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and will be gratified by the vindication of the | but he was full of kindness, liberality, and con-
And again :
I was honored with the friendly notice of Sir Hudson Lowe, and enjoyed much of his confidence, during the course of thirty years. I knew him when his military reputation marked him as an officer of the highest promise. I witnessed his able conduct as governor of St. Helena; I saw him when the malice of his one
with unmerited opprobrium; I beheld him on his death-bed; and throughout these various phases in his career I admired and respected his character, while I truly loved the man.
I should fail in doing your friends here justice were I to deny myself the pleasure of assuring you of their esteem and attachment, which they profess too earnestly and frankly not to make it very acceptable for its sincerity. The Dutch insinuation that our eyes were directed to our shipping was distinctly denied in Lord Welling-mics had gained the ascendant, and covered him ton's letter to General Gneisenau, in which he said that the present position of the Prussians on the Meuse and Sambre would induce him in any operations to make commmon cause. Among other officers who hear reports without having access to official information I have used your hint usefully; and I beg as the greatest favor you can confer on me that at any leisure you can spare you will do me the kindness to continue these advices, which, in a new situation which you know so well, are very valuable.
In May, 1815, while acting as quarter-master-general of the Duke of Wellington's army, Sir Hudson Lowe was sent to take command of the British troops at Genoa, intended to cooperate with the Austro-Sardinian army in the south of France. At Heidelberg he had an interview with the Emperor Alexander, which he describes in a letter to Sir Henry Bunbury. He was with Lord Exmouth at the submission of Toulon, and while commandant at Marseilles, on the 1st of August, he received intelligence of his appointment to have the custody of Napoleon. He left, carrying with him the cordial esteem of Lord Exmouth, and the authorities of Marseilles presented him with a silver urn in consideration of his conduite personelle.
Such is the British officer, in his previous history, whom we are in his new and responsible office as governor of St. Helena usually taught to regard as the impersonation of everything base and dishonorable. A crowd of testimonies are given in these volumes, from civil as well as military authorities, as to the admirable conduct of Sir Hudson Lowe in his painful and difficult office. We give two brief passages as specimens of many similar
Colonel Jackson, now Professor of Military Surveying at Addiscombe, who, when a lieutenant, was stationed at St. Helena, says in a letter to the author:
I never heard any of the French say a word against Sir Hudson Lowe's bearing towards them. His orders to his officers were to do all that courtesy and kindness could dictate to render the situation of the French persons as little unpleasant as possible, and, so far as I saw, every desire on their part was promptly attended to. He was himself a man possessing little of what is called manner -no man had less of that;
From the Atheneum.
PROFESSOR FARADAY ON TABLE-MOVING.
agree with me and those who differ. By the
whether the known forces are not sufficient
round the leg of a table- or to some unrec- est trace of electrical or magnetic effects be ognized physical force, without inquiring obtained. At the same trials it was readily ascertained that one person could produce the or who even refer them to diabolical or super-effect; and that the motion was not necessa natural agency, rather than suspend their rily circular, but might be in a straight line. judgment, or acknowledge to themselves that No form of experiment or mode of observation they are not learned enough in these matters that I could devise gave me the slightest into decide on the nature of the action. I think dication of any peculiar natural force. No the system of education that could leave the attractions, or repulsions, or signs of tangenmental condition of the public body in the tial power, appeared, nor anything which state in which this subject has found it must could be referred to other than the mere mehave been greatly deficient in some very im-chanical pressure exerted inadvertently by the portant principle."
