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gagement as a classical tutor, or a teacher of impracticably tough. The dinner-table was any kind, in the town. After this, I tried the same size as the stretchers ; and, with the merchants, 'and was very nearly getting its dirty blanket table-cloth, was perfectly in engaged as a clerk ; but somehow or other harmony with the beds that surrounded it (chiefly because no one had time to listen) so closely. None of the beds were made — it never came to anything. As to seeing a all in the same confusion as when left in the Melbourne merchant for a minute's conversa- morning by their respective occupants — and tion, you may call three or four times a day three persons were still lying in bed; one of for a week in succession, and never get more them rather drunk, and soliloquizing occuthan a glimpse of him. At last, seeing noth- sionally. Two more beds had been fitted up ing else, I engaged myself as a common like berths, or bunks, in a oabin, which were laborer on the roads, the wages being ten exactly at the back of the dinner-table ; 80 shillings a day. This would have done very that those who sat on that side had their well ; but unfortunately I had had no training elbows always in the berths behind; and in this way. The pain I suffered in the back over these two had been built four more, and shoulders was so extreme, and the exhaus- which placed the uppermost ones so near the tion every night so great - not to speak of roof of the tent that the lodger's nose must the dreadful effort it required to rise at five inevitably touch it as he lay. How the o'clock next morning and dress myself - that, lodger got up there, I did not see; but I after a week, I was compelled to give it up suppose he clambered from berth to berth till I now sell lemonade and lemon kali, at a little he attained the summit of his wishes. The stand at the corner of Elizabeth street, near brown sugar was very dark, sandy, stony, the Post-ofice, with a few cakes in a basket, wet, and conglomerated, and the coffee was and a glass full of acidulated drops and bull's the color of muddy water, after it had been eyes for the rising generation. My wife gets stirred. I half shut-to my eyes, and made an work from one of the milliners in Collins excellent dinner. After a man has worked street, East.
on the roads he finds a good deal of his fine I always come home to dinner, and now edge gone. As Hudibras says, on being and then we laugh over so.ne little advonture knocked down, I have met with in my illustrious vocation.
I am not now in fortune's power ; When the wind and dust make cooking out
He who is down can fall no lower. side a tent next to impossible, I get a cup of
Ι coffee and a chop at the London Coffee This tent life at Canvass Town is certainly Rooms; and on one occasion I went to the a very strange one. If it were really pastoral National Dining and Lodging Tent, where not even to hint at Arcadia or simply they profess to have a boiled or baked joint a life in the green fields, there is something every day at one o'clock, with potatoes and in human nature, however highly civilized, coffee, all for the small charge of eighteen that has continually made people of the pence. The dining department seemed to be highest education and refinement feel a longmanaged by a dirty girl of sixteen, and a re- ing funcy to get rid of stringent conventionmarkably dirty little Irish boy, of about alities, and to return for a time to a private twelve, was the waiter. The tent was rather state of existence. Kings and their courts large, in comparison with the average, but it have often indulged in this, and all our piowus uncommonly full of furniture, especially nics are small indications of the same tenof beds and bedding. The whole surface was dency. But this will never do in a tent or occupied with wooden stretchers, on which lay grotto in Australia. It is the last sort of à confusion of odiously dirty and torn blankets thing -- particularly for ladies. Besides the and coverlets ; some of a dull yellow hammy want of grass
except in color ; some mottled, and some of a shade ap- the winter and rainy spring season and proaching to pule black, while over all of the consequent want of shade, even among them lay a iné bloom of dust. At one end the trees, there is the plague of dust; and of the tent was a dining-table, covered also old Egypt had few that were worse. The with a blanket for a table-cloth ; which, be- climax of this plague is of course when the sido being a fellow one to those on the beds hot wind sets in; but the ordinary wind, (and perhaps doing double duty), had the with its long dust-storms, is quite enough to additional advantage of being bestrewn and destroy everything, we associate with the besmutched with potuto parings, islands of pastoral and romantic. At Canvass Town it stale mustard, grease, gravy, grime, and grit is felt as quite a curse. Thero is no excluding of cooking ashes, broad plains and continents it. You can keep out rain, even the heaviest, of coffee and tea, which had been spilled, but dust finds its way through the smallest and smears of wet brown sugar. Knives, crevices, covers everything, is always between forks, and spoons, some without handles, your teeth, and insinuates itself under every were all equally tilthy. The plates, however, part of your dress. My wife has to wash the were rather cleun, and the meat good, though I children from head to foot in strong soap-Buds
