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From Chambers' Journal. twenty-fire miles an hour, he was indignant,

and set himself to prove, which he did enPOOH-POOH.

tirely to his own satisfaction, that the carPoon-Poou is a surly old gentleman, not riages would not go at anything like that without his virtues. It is his delight to speed - if driven to it, the wheels would throw cold water on ardent projectors, and merely spin on their axles, and the carriages save people from deluding themselves with would stand stock-still. He was sincerely extravagant views of human improvement. anxious that this should prove the case, and There is the same kind of respectability about we may imagine his feelings when the plan Pooh-pooh which makes Liberals glad whep was realized with tho effect contemplated by they can get a Conservative to head a requi- its projectors. The same unsanguine gentlesition, or take the chair at a meeting. But man gave a lecture at Newcastle, in 1838, to Pooh-pooh is more remarkable for his bad prove to the British Association that steamside than his good one. Without hopes or ers could never cross the Atlantic. Some faith in anything himself, he tends to dis- people wished, boped, prayed that they might courage all hopeful effort in others. Had he cross the Atlantic; he indulged in a calm but his way, there would never be any brilliant happy belief that they never would. Here, or highly useful thing done. He would keep too, he underwent the mortification of defeat. all down to a fixed level of routine, passable, Not long after that time, Mr. Rowland Hill but only just enough to escape censure. He started the idea of a universal Penny Postage. wishes to make the course he takes appear as He showed many facts in favor of the feasispringing from a hatred of the extravagant; bility of the scheme ; and the public entered but it often comes mainly from a desire to warmly into his views. But Pooh-pooh had avoid being troubled, or, worse still, from a long been on intimate terms with the postjealousy of the people who strive to be extra- office officials, und under his advice these gengood or great. He certainly is not quite the tlemen did all they could to prevent the pubinfallible

sage

he wishes to pass for. lic from being gratified. When the new plan The fact is, there is not one of the impor- was carried, in spite of all opposition, Mister tant inventions and extensions of power of the Pooh-pooh felt of course that a very foolish last wonderful age, which has not had to thing had been done, and he foretold its enstruggle against the chilling philosophy of tire failure. It must have been with a sore Mister Pooh-pooh. History is full of the in-heart that be has seen the number of letters stances in which he has condemned, as im- multiplied sevenfold in ten or twelve years, practicable and absurd, proposals which have the revenuo not much diminished, and everyultimately, in spite of hím, borne the fairest body besides himself pleased. fruit. Gas-lighting was referred to Sir lie is apt to be rather shabby afterwards Humphry Davy and Wollaston, as the two about his false premises and prophecies. men best qualified to judge of its feasibility; When the Crystal Palace was projected, and but Mister Pooh-pooh was at their elbow, to Pooh-pooh was consulted, he said it would insinuate all sorts of objections and difficul- never stand the winds, but quickly tumble ties, and they pronounced against an article down like a castle of cards. Afterwards, when of domestic utility which is now used, more this hope of his—for his inauspicious views are or less, in nearly every house in every town always founded upon hopes was proved by and village in the kingdom. It was all that the event to be fallacious, he explained the steam-navigation could do to get over Pooh- matter away; he bad only said that, unless pooh's opposition. Even James Watt, who made of the requisite strength, it would fall ! had in a manner made the steam-engine, gave He does not like to be reminded of his false way to the whispers of Pooh-pooh regarding predictions ; but it is seldom he has to suffer its use in vessels. Sir Joseph Banks was in that way, for, when a great and useful novapplied to by some enthusiastic advocate of elty has been successfully accomplished, the this application; when, under the inspiration public generally confines its thoughts to the of Pooh-pooh, who stood beside him, he said : honored author, taking but little heed of Mis" It is a pretty plan, sir; but there is just ter Pooh-pooh and his now vain prognosticaone little point overlooked — that the steam- tions who, on his part, seldom then goes engine requires a firm basis on which to beyond a few quiet nibbles at the grandeur work." He sent away the man, under the of the achievement. disgrace of his pity, and, we suppose, thought Pooh-pooh has his favorite positions in this no more of the matter till he heard of steam-world. He likes, above all things, to be in ers plying regularly on the Hudson and the office. His defensive negative policy is seen Clyde, with or without the firm basis to work there in its greatest force. Indeed, it scarcely upon.

