

† Isaiah lii. 10.

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