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From the Athenreum.
and will be gratified by the vindication of the but he was full of kindness, liberality, and conmemory of their friend. The latter, then Sir sideration for the feelings of others. Heory Hardinge, in writing from Liege, April
And again : 22, 1815, says, in the course of a letter :
I was honored with the friendly notice of I should fail in doing your friends here justice Sir Hudson Lowe, and enjoyed much of his conwere I to deny myself the pleas of assuring fidence, during the course of thirty years. I you of their esteem and attachment, which they knew him when his military reputation marked profess too earnestly and frankly not to make it him as an officer of the highest promise. I very acceptable for its sincerity. The Dutch in- witnessed his able conduct as governor of St. sinuation that our eyes were directed to our Helena ; 1 saw him when the malice of his eneshipping was distinctly denied in Lord Welling- mies had gained the ascendant, and covered him ton's letter to General Gneisennu, in which he with unmerited opprobrium ; I beheld him on said that the present position of the Prussians on his death-bed ; and throughout these various the Meuse and Sambre would induce him in any phases in his career I admired and respected luis operations to make commmon cause. Among character, while I truly loved the man. other officers who hear reports without having access to official information I have used your hint usefully ; and I beg as the greatest favor you can confer on me that at any leisure you PROFESSOR FARADAY ON TABLE-MOVING. can spare you will do me the kindness to continue thiese advices, which, in a new situation which Tue following account of the methods puryou know so well, are very valuable.
sued and the results obtained by Prof. Fara
day in the investigation of a subject which In May, 1815, while acting as quarter-mas- has taken such strange occupation of the ter-general of the Duke of Wellington's ariny, public mind, both here and abroad, has been Sir Isudson Lowe was sent to take command communicated to our columns by that high of the British troops at Genoa, intended to scientific authority. The subject was genercoöperate with the Austro-Sardinian army in ally opened by Mr. Faraday in the Times of the south of France. At Heidelberg he had an Thursday; it being therein intimated that the interview with the Emperor Alexander, which details were to be reserved for our this day's lie describes in a letter to Sir Henry Bunbury. publication. The communication is of great Ile was with Lord Exmouth at the submission importance in the present morbid condition of of Toulon, and while commandant at Mar- public thought -- when, as Professor Faraday seilles, on the 1st of August, he received in- says, the effect produced by table-turners has, telligence of his appointment to have the without due inquiry, been referred to eleccustody of Napolcon. He left, carrying with tricity, to magnetism, to attraction, to some him the cordial esteem of Lord Exmouth, and unknown or hitherto unrecognized physical the authorities of Marseilles presented him power able to affect inanimate bodies, to the with a silver urn in consideration of bis con- revolution of the earth, and even to diaboliduile personelle.
cal or supernatural agency;
- and we are Such is the British officer, in his previous tempted to extract, a passage from Mr. Fara, history, whom we are in his new and respon- day's letter to the Times which we think well sible office as governor of St. Helena usually worth adding to the experimental particulars tauglit to regard as the impersonation of and the commentaries with which he has everything base and dishonorable. A crowd favored ourselves. “ I have been," says the of testinonies are given in these volumes, professor, “ greatly startled by the revelation from civil as well as military authorities, as to which this purely physical subject has made the admirable conduct of Sir IIudson Lowe in of the condition of the public mind. No his painful and difficult office. We give two doubt there are many persons who have brief passages as specimens of many siunilar formed a right judginent or used a cautious statements.
for I know several such, and public Colonel Jackson, now Professor of Military communications have shown it to be so; but Surveying at Addiscombe, who, when a licu- their number is almost as nothing to the great tenant, was stationed at St. Helena, says in body who have believed and borne testimony, a letter to the author :
as I think, in the cause of error. I do not
here refer to the distinction of those who I never heard any of the French say a word against Sir Hudson Lowe's bearing towards them. agree with me and those who differ. By the His orders to his officers were to do all that great body, I mean such as reject all consid. courtesy and kindness could dictate to render eration of the equality of cause and effectthe situation of the French persons as little un- who refer the results to electricity and magpleasant as possible, and, so far as I saw, every netism, yet know nothing of the laws of theso desire on their part was promptly attended to. forces or to attraction, yet show no pheHe was himself a man possessing little of what nomena of puro attractive power or to the is called manner - no man had less of that ; rotation of the earth, as if the earth revolved
round the leg of a table — or to some unrec- / est trace of electrical or magnetic effects bo ognized physical force, without inquiring obtained. At the same trials it was readily whether the known forces are not sufficient - ascertained that one person could produce the or who even refer them to diabolical or super- effect; and that the motion was not necessile natural agency, rather than suspend their rily circular, but might be in a straight line. judgment, or acknowledge to themselves that No form of experiment or mode of observation they are not learned enough in these matters that I could devise gave me the slightest into decide on the nature of the action. I think dication of any peculiar natural force. No the system of education that could leave the attractions, or repulsions, or signs of tangenmental condition of the public body in the tial power, appeared, nor anything which state in which this subject has found it must could be referred to other than the mere mehave been greatly deficient in some very im. chanical pressure exerted inadvertently by the portant principle."