has an existence elsewhere than in places of When Pooh-pooh first heard that some dignity and trust. From his being practipersons were so mad as to think of carriages cally connected with things, he knows their being drawn by steam on rails at the rate of difficulties, which dreamers out of office have

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no idea of; and thus it is that he feels him to his reputation. It must be owned that, self entitled to speak so confidently against once he is committed, nothing can exceed the every new thing that is proposed. Already heroism with which he maintains his consistburdened with a duty which perhaps occu- ency throughout all the stages of the refutapies no less than four hours out of every tion which events administer him. twenty-four, he feels, with good reason, a We are afraid that this is beginning to be horror of everything that proposes to bring rather an unpleasant world for Mister Poohnew trouble into his department. Even a pooh. It goes too fast for him. So many proposal to simplify his work he shrinks from, of his hopelessnesses have been falsified by grudging the trouble of considering or dis- events, that he must feel himself a little out cussing that from which he expects no suc- of credit. Then his own constant sense of

Pooh-pooh, too, has generally some disappointment! To find novelty after novtolerable degree of scientific reputation; it is elty“ getting on," as it were, in spite of his hard to say how acquired — sometimes, it is ominous head-shakings, must be a sad pain to be feared, only by looking wise and holding to his spirit, cool and congealed as it is. One his tongue. There he is, however, a kind of day, it is iron steamers another day, rise authority in such matters. Woe it is for any of wages under free-trade. Great reliefs are new project in mechanics, or any new idea given to misery, great positive additions made in science, to be referred to him, and all the to national happiness, where he long ago asmore so if it be a thing" in his line,” for no sured the world no such things could be. It. nercy will it meet! In the literary world, is too bad. I begin to feel almost sorry for the analogous situation for Pooh-pooh is that poor Mister Pooh-pooh under these circumof the old-established critic. He sits in the stances. It sets me upon recalling his vireditorial chair, apparently for the sole pur-tues, which, in his present unfortunate posipose of keeping down all the rising geniuses. tion, we are too apt to overlook - namely, Every new birth of poetic energy, every fresh his usefulness in saving us from rushing into upturn of philosopbic thought, is visited with all kinds of hasty, ill-concocted plans, and his determined hostility. He relishes most patronizing all kinds of plausible, superficial that which keeps nearest to his own temper- pretenders. Depend upon it, Mister Poohate and unoffending mediocrity.

pooh has his appointed place in the economy Pooh-pooh is less strong in a new country of a wise Providence ; and, therefore, pestithan an old. He hardly has a hold at all lent as he is sometimes with his leaden, imamong the fearless, bounding spirits of Aus- movable mind, I think we are called upon to ·tralia. The go-ahead Yankees despise him. adıninister only a qualified condemnation. In England, he has least strength in large The drag is but a clumsy part of the mechancities and amongst the active mercantile ism of a carriage, but it has sometimes the classes. He is strongest in official circles, honor of being indispensable to the saving of old-fashioned genteel towns, and torpid vil- all the rest from destruction. lages. But he has a certain strength everywhere, for he is a bit of human nature. We have no doubt that, even amongst the gold

DECLIVITY or RIVERS. —A very slight dediggers, he might occasionally be found clivity suffices to give the running motion to shaking his head, and turning away with his water,