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TABLE-MOVING. The object which I had in view in this inquiry was not to satisfy myself, for my conclusion had been formed already on the
evidence of those who had turned tables
turner. I therefore proceeded to analyze this pressure, or that part of it exerted in a horizontal direction : doing so, in the first instance, unawares to the party. A soft cement, consisting of wax and turpentine, or wax and pomatum, was prepared. Four or five pieces of smooth, slippery cardboard were attached one over the other by little pellets of the cement, and the lower of these to a piece of sand-paper resting on the table; the edges of these sheets overlapped slightly, and on the under surface a pencil line was drawn over the laps so as to indicate position. The upper cardboard was larger than the rest, so as to cover the whole from sight. Then, the table-turner placed the hands upon the upper card, and we waited for the result. Now, the cement was strong enough to offer considerable resistance to mechanical motion, and also to retain the cards in any new position which they might acquire, and yet weak enough to give way slowly to a continued force. When at last the tables, cards and hands, all moved to the left together, and so a true result was obtained, I took up the pack. On examination, it was easy to see, by the displacement of the parts of the line, that the hand had moved further than the table, and that the latter had lugged behind; - that the hand, in fact, had pushed the upper card to the left, and that the under cards and the table had followed and been dragged by it. In other similar cases when the table had not moved, still the upper card was found to have moved, showing that the hand had carried it in the expected direction. It was evident, therefore, that the table had not drawn the hand and person round, nor had it moved simultaneously with the hand. The hand had left all things under it behind, and the table evidently tended continually to keep the hand back.
but that I might be enabled to give a strong opinion, founded on facts, to the many who applied to me for it. Yet, the proof which I sought for, and the method followed in the inquiry, were precisely of the same nature as those which I should adopt in any other physical investigation. The parties with whom I have worked were very honorable, very clear in their intentions, successful table-movers, very desirous of succeeding in establishing the existence of a peculiar power, thoroughly candid, and very effectual. It is with me a clear point that the table moves when the parties, though they strongly wish it, do not intend, and do not believe that they move it by ordinary mechanical power. They Bay, the table draws their hands; that it moves first, and they have to follow it that sometimes it even moves from under their .hands. With some the table will move to the right or left according as they wish or will it-with others the direction of the first motion is uncertain; but all agree that the table moves the hands, and not the hands the table. Though I believe the parties do not intend to move the table, but obtain the result by a quasi involuntary action, still I had no doubt of the influence of expectation upon their minds, and through that upon the success or failure of their efforts. The first point, therefore, was, to remove all objections due to expectation, having relation to the substances which I might desire to use: plates of the most different bodies, electrically speaking-namely, sand-paper, millboard, glue, glass, moist clay, tinfoil, cardboard, The next step was, to arrange an index, gutta percha, vulcanized rubber, wood, &c., which should show whether the table moved were made into a bundle and placed on a first, or the hand moved before the table, or table under the hands of a turner. The both moved or remained at rest together. table turned. Other bundles of other plates At first this was done by placing an upright were submitted to different persons at other pin fixed on a leaden foot upon the table, and times—and the tables turned. Henceforth, using that as the fulcrum of a light lever. therefore, these substances may be used in the The latter was made of a slip of foolscap construction of apparatus. Neither during paper, and the short arm, about of an inch their use nor at other times could the slight-in length, was attached to a pin proceeding
from the edge of a slipping card placed on the table, and prepared to receive the hands of the table-turner. The other arm, of 11 inches long, served for the index of motion. A coin laid on the table marked the normal position of the card and index. At first the slipping card was attached to the table by the soft cement, and the index was either screened from the turner, or the latter looked away then, before the table moved, the index showed that the band was giving a resultant pressure in the expected direction. The effect was never carried far enough to move the table, for the motion of the index corrected the judgment of the experimenter, who became aware that, inadvertently, a side force had been exerted. The card was now set free from the table, i. c., the cement was removed. This of course, could not interfere with any of the results expected by the table-turner for both the bundle of plates spoken of and single cards had been freely moved on the tables before; but now that the index was there, witnessing to the eye, and through it to the mind, of the table-turner, not the slightest tendency to motion either of the card or of the table occurred. Indeed, whether the card was left free or attached to the table, all motion or tendency to motion was gone. In one particular case there was relative motion between the table and the hands: I believe that the hands moved in one direction; the table-turner was persuaded that the table moved from under the hand in the other direction: :- a gauge, standing upon the floor, and pointing to the table, was therefore set up on that and some future occasions and then neither motion of the hand nor of the table occurred.