turner. I therefore proceeded to analyze this EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TABLE-MOVING. (zontal direction : - doing so, in the first in
pressure, or that part of it exerted in a horiThe object which I had in view in this stance, unawares to the party. A soft ceinquiry was not to satisfy myself, for my ment, consisting of wax and turpentine, or conclusion had been formed already on the wax and powatum, was prepared. Four or evidence of those who had turned tables five pieces of smooth, slippery cardboard were but that I might be enabled to give a strong attached one over the other by little pellets opinion, founded on facts, to the many who of the cement, and the lower of these to a applied to me for it. Yet, the proof which I piece of sand-paper resting on the table ; the sought for, and the method followed in the in- edges of these sheets overlapped slightly, and quiry, were precisely of the same nature as on the under surface a pencil live was drawn those which I should adopt in any other over the laps so as to indicate position. The physical investigation. The parties with upper cardboard was larger than the rest, so wliom I have worked were very honorable, as to cover the whole from sight. Then, the very clear in their intentions, successful table-turner placed the hands upon the upper table-movers, very desirous of succeeding in card, and we waited for the result. Now, establishing the existence of a peculiar power, the cement was strong enough to offer considthoroughly candid, and very effectual.' It is erable resistance to mechanical motion, and with me a clear point that the table moves also to retain the cards in any new position when the parties, though they strongly wish which they might acquire, and yet weak it, do not intend, and do not believe that they enough to give way slowly to a continued move it by ordinary mechanical power. They force. When at last the tables, cards and say, the table draws their hands ; that it hands, all moved to the left together, and so a moves first, and they have to follow it - that true result was obtained, I took up the pack. sometimes it even moves from under their On examination, it was easy to see, by the .bands. With some the table will move to the displacement of the parts of the line, that the right or left according as they wish or will hand had moved further than the table, and it — with others the direction of the first that the latter had lugged behind ; that the motion is uncertain ; — but all agree that the hand, in fact, had pushed the upper card to table moves the hands, and not the hands the the left, and that the under cards and the table. Though I believe the parties do not table hnd followed and been dragged by it. intend to move the table, but obtain the In other similar cases when the table had not result by a quasi involuntary action, still I moved, still the upper card was found to have had no doubt of the influence of expectation moved, showing that the hand had carried it upon their minds, and through that upon the in the expected direction. It was evident, success or failure of their efforts. The first therefore, that the table had not drawn the point, therefore, was, to remove all objections hand and person round, nor had it moved due to expectation, having relation to the simultaneously with the hand. The band substances which I might desire to use : 80, had left all things under it behind, and the plates of the most different bodies, electrically table evidently tended continually to keep the speaking — namely, sand-paper, millboard, hand back, glue, glass, moist clay, tinfoil, cardboard, The next step was, to arrange an index, gutta percha, vulcanized rubber, wood, &c., which should show whether the table moved
were made into a bundle and placed on a first, or the hand moved before the table, or table under the hands of a túrner. The both moved or remained at rest together. table turned. Other bundles of other plates At first this was done by placing an upright were submitted to different persons at other pin fixed on a loaden foot upon the table, and times — and the tables turned. Henceforth, using that as the fulcrum of a light lever. therefore, these substances may be used in the The latter was made of a slip of foolscap construction of apparatus. Neither during paper, and the short arm, about of an inch their use nor at other tiines could the slight- in length, was attached to a pin proceeding
from the edge of a slipping card placed on the motion of the upper board on the lower, two table, and prepared to receive the hands of vulcanized rubber rings were passed round the table-turner. The other arm, of 113 inches both, at the parts not resting on the table : long, served for the index of motion. A coin these, whilst they tied the boards together, laid on the table marked the normal position acted also as springs — and whilst they alof the card and index. At first the slipping lowed the first feeblest tendency to motion to card was attached to the table by the soft be seen by the index, exerted before the upper cement, and the index was either screened board had moved a quarter of an inch sufficient from the turner, or the latter looked away : power in pulling the upper board back from then, before the table moved, the index showed either side, to resist a strong lateral action of that the band was giving a resultant pres- the hand. All being thus arranged, except sure in the expected direction. The effect that the lever was away, the two boards was never carried far enough to move the were tied together with string, running partable, for the motion of the index corrected allel to the vulcanized rubber springs, so as to the judgment of the experimenter, who be- be immovable in relation to each other. They came aware that, inadvertently, a side force were then placed on the table, and a tablehad been exerted. The card was now set free turner sat down to them :