Three inches per mile, in a smooth, characteristic contemptuous air froin propo- straight channel, gives a velocity of about three sals of new

miles an hour. The Ganges, which gathers the prospectings.' The external aspect of Mister Pooh-pooh the world, is, at 1,800 miles from its mouth, only

waters of the Himalaya Mountains, the loftiest in is hard and repelling. He has a firm, well- about 800 feet above the level of the sea - about sct, self-satisfied air, as much as to say: twice the height of St. Paul's, in London, or the “ Don't speak to me about that, sir.” He height of Arthur's Seat, in Edinburgh - and to has a number of phrases, which he uses so fall these 800 feet in its long course the water often that they come to his tongue without requires more than a month. The great river - any effort of his will ; such as, " It will never Magdalena, in South America, running for 1,000

-"All that has been thought of before, miles between two ridges of the Andes, falls only but we know there is nothing in it”. 500 feet in all that distance ; above the com* People are always meddling with things mencement of the 1,000 miles it is seen descendthey know nothing about ;'' and so forth. ing in rapids and cataracts from the mountains. We might call them pet phrases, if it could The gigantic Rio de la Plata has so gentle a debe imagined that Mister Pooh-pooh had a miles from its mouth, large ships are seen which

scent to the ocean, that, in Paraguay, 1,500 favor for anything; but this we well know he have sailed against the current all the way by has not. There is great reason to suspect the force of the wind alone — that is to say, that, from the readiness of these phrases to which, on the beautifully inclined plane of the come to his toogue, he has on several occa- stream, have been gradually listed by the soft sions committed himself to opposition where wind, and even against the current, to an clevaa low moments’ thought would have sufficed tion greater than that of our loftiest spires. to show him that that course was dangerous Arnott's Physics.

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for lost, and never stopping until she reached The Frontier Lands of the Christian and the her boat, when she recrossed the river. The Turk ; comprising Travels in the Regions

Turks collected among themselves the whole of the Lower Danube in 1850 and 1851. By their company, reporting to him what had taken

amount due to her, and took it to the captain of á British Resident of Twenty Years in the place. He laid the case before Ibrahim Pasha, East. 2 vols. Bentley.

who sent him across the frontier with the money. THESE portly volumes have a double interest It happened to be a market day in the Austrian at this time. In the first place, they contain town, and the arrival of a Turkish officer created a graphic, sensible, and interesting record of a great sensation ; but, when he inquired for the travel, of personal adventure, and of scholar- woman and handed to her the price of her bread, like reflections on men and things ; – in the the whole affair was understood ; the officer was second, they appear at a moment when politi- repeatedly cheered by the people in the streets, cal events have caused all eyes to be turned who shouted, “ Long live the Turks !” and he towards the east of Europe, and when the returned to the camp with a great many of them, countries which they describe are the topic of the conduct of the troops towards their country

who accompanied him to express their thanks for nearly all conversation.

Our author confesses that he went into the Christian provinces of Turkey with some prej- Our traveller stayed some time at Travnik ; udices against its religion and government; where he became acquainted with the princibut being anxious only for facts, and open to pal Turks, and especially with the famous the reception of evidence, his prejudices grad. Omar Pasha, who put down the Bosnian inually melted away in the lights of a better surrection in 1851, commanded the Ottomau knowledge of the country -- and ho appears forces in Montenegro — and who, should certo have come back from his sojourn in the tain events now on the cards turn up, is the frontier lands of the two creeds with a deep man designated for still higher military empreference for the mild and open rule of the ployments. Of these several officers we have Sultan as coropared against the irritating spy- vivid and pleasing pictures : that of Omar system of the Austrian Kaiser or the more Pasha and his family is particularly interestviolent principles of the Muscovite emperor. ing. Omar was by birth a Croat. He comThis is a valuable testimonial. It is the more menced his career by entering one of the striking as being unbought and unexpected - Austrian frontier regiments; but quitted that

the result of careful examination, and of service for the army of the Sultan, in which considerable intercourse with all classes of the he has risen by merit alone to the very highpeople, from Islam Pasbas and Christian est rank. The reader will probably recollect bishops downwards.

