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which rise from the great laboratory below. I of the earth. Those whose recollection of This sublimation, being chiefly sulphur, appeared past political contests is especially sharp, in every shade of bright yellow, orange, and probably thought the introduction of such a crimson, as it glittered in the morning sunbeam. topic a violation of the proprieties of the ocClouds of dense white vapor rose from time to casion, though the cordial applause with time from the innermost depths, with a hissing, which his remarks were received indicated a roaring sound, like a mighty cataract. The occasional intermission of the rising clouds very general concurrence in the sentiments which steamed forth from the great gull, afforded expressed. Indeed, we believe the public a partial glance at the lurid fire raging in the generally regard the question of protection as internal abyss. All around, as far as the eye having been settled, and as having taken its could reachi, within the crater, huge masses of place among the obsolete ideas which belong rock lay tumbled orer each other in chaotic con-exclusively to the past. It is not likely again fusion. Such an appearance, when the volcano to constitute one of the dividing lines of politis in a quiescent state, cannot fail to impress a ical parties. Whether the whig party is spectator with a fearful idea of the inconceivable dead or not (a point on which political powers set in operation when the pent-up fires doctors disagree), it is not likely again to burst their bonds ; and through this chasm, advocate the adoption of such a tariff us shall which is said to be near three miles in extent; protect American labor from the fullest and the mountain hurls back the rocks buried the freest competition with the labor of the within it by the fury of some earlier commotion. world. That issue has been made and de

The forest, which is the midmost of the cided over and over again ; and the popthree different regions or districts passed in ular verdict has been against the principle the ascent, furnishes a striking picture. of protection. It is very easy, it is true,

to explain the adverse result in each case, by The Forest Region has also an interest peculiar attributing it to the fact that other issues to itself; for the trees, chiefly oak in the part intervened

that the public mind was misled through which we passed, have as unnatural,

and that the contest, therefore, was neither unearthly an appearance, as the place in which

fair nor final. But this cannot alter the they are found. The want of a sufficient depth of soil preventing the roots from penetrating fact; for if the popular conviction had been downwards, they have spread themselves in distinctly in favor of protection, other issues curious network over the surface; or, being would not have been allowed to interfere forced upwards by the hard substratum, have with its expression. Right or wrong, the formed the most extraordinary natural arches people of this country have decided almost as against the parent trunk, which is frequently of directly, and, we suspect, quite as finally, in immense diameter, but rarely above fifteen or favor of unrestricted commerce, as have those twenty feet high, and stag-headed like a pollard- of England. And that party will not be

The straggling branches afforded but a wise, in either country, which shall challenge meagre shade under such a grilling sun and the verdict and insist upon another trial of for the benefit of future travellers we could but the issue. exclaim, like the Persians, as we passed, “ May

Looking at the matter, therefore, from a your shadows never be less !". It is impossible to convey any adequate idea of the black petrified political point of view, Gen. Davis committed torrents which we sometimes crossed, sometimes no very heinous offence against propriety followed for a while. There was a strange illu- when he introduced the subject of free trade sion in some of these streams of lavn, where the into his speech at the dinner of Friday night. liquid fire had ploughed a deeper channel than And in every other respect the reference was usual. Seen from a little distance, the oak- clearly pertinent. The very first topic which trees growing on the high banks deceptively led an exhibition of the products of the industry

to think that the sparkling water was of all nations naturally suggests, is that of the actually bounding over the rocks, tilling the air freest possible intercourse

the largest poswith its joyous music and refreshing spray ; and sible interchange of commodities, among the contrast was the more hideous as one became them. The great London Exhibition, which conscious of the dead mass in the river-bed, and was the first ever had in which all nations the deathlike stillness of the air. Where the Forest Region terminates, on the descent, the the free trade policy secured by Sir Robert

joined, was due directly to the adoption of streams of lava have spread out like a great Peel. It seemed to grow naturally from it – river losing itself in low marshy land.

to be its direct and inevitable result. And

the very general desire which has been showu From the N. Y. Times, 18 July. to imitate that great demonstration, and to FREE TRADE AS A BOND OF PEACE.

hold similar exhibitions in different countries,

indicates a growing tendency, on the part of MR. SECRETARY Davis, at the banquet on the people of those countries, towards greater Friday night, took occasion to declare him- freedom of commercial intercourse. Nations self very warmly in favor of free trade, as a no longer repel the products of each other's means of preserving peace among the nations | labor. They rather invite the interchange.

