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had he not persecuted himself, he need not saying, "I am certain that God exists of bimhave felt the persecutions of the world. In self." 'But shortly after we find,“ Frankly youth be destroyed his constitution by ex- I confess that neither the pro nor con (on the cesses; he made every misfortune worse by existence of God) appears to me deinonhis manner of enduring it. When he was strated.”. The same variableness characterized humiliated by being forbidden to eat his mas- many of his other opinions. He loved the ter's asparagus or apples, he degraded himself sciences, yet received a crown from those who infinitely more by stealing them. When he reviled them. He wrote against dramatic was reduced to the condition of a valet, he performances, yet composed several operas. went a thousand degrees lower, and became a He extolled the amenities of friendship, and thief. When Madame de Warens deserted sought friends, yet broke faith with many of him, he was unable to console himself with them. He not only praised, but explained the reflection that he had acted with fidelity the nature of virtue, yet daily committed an towards her. When he was an outcast from infringement of its laws.
He confesses & society, he made his children aliens from their hundred base and humiliating actions, yet father. When his wife wronged him, he was vaunts himself as a paragon of men. He an accomplice in her offences. And, finally, writes the most beautiful advice for mothers, when he summed up the record of his life, he yet abandons his own children ; spends years blackened his own fame, destroyed the fame in elaborating a theory of education - perniof others, and left a confession which is of cious though it was yet allows his offspring value as a lesson, but, in our opinion, has to sink among the nameless swarms of the been far more prolific of evil than of good. Foundling Hospital. It cannot, therefore,
Therefore, though Rousseau might justly excite wonder that this man fuctuated in complain that many others were false to him, his religious belief. At one time he apostahe could never boast that he had been true to tized for the sake, he confesses, of gain, himself. This, while it lessens our commis- that he might live as a pensioner on the eration for the pitiable victim of his own ca- bounty of his friends. At another, rather prices, does not, however, diminish in any de- than receive any one's bounty, he condemned gree the opprobrium which attaches to his himself to copy music at three-halfpence a persecutors. They were not all, it is true, page, when he might have been writing works equally reprehensible, because they acted every line of which an after-generation would under different conditions, and from motives have prized more than gold. the most various. When the French govern- Be this as it may, it is certain that Rousment attacked him, it was upon their tradi- seau was not a Christian. He assailed religtionary principle that a political reformer ion, and, in an ignorant country like France, should be rooted out from society. He assailed he assailed it with the more effect because a them, and they assailed him. He endeavored venal church had become the reproach of to show that they ruled by the right of power Europe through its cupidity and corruption. alone, and that the people were only bound to Corrupt as it was, however, the clergy were obey as long as they were themselves weak. interested in upholding, it, and, therefore, He showed them to be corrupt, fraudulent, when Jean Jacques assaulted it, they naturally tyrannical. Therefore it is not surprising directed their persecutions against him. We that they turned his weapons against himself, may, indeed, in the spirit of our own age, and sought to exclude hiin from every oppor- believe that the wise reply to his declamation tunity to propagate his ideas. It is even in- would have been to have reformed their church telligible how they were animated to employ and defended their religion, and not to have . slander and' vituperation to defame him. pelted him with stones at Motier, or forged When men are charged with great crimes, libels on his personal character at Paris. which they cannot deny, they usually malign Christianity conquers without persecution, their accusers, in the hope of turning against which only exalts to martyrdom the miserthem the obloquy intended for themselves. able creatures that suffer it. But in the
This, we say, we can understand. We can eighteenth century, this was not understood. understand, too, why the clergy of France, It was thought right to strangle every one and, indeed, of all Europe, persecuted Rous- who spoke as an enemy; and, accordingly,
Whatever his apologists may say, he Rousseau saw his books burned, and was was a blasphemner against the Christian re- compelled to become an exile in search of an ligion, and, consequently, against all religion, asylum. although he did not employ the vile and This, also, we can understand. But what coarse invectives made use of by Voltaire. we cannot understand is the baseness, the His system undoubtedly tended to the subver- virulence, the duplicity, with which men who sion of the national faith. Even the belief shared his opinions, who joined in his labors, in a divinity was not fixed in his mind. His who shook him by the hand, and called creed was a caprice. One day we find him themselves his friends, slandered, reviled, and
persecuted him. Horace Walpole forged a science which he himself describes as a law letter in the name of Frederic the Second, in anterior to opinion, he seldom resisted an imwhich Rousseau's monomania was confessed pulse, of whatever kind, provided it offered to and put in à ridiculous light, in order to secure him some pleasure.
In the same excite obloquy and contempt against him in manner, being without religious conviction, England. Such an act, committed by such a he made up his faith of fancies, and was man, it is not difficult to comprehend. There little scrupulous in the dissemination of imwas very little that was respectable in Horace pious notions. Yet he was not guilty of that Walpole. There was very little that was re- gratuitous wickedness which prompted the markable, except bis vanity, his stupidity, abominable blasphemies of Diderot, Helvetius, and his want of principle. He, consequently, and Voltaire. "If he was an intellectual might have been expected to play a little Robespierre, they were the Dantons of literapart. But why David lume, the obsolete ture - eloquent indeed, but cold-blooded, historian, should court Rousseau, and Aatter repulsive, and deformed. him, and give him hospitality, while he was The social theories of Rousseau were intriguing with his enemies, circulating blotted by the prevailing sin of his life. Of calumnies against him, and ridiculing his the relations between man and woman, character, is not so easily explained. Nor is though he could expound the noblest law, he there any intelligible reason assigned, that generally propagated a lax idea. His examDiderot, Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvetius, and ple also was vicious in the extreme. He Grimm should pursue him with such inveter- spent in dissoluteness his best years, and ate malignity, and conspire his ruin, while then, marrying the very woman who had least they propagated his works and applauded claim to be his wife, deserted her children and them, unless we believe they were jealous of his own. Nevertheless he was to some friends his fame, or, which is still more probable, very faithful, and, in his system for the that they were irritated by his refusal to be- reconstruction of society, he recognized occucome their tool.