that the Austrian cabinet claimed this disRefraining, as we must, from all discussion tinguished soldier, in the beginning of the of the political questions here laid open, and present year, as “ a deserter and refugee !" agitated with sufficient zeal and earnestness Our traveller says of his personal appearance elsewhere we will seek to convey to the

-“He is a middle-aged man, tall and slight, reader by a few short extracts an idea of the with a good countenance and mild, unaffected “Resident's” style of writing, and some manners, and with an exceedingly soldiermeans of judging of the present state of the like bearing.” He speaks German and Italcountries visited and described by him. Here, ian fluently, as well as Turkish and the for example, is a characteristic anecdote of Sclavonic dialects of the Lower Danube. His Moslem probity an anecdote in rather wife is said to be a splendid pianist and a strong contrast with the military Macaire-ism good composer ; and his little daughter is of most of our European soldiers :

described as a paragon of beauty and goodness.

- These Turks were not the only acquaintance Bakers from Austria were in the habit of cross- whom the tourist found at Travnik. IIC ing the river Unni to sell white bread in the writes : camp. The troops, having had few opportunities of spending their pay during the war, were well I had many opportunities of meeting another provided with money, and, the quantity of these Austrian at Travnik, who was neither more nor loaves being always insufficient, there was gen- less than a government spy. He arrived there erally a scramble for them. The bakers, soon shortly after me ; and I was assured, on compefinding that every one of the men who had thus tent authority, that his especial duty was to obtained a loaf, came forward voluntarily to pay watch me and report on all I did or said, and for it, adopted the practice of leaving them to perhaps on a good deal that I did not either do arrange the preference among themselves, and or say. It was a singular fact, however, that of throwing down the bread to be distributed as although aware of this, I took a great liking to they liked. A woman, however, who had come him. He forced his society on me at all hours ; over for the first time on this errand, took fright he always appeared when I paid a visit, and when the Turkish soldiers began snatching the generally followed every one who called on me ; loaves, although they did so with perfect good- but he was such an amusing companion, and ho humor, and she ran away, giving up her bread) did his dirty work with so good a grace, that he

19

CCCCLXXX.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. II.

quite disarmed my indignation. And I think he him was not strong, and the court decided that took a liking to me too, possibly because I saved his chains should be struck off - gave him a cerhim the trouble of employing the more elaborate tificate of dismissal to prevent his being molested resources of his profession by telling, generally by the police, and set him free. The poor man unasked, all he wished to know. I had nothing almost lost his wits with joy ; he fell on his to conceal, and I made no secret of my researches knees, and kissed the ground at the feet of the after truth in the countries I was visiting. At two Pashas. It was a remarkable fact, and a first he seemed to mistake my frankness for skil- fact that is most eloquent in favor of the spirit ful duplicity, on Talleyrand's principle of speak- now existing amongst the Turks, that this man ing the truth in order to deceive, as it would not was a Christian, while those I saw committed be believed ; but he soon understood me, is he for trial were Mahometans. The other young was very clever, and then we got on famously, man was a handsome youth, probably not more for I dictated the reports that were forwarded than'sixteen or seventeen years of age. He was about myself, and made the most of an intimacy accused of having led the rebels of his district, which I could not avoid.

300 in number, and of having fought with great

success in several battles. He refused to make Most readers have a notion, more or less any answer to the questions put to him. Ahmed vague, of drum-head trials and military justice Pasha then addressed the old man whom he had as these matters are conducted in civilized ordered to remain, and who now fell completely countries. Here we have such a scene as into the snare, in spite of all his cunning ; for witnessed by our author in the Turkish camp he supposed that he was forgiven, and wished to at Bosnia :

show his gratitude by zeal for the government.