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And whatever may be thought of free trade shall have become consolidated by the unias a question of political economy, and in its versal adoption of free trade, international relations to the welfare of particular coun- wars must become matters of memory and tries, no one can doubt that it is the most of history only. When war shall fall upon potent of all possible agencies for prescrving the great mass of the people of each nation peace among the nations which adopt it. who stay at home with a heavier hand than Gen. Davis and the French minister were upon those who fill the ranks of the contendclearly right in declaring that the best possi-ing hosts — when famine shall waste those ble means of preventing war is to multiply whom the sword shall spare - no government the commercial relations of the different will be rash enough, or strong enough, to countries of the earth. The direct tendency plunge its country into war. No ministry at of free trade is to break down the barriers this day, which should menace the people of which separate nations — to create for them England with the calamities of a war with

common interest, and thus to render the United States, upon any of the grounds hostilities among them a mutual suicide. which have occasioned wars hitherto, could Just in proportion as nations become mutually maintain itself a month. Neither the fisherdependent upon one another for the products ies, nor Cuba, nor Canada, will ever occasion of their industry, will it become impossible war between England and America. The for them to go to war. So long as England interests of England forbid it. Free trade has could produce upon her own soil food for her so increased the commercial intercourse and own people, manufacture her own goods and the mutual interdependence of the two counprovide within herself the raw material, it tries, as to render it impossible. would be comparatively easy for her to wage No one will doubt that this is a result of hostilities ngainst other nations. But now the highest possible importance to the wellthat she has opened her ports to the products being of the human race one to which of other lands - now that her millions of much of what generally passes for national workmen look to the United States for the prosperity may well be sicrificed cotton they use, and in part for the grain pared with which all our notions of national they consuine, as well as a market for the independence seem of little weight. All the goods they make war with this country be- tendencies of the age are clearly towards the comes entirely another thing. The relative adoption of free trade principles. There is strength of our armies and our ships of war at this moment no considerable nation in the is a matter of little consequence. "England world, which is not relaxing, rather than miglit win a battle every week, and sink our tightening, the bonds of its commercial interAeets and annihilate our armies as fast as we course with other nations. And in this fact could bring them into the field against her, we may easily find ground for trust, that the and yet suffer imineasurably, from the in- world draws sensibly near to that great conterruption of cominerce which the fact of summation of prophecy and of hope, when hostilities would occasion. A declaration of the brotherhood of man shall be universially war would at once cut off her supplies of cot- acknowledged when the nations of the ton, and thus throw millions of her laboring earth shall not learn war any more, but strive population out of work; while at the same by all possible-means to advance the common time it would diminish her supplies of grain, happiness and well-being of the human race. and thus raise the price of food to her people at the very moment it had lessened their means of paying for it. Fainine and pesti- The A:lventures of a Gentleman in Search of lence would thus tread closely upon the foot- the Church of England. steps of war, and that, too, whether victory Sketches of an Evangelical or Low Church or defeat should wait upon her banner. The fimily, and their favorite minister ; of two chances of war, therefore, are greatly dimin- young Tractarian curates, nnd the manner of ished by the adoption of free trade between conducting the service at their church ; and of any two of the great nations of the earth. the true meilia via of safety, as exhibited by an And if the day shall ever come when commer- excellent country parson, his amiable family, a cial intercourse among all the nations shall pattern landlord, and a worthy village. Bellebe unfettered — when each shall interchange ville and its various inhabitants may possibly be its own conmodities with every other, and discovered in real provincial life, but we fear as thus make itself dependent upon every other a sort of rara avis. The picture of Rubric, the for some essential part of what its people gentlemanly and scholarly Tractarian curate, is

The need – it will become almost impossible for sketch of the “ serious family” and the Honora

à favorable likeness, not exaggerated. war to break out among them. Oppression ble and Reverend Mr. Mild might have had more may still, as it ought, create rebellions at force and richness of coloring without ever passhome; the crushed and down-trodden may ing the boundaries of the real. The book is rise against the arbitrary power that afflicts supposed to be written by a returned colonist them; but when the interests of all nations wishing to find the church-of his youth. — Spect.