- the table very froin the table, i, e., the cement was removed. shortly moved in due order, showing that the This of course, could not interfere with any apparatus offered no impediment to the action. of the results expected by the table-turner A like apparatus, with metal rollers, produced for both the bundle of plates spoken of and the same result under the hands of another single cards had been freely moved on the person. The index was now put into its tables before ; but now that the index was place and the string loosened, so that the there, witnessing to the eye, and through it springs should come into play. It was soon to the mind, of the table-turner, not the seen, with the party that could will the moslightest tendency to motion either of the tion in either direction (from whom the index card or of the table occurred. Indeed, whether was purposely hidden), that the hands were the card was left free or attached to the table, gradually creeping up in the direction before all motion or tendency to motion was gone. agreed upon, though the party certainly In one particular case there was relative mo- thought they were pressing downwards only. tion between the table and the hands : I be- When shown that it was so, they were truly lieve that the bands moved in one direction; surprised; but when they lifted up their the table-turner was persuaded that the table hands, and immediately saw the index return noved from under the hand in the other direc- to its norinal position, they were convinced. tion : - à gauge, standing upon the floor, and When they looked at the index, and could see pointing to the table, was therefore set up on for themselves whether they were pressing that and some future occasions — and then truly downwards, or obliquely so as to proneither motion of the hand nor of the table duce a resultant in the right or left handed occurred.
direction, then such an effect never took place. A more perfect lever apparatus was then Several tried, for a long while together, and constructed in the following manner : – Two with the best will in the world; but no mothin boards, 94 inches by 7 inches, were pro- tion, right or left, of the table, or hand, or vided ; a board, 9 by 5 inches, was glued to anything else, occurred. [A passage from the the middle of the underside of one of these letter in the Times is worth reproducing here (to be called the table-board), so as to raise - as illustrating in other words the value of the edges free from the table; being placed on this method of self-conviction. “The result,"' the table, near and parallel to its side, an says. Prof. Faraday, “was, that when the upright pin was fixed close to the further edgy parties saw the index it remained very steady ; of the board, at the middle, to serve as the when it was hidden from them, or they looked fulcrum for the indicating lever. Then, four away from it, it wavered about, though they glass rods, 7 inches long and } in diameter, believed that they always pressed directly were placed as rollers on different parts of downwards ; and, when the table did not this table-board, and the upper board placed move, there was still a resultant of hand forca on them; the rods permitted any required in the direction in which it was wished the amount of pressure on the boards, with a free table should move, which, however, was motion of the upper on the lower to the right exercised quite unwittingly, by the party and left. At the part corresponding to the operating; This resultant it is wbich, in the pin in the lower board, a piece was cut out of course of the waiting time, while the fingers the upper board, and a pin attached there and hands becoine stiff, numb, and insensible which, being bent downwards, entered the by continued pressure, grows up to an amount hole in the end of the short arzu of the index sufficient to move the table or the substances lever : this part of the lever was of cardboard ; pressed upon. But the most valuable effect the indicating prolongation was a straight hay- of this test-apparatus (which was afterwards stalk 15 inches long. In order to restrain the I made more perfect and independent of the