A more perfect lever apparatus was then constructed in the following manner: Two thin boards, 94 inches by 7 inches, were provided; a board, 9 by 5 inches, was glued to the middle of the underside of one of these (to be called the table-board), so as to raise the edges free from the table; being placed on the table, near and parallel to its side, an upright pin was fixed close to the further edge of the board, at the middle, to serve as the fulcrum for the indicating lever. Then, four glass rods, 7 inches long and in diameter, were placed as rollers on different parts of this table-board, and the upper board placed on them; the rods permitted any required amount of pressure on the boards, with a free motion of the upper on the lower to the right and left. At the part corresponding to the pin in the lower board, a piece was cut out of the upper board, and a pin attached there which, being bent downwards, entered the hole in the end of the short arm of the index lever: this part of the lever was of cardboard; the indicating prolongation was a straight haystalk 15 inches long. In order to restrain the
motion of the upper board on the lower, two vulcanized rubber rings were passed round both, at the parts not resting on the table: these, whilst they tied the boards together, acted also as springs-and whilst they al lowed the first feeblest tendency to motion to be seen by the index, exerted before the upper board had moved a quarter of an inch sufficient power in pulling the upper board back from either side, to resist a strong lateral action of the hand. All being thus arranged, except that the lever was away, the two boards were tied together with string, running parallel to the vulcanized rubber springs, so as to be immovable in relation to each other. They were then placed on the table, and a tableturner sat down to them: the table very shortly moved in due order, showing that the apparatus offered no impediment to the action. A like apparatus, with metal rollers, produced the same result under the hands of another person. The index was now put into its place and the string loosened, so that the springs should come into play. It was soon seen, with the party that could will the motion in either direction (from whom the index was purposely hidden), that the hands were gradually creeping up in the direction before agreed upon, though the party certainly thought they were pressing downwards only. When shown that it was so, they were truly surprised; but when they lifted up their hands, and immediately saw the index return to its normal position, they were convinced. When they looked at the index, and could see for themselves whether they were pressing truly downwards, or obliquely so as to produce a resultant in the right or left handed direction, then such an effect never took place. Several tried, for a long while together, and with the best will in the world; but no motion, right or left, of the table, or hand, or anything else, occurred. [A passage from the letter in the Times is worth reproducing here
as illustrating in other words the value of this method of self-conviction. "The result," says Prof. Faraday, " was, that when the parties saw the index it remained very steady; when it was hidden from them, or they looked away from it, it wavered about, though they believed that they always pressed directly downwards; and, when the table did not move, there was still a resultant of hand force in the direction in which it was wished the table should move, which, however, was exercised quite unwittingly by the party operating. This resultant it is which, in the course of the waiting time, while the fingers and hands become stiff, numb, and insensible by continued pressure, grows up to an amount sufficient to move the table or the substances pressed upon. But the most valuable effect of this test-apparatus (which was afterwards made more perfect and independent of the
table) is the corrective power it possesses continued pressure. If a finger be pressed over the mind of the table-turner. As soon constantly into the corner of a window frame as the index is placed before the most earnest, for ten minutes or more, and then, continuing and they perceive -as in my presence they the pressure, the mind be directed to judge have always done that it tells truly whether whether the force at a given moment is all they are pressing downwards only, or oblique- horizontal, or all downward, or how much is ly, then all effects of table-turning cease, even in one direction and how much in the other, though the parties persevere, earnestly de- it will find great difficulty in deciding, and siring motion, till they become weary and will at last become altogether uncertain; at worn out. No prompting or checking of the least, such is my case. I know that a simhands is needed - the power is gone; and ilar result occurs with others; for I have had this only because the parties are made con- two boards arranged, separated, not by