(we have to do the same with ourselves) every bleached or unbleached calico. There are night; and if we were all to do so twice a blue tents, bed-tick tenis, and wain-covered day besides, it would be no more than we all wagons. There are squares, and rounds, need. Yet, the children do not play about and triangles, and wedges, and pyramids; very much, as we send them to an infant frameworks of rough branches, and tents like school recently started in one of the tents by tall sugar-loaves or extinguishers, and others a barrister of superior attainments. We buy of the squab molehill form, and many of no our fire-wood of the young gentleman who defined form ; being in some instances double deals in that article and brings it from the and treble (one tent opening inside into bush, as he bas a horse and dray for that. pur- another), and, in other instances, having pose ; but our supply of water I get myself been blown all awry by the winds; or set up from the Yarra in two water-cans every morn- badly, or with rotten cordage. Here and ing before breakfast, and the last thing at there you see patchwork tents, made up of night, by which we save fourpence a day all sorts of odds and ends of bedding, clothing,
The general appearance of this unique blankets, sheets, aprons, petticoats, and town is not very easy to describe. It has too counterpanes; or old sails, and pieces of tar*many tents to be at all like a gypsy encamp- paulin, matting, packing stuff, and old bits ment, and the utter want of all uniformity in of board with the tin lining of a case of goods ; the tents renders it quite as unlike an Arab old bits of licen of all colors filling up the settlement, or military encampment.
The intervals. Sometimes, also, you come upon a nearest thing of all to it is that of a prodig, very melancholy one which makes you pause iously extensive fair ; all tents and small -ă so-called tent, of six feet long, rising booths, but without shows, music, games, from a slant to three feet high in the middle, visitors, or anything pleasant. It has no gilt, so small and low, indeed, that the wretched and very little gingerbread. Luxury, of the occupant (with, perhaps, a wife) must crawl most cheap and childish kind, has no place in beneath it like a dog, and lie there till he here; even comfort, partly for want of money, crawls out again. It is like a squalid tumubut more on account of dust, is impossible. lus. Such as these are made of any odd bits Finally, there is a mixture of the highly edu- of clothing or covering stuck up by sticks cut cated with the totally uneducated, the re- in the bush. There are but few so wretched fined with the semi-brutal (many a convict as this. with his bull-dog being among us), all dress- The appearance of this place by night, ing as roughly, and faring precisely alike. when nearly every tent shines, more or less,
Close to every tent is a round or oval hole with its candle, lamp or lantern, is very pecufor the fire, to be protected from the wind; liar, and on the whole sombre and melanwith the addition of an old saucepan lid, or a choly, the light through the canvass being sheet of tin from the lining of a case of goods. subdued to a funereal gleam. Singing is Over the hole a piece of bent or curled-up heard at rare intervals, with sounds of musio iron hoop is placed to sustain the pot, pan, or from various quarters; but it is generally all kettle. The front of each tent presents a con-over by nine o'clock; and, by hall-past, lights glomerate specimen of all its owner's worldly out, and the encampment is silent. Tents possessions. The whole surface of the en- are continually left without any protection, campment is strewn with the rubbish and such a thing as robbery of a tent being unrefuse of those who are gone ; some immi- known. This is surprising, considering the grants only staying a week. Cast-away mixture here, and how close we are to Melcoats, trousers, shoes, boots, bonnets, hats, bourne, where there are plenty of thieves. I bottles — whole or broken, but mostly whole suppose the latter are too high-minded for us
- by hundreds ; broken articles of furniture, poor people. cooking utensils, all grimed with dust, if not Deaths and funerals are more than usually battered or half buried in the ground. A melancholy sights in Canvass Town. The - Jew assured me, the other day, that if he could dead are often utterly friendless. One day a but have found such a treasure in England, tent, where a man and his wife and child 'robe could with ease have made a thousand a- sided, was closed for two or three days, the year.