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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.- No. 483. — 20 AUGUST, 1853.

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CONTENTS. 1. History of the French Protestant Refugees, Blackwood's Magazine,

451 2. Wainwright the Murderer, .

Annals of Life Insurance,

468 3. A Storm,

New York Times, .

470 4. The Lady Novelists of Great Britain, . Gentleman's Magazine, .

477 5. The Late Louis Philippe, .

Tait's Magazine,

471 6. American Authorship - Herman Melville, New Monthly Magazine,

481 7. French Literature,

Critic,

486 8. The British Jews,

Atheneum,

488 9. Wilkie's First London Picture,

Life of Haydon,

490 10. Mr. Macaulay, .

Press, .

492 11. Thomas Moore,

Athenæum and Gentleman's Mag., 493 12. England or Russia - - The Position of Aus

Examiner and Spectator,

504 tria, Russia, and Turkey, 13. The Aztec Mystery,

Spectator,

507 14. A Midland Town in the reign of George III., Gentleman's Magazine, .

508 15. Cost of Iniquity,

Chambers' Journal,

511 Poetry: The Last Retrospection, 449 ; Lines — The Wondrous Well – Epitaph, 450. SUORT ARTICLES : English in Ireland Sartines, 467 ; Thackeray's New American Theme,

476; George Wilson The Potato, 479; Eliza Robbins Beethoven, 480 ; Sweet Oil vs. Bed-bugs, 487; Ardent Spirit in the United States, 492; The Pea, 503; Character in a

Blue-bag, 507 ; Mr. Hannay on Satiric Literature, 512. New Books : Meliora ; or, Better Timcs to Come, 467 ; The Sea-weed Collector's Guide, 487.

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From the Dublin University Magazine.

There, by that broad stream,

Under the alders, at the wicket-gate,
THE LAST RETROSPECTION.

My mother stands, startiug at each quick tread FAREWELL, bright sun ! thou goest to thy rest,

That echoes loudly on the quiet road ; And I to mine. When thou dost rise aguin,

Her poor

heart throbbing wildly, as the birds This busy heart, this racked and aching head, Flutter among the branches overhead. Shall feel and throb no more ; - these failing But all in vain - my foot shall never more

Sound on the garden-path eyes

- never again Shall nerer watch thee sink behind the roofs, Shall my hand raise the latch - no more at And fill with tears to think of other times,

eve, When they beheld thee fading from a sky

When the clear sky is flushed with sunset clouds, That overhung green hills and leafy woods. And the slnnt rays bronze the old gnarled oaks, 'T is my last gaze on thee — I perish here, Shall I sit with my sisters 'neath the arch An idle weed, cast, by the tide of life,

Of blossomed jessamine, nnd watch the glow To wither on a bleak and desolate shore.

Fade from the river, and the evening star No heart, in this wide city's wilderness,

Shine through the warm blue of the beauteous Will think the light of day less bright and fuir,

henven ; That I shall see it not - no loving tears No more. my foot shall wander through the Will fall upon my coffin — not a soul

woods, Will ache and sicken at its own strong life,

Where the shy hare, that couched amid the fern, When all which made that life seem beautiful Scarce started, as I passed her silent haunt, Lies low with me in my cold, silent grave.

So well she knew me ; and I lay reclined

In lone green nooks, where less adventurous step Ah me!- far, far away from these close streets Than mine had never been. There lies a spot, hidden in waving boughs, Where the thrush carols and the swallow flits

Where blue-bell tufts Through the long summer-day — where waters And violet clusters cast an azure gleam gleam

Through the long, waving grass the humming Between high bowery banks, whose willows droop bees To kiss the ripples.