rollers, scious of what they are really doing mechani- but by plugs of vulcanized rubber, and with cally, and so are unable unwittingly to de- the vertical index; when a person with his ceive themselves. I know that some may say hands on the upper board is requested to that it is the cardboard next the fingers which press only downwards, and the index is hidmoves first, and that it both drags the table den from his sight, it moves to the right, to and also the table-turner with it. All I have the left, to him and from him, and in all horto reply is, that the cardboard may in prac- izontal directions; so utterly unable is he tice be reduced to a thin sheet of paper strictly to fulfil his intention without a visible weighing only a few grains, or to a piece of and correcting indicator. Now, such is the goldbeaters' skin, or even the end of the lever, use of the instrument with the horizontal and (in principle) to the very cuticle of the index and rollers; the mind is instructed, fingers itself. Then the results that follow and the involuntary or quasi involuntary moare too absurd to be admitted: the table be- tion is checked in the commencement, and comes an incumbrance, and a person holding therefore never rises up to the degree needful out the fingers in the air, either naked or to move the table, or even permanently the tipped with gold beaters' skin or cardboard, index itself. No one can suppose that lookought to be drawn about the room, &c. ; but ing at the index can in any way interfere I refrain from considering imaginary yet with the transfer of electricity or any other consequent results which have nothing philo- power from the hand to the board under it or sophical or real in them."] to the table. If the board tends to move, it may do so the index does not confine it; and if the table tends to move, there is no reason why it should not. If both were influenced by any power to move together, they may do so
Another form of index was applied thus: a circular hole was cut in the middle of the upper board, and a piece of cartridge paper pasted under it on the lower surface of the board; a thin slice of cork was fixed on the upper surface of the lower board corresponding to the cartridge paper; the interval between them might be a quarter of an inch or less. A needle was fixed into the end of one of the index hay-stalks, and when all was in place the needle-point was passed through the cartridge paper and pressed slightly into the cork beneath, so as to stand upright; then any motion of the hand, or hand-board, was instantly rendered evident by the deflection of the perpendicular haystalk to the right or left.
as they did indeed when the apparatus was tied, and the mind and muscles left unwatched and unchecked.
I must bring this long description to a close. I am a little ashamed of it, for I think, in the present age, and in this part of the world, it ought not to have been required. Nevertheless, I hope it may be useful. There are many whom I do not expect to convince; but I may be allowed to say that I cannot undertake to answer such objections as may be made. I state my own convictions as an experimental philosopher, and find it no more I think the apparatus I have described may necessary to enter into controversy on this be useful to many who really wish to know point than on any other in science, as the the truth of nature, and would prefer that nature of matter, or inertia, or the magnetitruth to a mistaken conclusion; desired, zation of light, on which I may differ from perhaps, only because it seems to be new or others. The world will decide sooner or later strange. Persons do not know how difficult in all such cases, and I have no doubt very it is to press directly downward, or in any soon and correctly in the present instance. given direction, against a fixed obstacle; or Those who may wish to see the particular even to know only whether they are doing construction of the test-apparatus which I so or not; unless they have some indica- have employed, may have the opportunity at tor, which, by visible motion or otherwise, Mr. Newman's, 122 Regent Street. Further, shall instruct them; and this is more espec- I may say, I have sought earnestly for cases ially the case when the muscles of the fingers of lifting by attraction, and indications of and hand have been cramped and rendered attraction in any form, but have gained no éither tingling, or insensible, or cold, by long- traces of such effects. Finally, I beg to di
rect attention to the discourse delivered by habit of drawing upon his memory, or some Dr. Carpenter at the Royal Institution on the compendium, for the history of the places he 12th of March, 1852, entitled, "On the in- sees. fluence of Suggestion in modifying and directing Muscular Movement, independently of Volition"-which, especially in the latter part, should be considered in reference to tablemoving by all who are interested in the subject. M. FARADAY.
Royal Institution, June 27.