tent being, laced up, and they never appearThere are several sects of religion here ; ing. On looking in, all three were seen lying and, on Sunday, the air is filled with the dead among some dry rushes – of want, slow voices of the praying and singing of these fever, broken hearts — nobody knew unything different persuasions, all going on at the same about them. It is quite as gloomy when
time at different parts of the ground, and all there are one or two relations or friends. • in some degree audible to an impartial listener The nearest relations carry the body ; the
in his own tent. There are new tents of rest, if any, follow. Sometimes you see the water-proof canvass, " best twice-boiled navy husband and wife carrying the little body of - brown,” number one canyass, number two, a child enfolded in something — with, I be= three, four, down to brown hollund, and I lieve, only canvass underneath, for cofin and
Once I saw a husband, alone, expect any marked hospitality. Still we slowly carrying the dead body of his wife, ought not to be made to feel that we have with a little child following — the one landed on the most inhospitable shore on the
face of the civilized globe. Yet such is MelGreat efforts were made in this colony, bourne, colonized by people speaking our some short time since, to induce people to own language, and professing our own recome to Australia — the Home Government ligion -- in fact, our own countrymen ; and still sending out ship-loads. Now, we have many hundreds, nay thousands, will say the come too numerously on a sudden. We did same besides the unfortunate denizens of not come to oblige the colonists, but to reach Canvass Town. the gold fields, and therefore we should not |
JLD CLOTHES IRELAND.
permanent, as the very first suit would be found
to carry the wearer further on than the two old DR. FORBES notices the odious propensity of suits he had been accustomed to buy for about the lower orders in Ireland to wear the cast the same money. off clothes of others, in place of buying simple garments for themselves ; and we entirely
UNTRUTHFULNESS OF THE IRISH. coincide in his views :
ONE of the most amusing passages in Dr. The men were much less presentable, owing to Forbes' work is that in which be, whether that abominable habit, so long prevalent among seriously or jocosely we cannot determine, the poor in Ireland, of wearing the cast-off clothes deals with the alleged "untruthfulness” of of others. It is, however, but just to my Leitrim the Irish. friends to say that this costume was seen but comparatively seldom among them, compared I am ready to admit that I have often heard with places further south and west ; and still it Irishmen say the thing that was not ; oftener, was seen much too often. This habit, originat- certainly, than I have heard Englishmen or ing, no doubt, in poverty, has, I think, been Scotchmen say it ; but I cannot, on my own carried much further than was absolutely authority, accuse them of telling a downright necessary, merely because it had become a intentional lie more frequently than other people. habit. I think it must be beginning to wear An Irishman's lips are more the sudden exout, as I observe that a fair proportion of the pression of emotional feeling than lies — bounces, boys and young men show themselves, at least white-lies, at most ; they spring from the same on Sundays, in jackets and short coats, evidently intellectual source as his wit, his bulls, and his originals. When such a change has become fun, and have a close alliance with the quick general, it will enable Old Ireland to put a much geniality and kindness of his heart. His imbetter face, at least, upon her poverty, if, indeed, pulsive nature makes him speak before he has the change itself may not be looked on as evi- had time to think, and hence he often speaks dence of the diminution of that calamity. Noth- wrong ; his eager desire to oblige, to assent, to ing could convey to a stranger a stronger im- favor, overpowers for the moment the perception pression of wretchedness and untidiness than or recollection of all opposing facts ; and hence this vicarious costume of the Irish, disfiguring he often says yes when he should say no, or no at once to the person of the wearers, and calling when he should say yes. But give Paddy time forth in the mind of the observer the most disa- to think, and to become calm, and to bridle his greeable associations. Even when not in holes, as fancy, and he will speak as truly and wisely as they too often are, those long-tailed coats almost another man ; when the froth has had time to touching the ground, and those shapeless breeches subside the genuine liquor will be found below. with their gaping knee-bands sagging below the I can, at least, say that I have practically found calf of the leg, are the very emblems and en- this to be the case ; and I propound my theory signs of beggary and degradation. I believe, with confidence, as one capable of washing out moreover, that the use of such garments is a this blot, at least, from poor Paddy's escutcheon. great mistake, and not by any means so inevi. That an Irishman can and sometimes does tell table a result of the want of means as is com- downright, intentional, motived lies, which no monly supposed. Like all cheap bad things, theory but that of cowardice or wickedness can they prove, in the end, much dearer than good explain, is, no doubt, too true ; that he does 80 new clothing, which will last three or four times more frequently than other men I can neither as long as most of these refurbished but rotten of my knowledge assert nor deny ; but I honestly commodities. A little management, with the believe that the chief part of his alleged misdoaid of their more well-to-do neighbors to plan for ings in this way that part which has attached them and to act for them, would soon bring the to him the evil reputation he bears - may be new clothing within easy reach of many who easily and justly explained, and explained away, now think themselves only able to grasp the on the simple psychological hypothesis givca old. Once adopted, the improvement must be above.