Droned in the sycamores and spreading limes, CCCCLXXXIII. LIVING AGE. TOL, II, 29

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Lulling me into soft, delicious sleep,

He walks eternity's unbounded shore, Broken by the loud cuckoo's gladsome cry

And hears her sounds of heavenly barmony ; Ringing through hawthorn glade and hazel copse. Therefore earth’s harmonies for me are o'er ; Night after night, the gentle moon may shine Yes - it is meet my harp should silent be. Into my vacant room, as she was wont, And cast her silver flags upon the floor,

Should I ngrin awake the sounding strings, Chequered with tremulous shadows of the leaves

Would not each note our bitter grief renew ? And flowers that cling around the latticed pane

Each pensive air some fond remembrance brings But the wild dreamer who lay wakeful there,

Of that dear form which we no more may view. Watching her beauty — and with charméd ear Hang there, my harp, upon the mournful yew List’ning to all the sounds of whispering boughs

Which o'er his tomb its solemn shadow flings, And singing waters, till the stars waxed dim

And let the winds alone thy tones renew, Shall rest in the oblivion of the grave.

Sounding a last furewell in mystic murmur

ings! I thank thec, God ! that my beloved ones Have hope to cheer them.

0! for that day when we again may hear When the day wears on

The voice we love, in that seraphic strain And hrings not me, they 'll look with stronger Which falls e’en now on raptured fancy's ear! trust

Till then, 't is best in sorrow to remain. On to the morrow. May they never know

Yes - till that day, when we shall meet again, That their poor wanderer, their pride, their No earthly joy shall to my soul be dear; hope,

For all such joys to mourning hearts are vain. Shall meet their eyes no more. May they not Flow on, ye lingʻring hours !-0 that that day know

were Dear !
That wanting one kind hand to close mine eyes,
To wipe the damps of anguish from my brow,
Or moisten the parched fever of my lips,

From Household Words. I died alone. 0, misery for me !

THE WONDROUS WELL.
Why did I trust thee, golden fruit, that gleamed
In what I thought the fairy land of life?

CAME North, and South, and East, and West,
Why did I put my faith in baseless dreams, Four sages to a mountain crest.
And leave the quiet haven of my youth

Each vowed to search the wide world round, For their deceitful promise?

Until the Wondrous Well be found.

I have seized The fruit, and found it wither in my grasp ;

And here, as simple shepherds tell, I've proved my dreams, and they have left me Lies clear and deep the Wondrous Well. thus.

Before the crag they made their seat,
Fame! ah, I know it now ! 'tis but a word

The polished water at their feet.
To lure the victim onward to his doom
The bread of life to the ambitious heart,

Said One, This well is small and mean, Which breaks for lack of it.

Too petty for a village green.”
I Aung my heart

Another said, “ So smooth and dumb,
A gauntlet to the worlu — how was it met ?
With cold indifference and blighting scorn.

From earth's deep centre can it come?".
Pride, with his thrice-mailed hand and iron foot, The Third, “This water seems not rare,
Dashed it to earth, then ground it in the dust Not even briglit, but pale as air.”
And it arose no more.

The Fourth,“ A fane I looked to see ;
Blesséd be death !

Where the true well is, that must be.'
Since I have seen my youth's illusions ily
Ere youth itself was gone. Blessing and peace They rose and left the mountain crest,
On my dear home, and those who dwell therein, One North, one South, one East, one West.
Is the poor friendless outcast's latest prayer.
There is a long, long night before my soul,

Through many seas and deserts wide, And a bright endless day beyond that night;

They wandered, thirsting, till they died. There is another land where we shall meet,

The shepherds by the mountain dwell, And this world's bitter taunts can wound no

And dip their pitcbers in the Wondrous Well.