He replied to Ahmed Pasha that the youth was In a large marquee we found twelve field- the well-known Hassan Bey, who had contribofficers with the Mufti, or doctor of Mahometan uted more towards the active sustaining of the law, seated on two lines of divans, at the upper insurrection than any of the other chiefs. The ends of which were the places of the two majors- lad looked astonished at this denunciation ; but general, Arab Ahmed Pasha and Mustapha it made him speak at last, and to the purpose. Pasha, and near them, two clerks, to record the “ Yes,” he said, “I am Hassan Bey ; I was a proceedings. When we had all sat down, for the chief; and I did what I could against the govofficers rose to receive us, pipes, narghilés, and ernment. I am ready to hear my sentence; but coffee were brought, and the day's work com- not alone. Who made me a chief? You, Abmenced, Osman Aga having taken his stand be dullah Aga ! you came to my house when my hind me to explain what was going on. The father had been killed at Vutshiak, and you court was commissioned to examine and class the persuaded me to take his place. My mother prisoners, with the power of acquitting those it refused to let me go, and you told her that withfound innocent, but not possessing that of con- out me the men of the district would disband. demning the guilty, who were to be finally judged I went, but you did not. You sent us young by Omar Pasha and Haireddin Pasha, with sev- men, who believed your words, and you remained eral assessors. Five of the accused had been in your house. Pasha, I am guilty !” –“ Tshotselected to undergo this investigation of their juic!” said Ahmed Pasha. “Child ! our Paculpability. The first was a very tall and thin disha will, I hope, be merciful to your youth, and old man, of a cringing and sinister aspect. He we will recommend you for mercy. As for this had been a schoolmaster, and he was charged old traitor, he shall be sent to answer for having with having written the correspondence kept up misled you and others." between some of the rebel chiefs. He pleaded guilty to having indited the letters, but he denied In course of time, from being prejudiced that he had at the time any knowledge of their against Turkish rule, the English - Resident” real purport. The tenor of them, and his evi- became, as we have indicated, its strenuous dent acuteness, completely refuted this plea ; advocate ; — and on occasion, as for example and he was duly committed for trial by the when he soundly rates the Servians for dishigher court. The next prisoner was also an old loyalty, bis zeal becomes rather indiscreet and man, with a long white beard, who had been one

amusing :of the principal instigators and directors of the insurrection in Turkish Croatia, and who was, A few Serbs, who understood Greek, joined us, apparently, a cunning old fox. His name was and our conversation took a political turn. They Abdullah Aga, the servant of God. He asserted talked of the prince of Serbia, deserving the atthat he had not been present at any of the en- tachment of his countrymen, as being the son of gagements, and he succeeded in substantiating their deliverer, Czerny George ; and they menhis assertion by calling witnesses from among tioned the age of the prince's son, whom they those arrested, who all deposed in his favor ; treated as their future sovereign. This tissue but there was too strong an appearance of his of errors was too much for my patience. I told having been deeply implicated to admit of his them, that they knew nothing of their own hisacquittal. A good idea suggested itself to Ahmed tory and political condition, for the Serbs had Pasba ; he ordered that the old man should re- not been delivered any more than the remainder main in the tent during the trinl of the others. of the Sultan's subjects.

I assured Two young men were then brought in, chained them that their prince's son could never be their together. The first pleaded an alibi, which was sovereign because the Sultan alone was their sovweakly enough supported ; but the case against I ereign, and that the boy had no greater right to

war.

worn.

the post of governor-general, viceroy, prince, or When the Bora, as it is called in the country: whatever else it might be called, than any other blows violently, the heaviest wagons remain for eligible Serb; that dignity not being hereditary hours behind these walls waiting until it subin the family of his father.