From Chambers' Journal.
century, a small number of the fire-worship THE MODERN PARSEES.
pers betook themselves to the Khorasan moun
tains, or the scarcely less dreary deserts of The western highlands of Asia are generally their own country ; whence, about half a cenconsidered as the geographical centre of the tury afterwards, a company of them sailed for human race the region where man was first the western coasts of Hindostan, obtained created, and from wbich the streams of popu- leave to form settlements under the rajahs of lation issued in every direction over the habit- the country, and acquired the appellation of able globe.
It is a favorite remark with some Parsees. The first Englishman whose attenof the most eminent geographers of our day, tion they appear to have excited was Mr. Lord, that, in proportion as any family departed from who, above 220 years ago, published a short this centre in the earlier ages of the world, account of the community, as he became acthey gradually became intellectually, morally, quainted with them at Surat, and gained a and even physically degenerate; the degraded knowledge of their religion through one of Hottentot, the stunted Esquimaux, the wild their priests. According to his information, Bosjesman, and the miserable inhabitant of the duties of the laity, as prescribed in the Tierra del Fuego, being pointed out as the ex- Zend-avesta, appear to be almost wholly of a treme examples of this deterioration. It would moral character, and nowise remarkable. The be beside our present purpose to follow these clergy, who are divided into two orders, are savants in their theories on this subject; we obliged to observe a greater degree of holiness. advert to the fact only for the sake of more A priest of the higher class is enjoined never effectively introducing to our readers the ves to touch any person of any strange religion tiges of a people who were cradled in or very whatever, or even a layman of his own; if he near the favored spot; whose fatherland was do so, he must thoroughly wash himself before once the seat of the most extensive empire, approaching Deity in prayer. He must perand probably of the highest civilization then form with his own hand whatever is necessary known ; and who now, after an exile of about for his own life — such as setting the herbs 1200 years, still retain certain personal and in his garden, sowing the seed in his field, mental endowments which mark them as a and dressing his victuals ; and this, both in race decidedly superior to the more distant testimony of his humility, and for the preserAsiatics among whom their lot is cast. vation of his sanctity. He is obliged to con
The earliest extant poetry of the Persians secrate to charitable uses all the overplus of places before our imagination a people living his large revenues, after supplying the wants under a sky of unclouded azure, which easily of a recluse and austere life. He is forbidden induced the study of astrology, if not the wor- to make known the divine revelations be reship of the heavenly bodies; treading on fields ceives in the visions of the night; and, above enamelled with roses, hyacinths, and anem- all, he is enjoined to keep up an ever-living fire, ones, instead of daisies, buttercups, and dan- kindled from that which Zerdusht brought delions ; reposing amid groves of pomegranate, from heaven with the book of the law; which vocal with the song of the nightingale ; and fire is to endure till fire shall come to destroy luxuriating in all the pleasures, both of sense the world. To provide, however, for the posand imagination, to which such circumstances sibility of this tire suffering extinction, or of naturally gave birth. Nor do we question the its being impossible, under some circumchivalrous character attributed by one of our stances, to obtain a communication from it, own poets to the gallant fire-worshippers, who the Parsees are allowed to compose one of withstood to the death the efforts of the Mos- various mixtures, when necessary - and the lem to subject them to the sceptre of the ca- greater the number of sources the better; liphs and the religion of the Prophet; neither seven at least are indispensable. The most are we disposed to make much less of the hero- celebrated one in India, which had been kept ism of those who escaped death or subjugation alive for above 200 years before Mr. Lord's by seeking in foreign lands a refuge for them- time, had been coin posed, first, of fire produced selves and a shrine for their faith. But we by the striking of a steel ; secondly, of that have before us a volume which Lalla Rookh made by rubbing two pieces of wood together ; excited our curiosity to see, and which has, thirdly, of that occasioned by lightning; we must confess, dispersed the day-dream the fourthly, of wild-fire, which had laid hold of poem had created ; at least, has forced on sometbing combustible ; fifthly, of ordinary us the conviction, that if Gueber life in the artificial fire, kindled in coals or wood; sixthseventh century was the essence of poetry, ly, of that used by the Hindoos in the burnthat in the nineteenth is the quintessence of ing of their dead; and seventhly, of that obprose.