table) is the corrective power it possesses | continued pressure. If a finger be pressed over the mind of the table-turner. As soon constantly into the corner of a window frame as the index is placed before the most earnest, for ten minutes or more, and then, continuing and they perceive as in my presence they the pressure, the mind be directed to judge have always done — that it tells truly whether whether the force at a given moment is all they are pressing downwards only, or oblique- horizontal, or all downward, or how much is ly, then all effects of table-turning cease, even in one direction and how much in the other, though the parties persevere, earnestly de- it will find great difficulty in deciding, and siring motion, till they become weary and will at last become altogether uncertain ; at worn out. No prompting or checking of the least, such is my case. I know that a sim. hands is needed - the power is gone; and ilar result occurs with others ; for I have had this only because the parties are made con- two boards arranged, separated, not by rollers, scious of what they are really doing mechani- but by plugs of vulcanized rubber, and with cally, and so are unable unwittingly to de- the vertical index ; when a person with his ceive themselves. I know that some may say hands on the upper board is requested to that it is the cardboard next the fingers which press only downwards, and the index is hid. moves first, and that it both drags the table den from his sight, it moves to the right, to and also the table-turner with it. All I have the left, to him and from him, and in all horto reply is, that the cardboard may in prac-izontal directions; so utterly unable is he tice be reduced to a thin sheet of paper strictly to fulfil his intention without a visible weighing only a few grains, or to a piece of and correcting indicator. Now, such is the goldbeaters' skin, or even the end of the lever, use of the instrument with the horizontal and (in principle) to the very cuticle of the index and rollers; the mind is instructed, fingers itself." Then the results that follow and the involuntary or quasi involuntary moare too absurd to be admitted: the table be- tion is checked in the commencement, and coines an incumbrance, and a person holding therefore never rises up to the degree needful out the fingers in the air, either naked or to move the table, or even permanently the tipped with goldbeaters' skin or cardboard, index itself. No one can suppose that lookought to be drawn about the room, &c.; but ing at the index can in any way interfere I refrain from considering imaginary yet with the transfer of electricity or any other consequent results which have nothing philo- power from the hand to the board under it or sopbical or real in them.”]
to the table. If the board tends to move, it Another form of index was applied thus :
the index does not confine it; and a circular hole was cut in the middle of the if the table tends to move, there is no reason upper board, and a piece of cartridge paper why it should not. If both were influenced by pasted under it on the lower surface of the any power to move together, they may do so board ; a thin slice of cork was fixed on the as they did indeed when the apparatus was upper surface of the lower board correspond-tied, and the mind and muscles left unwatched ing to the cartridge paper ; the interval and unchecked. between them might be a quarter of an I must bring this long description to a inch or lesz. A needle was fixed into the end close. I am a little ashamed of it, for I of one of the index hay-stalks, and when all think, in the present age, and in this part of was in place the needle-point was passed the world, it ought not to have been required. through the cartridge paper and pressed Nevertheless, I hope it may be useful. There slightly into the cork beneath, so as to stand are many whom I do not expect to convince ; upright; then any motion of the hand, or but I may be allowed to say that I cannot hand-board, was instantly rendered evident undertake to answer such objections as may by the deflection of the perpendicular hay- be made. I state my own convictions as an stalk to the riglit or left.
experimental philosopher, and find it no more I think the apparatus I have described may necessary to enter into controversy on this be useful to muny who really wish to know point than on any other in science, as the the truth of nature, and would prefer that nature of matter, or inertia, or the magnetitruth to a mistaken conclusion; desired, zation of light, on which I may differ from perhaps, only because it seems to be new or others. The world will decide sooner or later strange. Persons do not know how difficult in all such cases, and I have no doubt very it is to press directly downward, or in any soon and correctly in the present instarce. given direction, against a fixed obstacle ; or Those who may wish to see the particular even to know only whether they are doing construction of the test-apparatus which i 80 or not; unless they have some indica- have employed, may have the opportunity at tor, wbich, by visible motion or otherwise, Mr. Newman's, 123 Regent Street. Further, shall-instruct them; and this is more espec- I may say, I have sought earnestly for cases ially the case when the muscles of the fingers of lifting by attraction, and indications of and hand have been cramped and rendered attraction in any form, but have gained no either tingling, or insensible, or cold, by long-traces of such effects. Finally, I beg to di
may do so
rect attention to the discourse delivered by habit of drawing upon his memory, or some Dr. Carpenter at the Royal Institution on the compendium, for the history of the places he 12th of March, 1852, entitled, “On the in- sees. fuence of Suggestion in modifying and direct- The principal feature of the volume is the ing Muscular Movement, independently of Vo- ascent of Mount Etna. The voyage was made lition"
- which, especially in the latter part, in one of her majesty's steamers ; and, on arshould be considered in reference to table- riving at Catania, the captain, the surgeon, moving by all who are in ted in the sub- and the guest, resolved to do the mountain in ject.