The principal feature of the volume is the ascent of Mount Etna. The voyage was made in one of her majesty's steamers; and, on arriving at Catania, the captain, the surgeon, and the guest, resolved to do the mountain in four-and-twenty-hours, or one half the usual time. This was accomplished by two of the By these simple but conclusive experiments party, but by exertions which produced re(says the Literary Gazette), Professor Fara-sults that rendered the enterprise anything day has unmasked the fallacy which has been but desirable to imitate. The captain, who turning the heads, hats and tables, of all Eu- only attained the English cottage, never was rope; and with the aid of glass, resin and his own man again, and he died in three other non-conducting materials, has, we hope, years after. Mr. Watson and the doctor were satisfied the electrical public that tables will obliged to lie down and rest or sleep at connot turn unless they are pushed. "I should siderable risk from the cold; on their return be sorry," says Professor Faraday, who has in mid-day they suffered terribly from the been, doubtless, laughing in his sleeve while heat. After all, they could not manage sunmaking these experiments, "if I thought this rise from the summit, which embraces the necessary on my own part;" and it seems to whole circuit; though what they saw was us rather hard that a great philosophic mind magnificent. They did reach the crater at last, should have to go through all this tomfoolery at separate intervals; and then Mr. Watson for the sake of disproving what no really was repaid. scientific man, as we stated two months ago, has yet ventured to assert. It is an act of condescension, on the part of the learned professor, for which he is to be honored. He has shown himself, in this instance, to be a watchful guardian, as well as an eloquent positor, of popular science.
In the immediate neighborhood of the crater the internal heat suffices to keep the ground dry and hard, so that the remaining portion of the ascent was accomplished without difficulty or danger; though we were from time to time enex-veloped in the clouds of suffocating smoke, or vapor, which incessantly burst forth from the crater. Our path now lay along the edge of a vast hollow, perfectly round and smooth, and lined with a thick crust of crystallized sulphur, into which I rather hesitatingly followed the guide; but seeing that he plodded on comme si ne rien était, I felt I could not do better than tread in his footsteps over the treacherous ground. After descending a little way, we again climbed the steep side, and, emerging from this preparatory wonder, stood upon the crater's burning lips.' I did not burst forth into exclamations of wonder and delight, but probably my countenance expressed the inward feelings of the moment; for the guide looked at me, and said, in a quiet, significant manner, "Now, are you satisfied?" as much as to say, "It is worth the trouble, is it not?" I was riveted to the spot, literally in breathless admiration. Never before had I felt such a deep, such an awful sense of the power of the Almighty.
From the Spectator. WATSON'S CRUISE IN THE ÆGEAN.* THIS volume contains something more than a cruise in the Egean. In addition to a steam-voyage from Constantinople to Sicily, Mr. Watson ascended Mount Etna, and visited several of the island cities, crossed over to Naples, spent about a week at Rome, and finally travelled through Savoy, Lombardy, and a portion of the Alps. He also increases the matter of his tour by reminiscences of
travel on other occasions.
Neither the voyage nor the land travel was remarkable for incidents. The scenery and the cities Mr. Watson saw were beautiful in themselves or interesting for their association. For the most part, however, they have often been described already; and if the author does not make too much of his description, he does not stick to his text. One thing in one place suggests something else like it which he has seen in another place, and the reader is favored with both at full length. He also falls into the too common
* A Cruise in the Agean. The Retrospect of a Summer Journey Westward "from the Great City by Propontic Sea." Including an Ascent of Mount Etna. By Walter Watson. Published by Har
We stood on the edge of a precipitous chasm, sharp and rugged as if the mountain had just been rent asunder. The internal surface, as far as the eye could penetrate, consisted of a coating of sulphureous earth, which seemed to be continually burning without being consumed; whilst through innumerable fissures jets of flame darted up, and played over the glowing mass, dazzling the eye by the intense brightness and variety of their coloring. The jagged, irregular outline of the whole crater is divided by a vast projecting wall of rock, of most singular appearance, coated with the deposit of the fumes