tained from the beams of the sun, by means For the sake of those of our readers who of burning-glasses. The most remarkable of are little versant in Oriental matters, we ad- the usages connected with this religion may vert to the circumstance that, after the Mo- be thus briefly described :hammedan conquest of Persia, in the seventh When the Parsees assemble for worship in
the temple or fire-house, they stand round the fre commanded perfect silence. The priest, at the distance of eleven or twelve feet from it, standing at a distance, pronounces that, “ as and the priest utters a speech, to the effect that, this, our brother, while he lived, consisted of as fire is the virtue and excellence of Deity, it the four elements, now he is dead, let each must be worshipped as part of him; and that take his own – earth to earth, air to air, all things resembling it, as the sun and moon, water to water, and fire to fire." which proceeded from it, are to be loved ; and According to the more recent author alluded they pray that they may be forgiven if, in the to,* the Parsees are now far from remaining ordinary uses of this element, they should so peculiar a people as they were two hundred either spill water on it, or supply it with any years ago. They have spread from their orig. fuel unworthy of its purity, or commit any inal settlements in Western Hindostan into other irreverence or abuse, in the necessary various parts of the East; and, like the Jews employment of it for the wants of their com- in their dispersion, have retained certain of
their ancient usages, which, as well as their As soon as a child is born the priest is physical constitution, mark them as a distinct sent for ; and, on his arrival, he ascertains the race ; while they devote themselves to comprecise moment when the birth took place, mercial pursuits with such keenness, that they calculates the nativity according to astrologi- are known as eager and unscrupulous moneycal rules, an names the infant. Some time makers, much more than as zealous fire-worafterwards the child is brought to the temple, shippers. They seem to have attached themwhen the priest takes pure water, and puts it selves peculiarly to the Europeans, who are into the bárk of a tree which grows at Yezd, now in the ascendant. The Parsce has not in Persia, and which they say receives no only been the best sutler to the British forces shadow from the sun. Out of this he pours in Scinde, Afghanistan, and Lahore, but he the water on the child, praying that it may is generally the mess-agent at the different thus be cleansed from the pollutions of its military stations throughout the presidency of parents. At seven years of age the child is Bombay; he is found likewise in some localagain taken to the temple, to receive religious ities of Bengal and Madras, and in the British instructions; and as soon as he knows the consular ports of China. He endeavors by all required prayers perfectly by heart, he is di- means to obtain for his sons an education in rected to repeat them over the fire, his mouth the English language, which many of them and nostrils being covered with a cloth, lest speak and write with remarkable facility. The his sinful breath should pollute it. After government offices, the banks, the merchants' prayers he is required to drink water, chew counting-houses, and the attorneys' offices, are å pomegranate leaf, and wash himself in a crowded with clerks of this race. tank, when he is considered inwardly and out- The Parsees are personally distinguished wardly clean, and the priest invests him with from the Hindoos of Lower India by a taller, the liñen sadra, or sacred shirt, and the girdle larger, and more athletic figure ; and they of camel's hair, woven by his own hand. He bave the bold formation of countenance, the then prays over him, that he may continue a fine aquiline nose, with well-developed nosfaithful follower of the religion of which these trils, the large black eyes, and well-turned garments are the badge. All which being chia, which we admire in the Armenian ; duly transacted, the child is held a confirmed while the long ears, heavy eyebrows, and Parsee.
thick, sensual-looking lips, must be regarded For the celebration of funeral rites the as drawbacks. Some of them are as fair as Parsees have in each of their settlements two Europeans ; but, instead of the ruddy complextombs or towers, built of a circular shape, ion in the north, they exhibit the sallowness large, pretty high from the ground, and some- which even ourselves acquire by long residence what distant from each other. One is for in India. Parsees are notoriously given to those who have led a commendable life; the good-living. The best of Aesh, fish, and fowl other, for such as may have been notoriously are whipped from a bazaar for their consumpYicious. The tombs are paved inside with tion; pork and beef are their aversion ; but shelving-stones, and in the middle is a deep mutton-bams are imported by some of the pit to receive bones. All around the walls gentry for their use. Every description of are laid the sbrouded and sheeted dead, es- European wine is drunk. In the making up posed to the action of the elements, and the of their victuals, the Parsees are rather gross, Tavages of the beasts and birds which frequent as they use large quantities of clarified butter, the spot ; after which, the bones are collected, commonly known as ghee. Confectionery of and deposited in the receptacle mentioned. A every variety is largely partaken of, and bread priest may not come within ten feet of a after the English fashion is eaten by almost corpse, nor may the corpse be permitted to every member of the tribe. The Parsee comtouch wood, because this is the fuel of the holy fire ; it is laid on an iron bier, and car- * The Parsoes. By H. G. Briggs. Oliver and ried to the spot by appointed persons, who are Boyd.