My inter- sides, as nothing can withstand its force; and locutors evidently did not know what to make of instances have occurred when they have been all this, which was apparently to them a totally upset by a sudden blast, if their drivers ventured new view of the case. They said nothing in too soon beyond the shelter prepared for them ; reply, but they looked as if they wished me on while pedestrians are often obliged to lie down the other side of the Danube, or anywhere else at the foot of the parapets to escape being blown than in Serbia.

over the cliffs, and travellers have been found

frozen to death in this positiou on cold winter In the course of his wanderings in Croatia | nights. our author was enabled to pick up some information of interest in relation to the Hungarian The other passage which we shall quote

Several chapters are devoted to this contains a pasha's notion of the uses of the subject :— but the story is now rather old and yashmak :

The following, however, is important; for the fortunes of the East hang together, and

At dinner I talked to him of Djelaludin Pusha, any hostile movement against Turkey would and he told me that a case of suicide had taken be pretty sure to set valleys of the Lower place, quite lately, at Travnik. A young serDanube in a flame :

geant of one of his regiments had betrothed him.

self to the pretty daughter of a Bosniac. MussulI learnt at Carlovacz, with some degree of cer- man; the sergeant was shot through the head tainty, that if another attempt on the part of the at the battle of Krupa, and the girl blew out her Magyars should take place, they will be eagerly brains with a pistol when she heard how he died. joiced by the Croats. It appears that the former “ It all comes of not wearing the veil,” said the people still hope to achieve, if not complete na- pasha," and of letting affianced couples see each tional independence, at least more liberal insti- other. If she had always kept her yashmak on tutions than they have as yet enjoyed under the her face, she might have married another man, Austrian rule ; and that another insurrection for there would have been no great love in the is projected, which is not intended to break ont matter.' until its principles shall have spread over all the Sclavonian provinces of the Austrian empire ;

With these extracts, we take our leave of a while the Croatians now understand the error book from which we have derived much inthey fell into by opposing the Hungarians, and formation with regard to the Christian popuwill in future make common cause with them. lations of Turkey. We should add, that the They were induced to follow their Ban, in his volumes are embellisbed — the first with a campaign against Hungary, by promises of po- drawing of Jassy, and the second with a map litical enfranchisements, ard of diminutions in of the Danubian provinces. their fiscal burdens, which promises have subsequently been belied by him ; and he is now as unpopular among them as he was formerly revered. Their natural sympathies are all in favor INDIANS IN EUROPEAN DRESS. — As much as of the Hungarians.

I like to see an Indian in his native dress or We had marked a number of miscellaneous funny and disfigured do they look when they

ornament, be it as scanty as possible, equally passages in the course of perusal for extracts put on European clothes. They frequently have or comment - but will find space only for no idea for what purpose and in what order they two of them. The Grst is a brief note on the ought to be worn. First, a dress-coat, and then great Alpine road which connects Hungary a waistcoat, then part of a shirt, or a waistcoat with the Adriatic — built by the Austrians, by itself, or a pair of trousers, or three and four the greatest road-makers in the world. Our pair of them at the same time, they do not care ;

and they admire a uniform most — red, if pos

sible, with gold or silver. I frequently Silw I have crossed the Simplon, the St. Gothard, Indians in the greatest heat with three pairs of and the Ampezzo, all of which passages of the trousers, the upper ones pulled up as high as Alps are celebrated for the masterly style in they could get them, the second pair rolled up which the greatest obstacles are surmounted ; to their knees, and the undermost left to their but I do not think that any one of them displays natural length, to let all men see what a splendid such a degree of skill in tracing of the line, or wardrobe they call their own, and could afford. of perfection in its execution, as the Louisen-Cravats for garters, shirt-collars point downstrasse. There is not the slightest danger on wards, waistcoats buttoned behind, and other any part of the road ; parapets have been raised mistakes continually occur ; and, like children, wherever the height of the retaining walls is they hang upon them what they can get, and considerable, and protection from the furious sometimes even what they can buy with hardwinds of winter is provided at all the places earned money, till they get tired of it, and throw which are exposed to them, by raising these par- it aside. Gerstaecker's Journey Round the apets eight or ten feet above the level of the road. I World.

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