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From Blackwood's Magazine. get concealed, or known but to very few WEISS' HISTORY OF THE FRENCH PROT- are brought to light. They tend to show ESTANT REFUGEES. *

that, to the reign in which France attained

the apogee of her splendor and prosperity, is Tie reputations of remarkable men, and to be traced the origin of much of the disospecially of renowned monarchs, are very cord and misery under which she since has variously affected by the lapse of time. Å groaned. retrospective glance through centuries shows

In no French work do we remember a pasthem to us alternately magnified or diınin- sage so nearly approaching to a denunciation, ished. For some, although a brilliant balo temperately and forcibly expressed, of Louis still surround their names, the world's esteem XIV.'s criminal errors, as the following pago daily lessens ; whilst the fame of others, of Mr. Weiss' new liistory. based upon the rock, is but ripened and con

“ The kingdom,” says the learned profesfirmed by its antiquity. Contemporaries are sor, “ which Louis XIV. received covered with often dazzled and fascinated by unprofitable glory, powerful by its arms, preponderant glory and showy achievements ; posterity judges abroad, tranquil and contented at home, he by results, which history is svinetimes tardy transmitted to his successor humbled, to reveal. The splendor of the earlier period feebled, dissatisfied, ready to undergo the of Louis the Fourteenth's long reign still reaction of the regency, and of the whole of blinds millions to the errors, crimes, and the eighteenth century, and thus placed upon disasters of its latter half. In France, the the fatal slope conducting to the Revolution Grand Monarque is, to this day, the object of of 1789. To the formidable encrouchments an irrational hero-worship. To assail his of a prince ruled, during the latter part of his memory is there impiety; and the few reign, by a narrow and exclusive spirit in Frenchmen, who, from research and reflection, religious matters, and, in his policy, by views have formed a just estimate of his real merits, that were rather dynastic than national, shrink from running counter to the flood of Protestantism opposed an insurmountable public infatuation. Foreigners may be per

barrier in England and Holland united under initted more impartially to appreciate that one chief, who led the whole of Europe agninst king's character and actions. They are bound isolated France. The signal of coalitions by no traditional faith in his perfections ; nor

since so often re-forined

was given for the has the “ veneration” which an English king first time in 1689, and, also for the first time, thought it not unbecoming to express, by the France was vanquished - for the Treaty of mouth of his ambassadvi, for the French Ryswick was in fact a defoat. Not only the monarch, by any means descended to the sub- king acknowledged William III., but his injects of William the Third's successors. tendants officially recorded the diminution of Tum placently dwelling upon his triumphs, the population, and the impoverishment of upon the progress in France, during the first the kingdom — inevitable consequences of the part of his career, of arts and arms, of litera- emigration, and of the ensuing decline in ture, learning, and civilization, the fond ad- agriculture, manufactures, and trade. At mirers of the fourteenth Louis artfully avert the beginning of the eighteenth century, the their gaze from his subsequent reverses, and safety of France was compromised, in a milifrom the intolerable bigotry and egotism that tary sense. Early in the struggle which folsullied his declining years. So long as he lowed the acceptanco of the will of Charles pursued the wise policy of the Béarnais, of II., Marshal Villars had to be sent for from Richelieu, and of Mazarin, glory and prosper- Germany to coinbat the insurgents of the ity attended him ; he quitted that path, be- Cevennes; and no sooner had that skilful came a bigot and a persecutor, and disgust and commander quitted the army than the allies weariness were his portion. The blackest won the victory of Hochstedt, the first of our stain upon his reign, the most grievous mis- great disasters in the War of Succession. take ever made by monarch, the most fatal of During the reign of Louis XV., whenever the errors, in its effects upon the future of France, allied powers threatened our frontiers, the was bis heartless persecution of his Protest- government was obliged to purchase the fidelant subjects. Alike barbarous and iinpolitic, ity of the Protestants in the border provinces, it alono suffices to wither his laurels and by promises constantly renewed and never cancel his fame. The revenge of history, fulbiled. But was even the religious result, often slow, is ever sure. And now, nearly a pursued at the cost of so many sacrifices, ulticentury and a half after his death, fucts as mately attained ?. At the period of the revo

cation of the Edict of Nantes the population * Histoire des Réfugiés Protestants de France, included one million of Protestants. At the

of France was about twenty millions, and dopuis la Révocation de l'Edit de Nantos jusqu'à nos jours. Par M. Ch. Weiss, Professeur d’llis- present day, from fifteen to eighteen huntoire au Lycée Bonaparte. 2 vols. Paris, Char. dred thousand Protestants live disseminated pontier; Londres, Jetfs. 1853.

amongst thirty-five million of Catholics. The

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