M. FARADAY. four-and-twenty-hours, or one half the usual Royal Institution, June 27.
time. This was accomplished by two of the By these simple but conclusive experiments party, but by exertions which produced re(says the Literary Gazette), Professor Fara- sults that rendered the enterprise anything day has unmasked the fallacy which has been but desirable to imitate. The captain, who turning the heads, hats and tables, of all Eu- oply attained the English cottage, never was rope ; and with the aid of glass, resin and his own man again, and he died in three other non-conducting materials, has, we hope, years after.. Mr. Watson and the doctor were satisfied the electrical public that tables will obliged to lie down and rest or sleep at connot turn unless they are pushed. " I should
siderable risk from the cold ; on their return be sorry," says Professor Faraday, who has in mid-day they suffered terribly from the been, doubtless, laughing in his sleeve while heat. After all, they could not manage sunmaking these experiments, “ if I thought this rise from the summit, which embraces the necessary on my own part;” and it seems to whole circuit; thongh what they saw was us rather hard that a great philosophic mind magnificent. They did reach the crater at last, should have to go through all this tom foolery at separate intervals ; and then Mr. Watson for the sake of disproving what no really
was repaid. scientific man, as we stated two months ago, has yet ventured to assert. It is an act of the internal heat suffices to keep the ground
In the immediate neighborhood of the crater condescension, on the part of the learned pro- dry and hard, so that the remaining portion of fessor, for which he is to be honored. He has the ascent was accomplished without difficulty or shown himself, in this instance, to be a danger ; though we were from time to time enwatchful guardian, as well as an eloquent ex-veloped in the clouds of suffocating smoke, or positor, of popular science.
vapor, which incessantly burst forth from the
crater. Our path now lay along the edge of a From the Spectator.
vast hollow, perfectly round and smooth, and
lined with a thick crust of crystallized sulphur, WATSON'S CRUISE IN THE ÆGEAN.* into which I rather hesitatingly followed the Tuis volume contains something more than si ne rien était, I felt I could not do better than
guide ; but seeing that he plodded on comme a cruise in the Ægean. In addition to a tread in his footsteps over the treacherous steam-voyage from Constantinople to Sicily, ground. After descending a little way, we Mr. Watson ascended Mount Etna, and visited again climbed the steep side, and, emerging from several of the island cities, crossed over to this preparatory wonder, stood Naples, spent about a week at Rome, and crater's burning lips.' I did not burst forth fiually travelled through Savoy, Lombardy, into exclamations of wonder and delight, but and a portion of the Alps. He also increases probably my countenance expressed the inward the matter of his tour" by reminiscences of feelings of the moment ; for the guide looked at travel on other occasions.
me, and said, in a quiet, significant manner, Neither the voyage nor the land travel was
“Now, are you satisfied ?”.
as much as to sny, remarkable for incidents. The scenery and riveted to the spot, literally in breathless admi
" It is worth the trouble, is it not?”. I was the cities Mr. Watson saw were beautiful in ration. Never before had I felt such a deep, themselves or interesting for their associa- such an awful sense of the power of the Altion. For the most part, however, they have mighty. often been described already; and if the au- We stood on the edge of a precipitous chasm, thor docs not make too much of his descrip- sharp and rugged as if the mountuin hnd just tion, he does not stick to his text. One been rent asunder. The internal surface, as far thing in one place suggests something else as the eye could penetrate, consisted of a coating like it which he has seen in another place, of sulphureous earth, which seemed to be conand the reader is favored with both at fulltinually burning without being consumed ; length. He also falls into the too common whilst through innumerable fissures jets of flame
darted up, and played over the glowing mass, * A Cruise in the Ægean. The Retrospect of a dazzling the eye by the intense brightness and Summer Journey Westward “from the Great City variety of their coloring. The jagged, irregular by Propontic Sea.” Including an Ascent of Mount outline of the whole crater is divided by a vast Etna. By Walter Watson. Published by Har- projecting wall of rock, of most singular aprison.
pearance, coated with the deposit of the fumes