sionally the purest principles. This concourse of men, remarkable for their It is as a politician that we can most respect talent, but odious for their hostility to the Rousseau. In many passages he is violent, Christian truth, forms one of the most re- in many vague, in many fantastical. Yet, in markable features in the modern history of the “ Discourse on the Inequality of Man," Europe. What phenomenon in literature was and in the “ Social Contract,” ho displays a ever so extraordinary as the Encyclopédie? perfect knowledge of the object of government, What machine was ever 80 cunningly devised? and of the relations between people and Had it been impregnated simply by the spirit rulers. So completely was he master of the of freedom, had it been designed only to over- political condition of Christendom that he throw the government, and had it not been predicted, with singular accuracy, many filled with impiety and impurity, humanity events which afterwards happened. Some of would have blessed its labors. Had the Puri- bis forebodings referred to a period remoter tan spirit given its vitality to all this genius, than that at which we have arrived, and what a revolution would that of France have more than one of them seems likely to be fulbeen ! But, instead of this, the corruption of filled. Perhaps there are those who will not politics produced the scandal of Christianity; he disinclined to attach some faith to the folatheism and not religion was offered as the lowing :-" The empire of Russia will encure of superstition, just as servitude and not deavor to subjugate Europe; but in the strugfreedom has been proposed as the cure for gle will herself be conquered. Her Tartar anarchy. In reality, however, the Romish subjects, or her neighbors, will become her church opened its gates to infidelity. The masters.' Encyclopædists were natural successors to the It is not, however, in these points that the four and twenty fathers of Escobar ; the value of Rousseau's political writings consist. monasteries produced the academies, and the It is in the fine analysis of the principles sophists triumphed for a while, because the upon which despotism is founded, in the exJcsuits — the Pope's life-guards, as Frederic posure of the truths by the diffusion of which the Second called them - had been triumph- it is undermined; in the description of the ant a century before.
true nature and duties of governments, and From this school of writers, however, it is the true rights and duties of nations. In this necessary, in some degree, to separate Rous- the philosopher is unrivalled. He came with
He was a man of strong passions and fery inspiration, and quickened in France the weak principles, whose power of imagining principles of a liberty which she will assuredwas equal to his power of feeling, and this ly one day enjoy, in spite of the burlesque of seduced him into every folly and every crime empire enacting in her capital. that held out an enticing reward. Being À writer in the “ Biographical Magazine'' long without a moral dictator in that con- l has said that it was well that Hume, the
From Chambers' Journal
panegyrist of Monk, should be the maligner of Rousseau. Mr. Passmore Edwards' con
THE POISON-EATERS. tributor is of this opinion, and, we think, rightly; but there have been others, and DR. TSCHUDI's further investigations on the Intely, who have remarked that this was not subject of arsenic-eating have led to no new the only instance in which the tory historian discoveries, but they have enabled him to add falsified the character of a public man. For a few more examples to those he had already ourselves, had he in his correspondence done given. In every instance the poison-eater, justice to Rousseau, we should almost say that when first questioned on the matter, denied Rousseau's character was the only one which his propensity with the most determined obhe had not falsified. But he was a consistent stinacy. The confessions of one individual libeller, Narrative and letters harmonize prove a consumption of poison in a certain with their calumnies on the virtuous, and number of years which is most extraordinary, their apologies of profligacy. In fact, the From his twenty-seventh to bis sixty-third only pity is that Hume did not choose from year this person was accustomed to take each France a better man to slander than Rousseau. inonth, during several days, a dose of arsenic. But we doubt whether Rousseau lost more in He began, as usual, with a portion not larger the estimation of mankind through the un- than a grain of linseed, and for a long sucscrupulous detraction of one who had all the cession of years kept to this quantity. On ferocity of a bigot, without a bigot's sincerity, weighing a piece of Hungarian arsenic, such or through the uncompromising eulogiums of as the man had been accustomed to take, it his admirers. Unfortunately, the critics are was found to vary from two to four grains. few, and a man must either be pilloried as a When asked why he had not increased the criminal or consecrated as a martyr.
dose, be replied, he had not the courage to do The author of the work before us is an so ; for having attempted it once when tipsy, apologist for Rousseau. What he concedes to and not at the ordinary tiine, the consequence his detractors is what a friend would be most was severe attacks of colic, a burning in the readily inclined to grant, and what they are throat, and throbbing in the stomach. The not by any means most solicitous to prove. bit he then swallowed was, however, pretty But in the main characteristics of his nature ; large. For more than two years he had enin the great episodes of his career ; in all tirely given up the practice, which be acthat deci the reputation of a man, Jean counted for by saying that one of his acJacques was, according to M. Morin, noble, quaintance, an old poison-eater, had died of and pure, though his fame has been clouded by dropsy after much suffering. He thought that half a century of posthumous persecution. illness had been caused by the use of arsenic, We have gone though the vindication with and, as he greatly feared a like fate, he had much interest, and are prepared to accredit of late wholly abstained from his accustomed it as a work of considerable historical value. Hidri. The writer, though he tries to prove too much, Since his discontinuance of arsenic this does not declaim, but analyzes all the mate- man has suffered from time to time from very rials from which a life of Rousseau can be severe attacks of colic ; but, during the whole written. He passes over indeed the equivocal period of his use of the poison, he was unwell passages of his life, up to 1767, but after that but once, and then from inflammation of the date succeeds in clearing his name from much lungs. All the persons in the house where of the obloquy attaching to it. Above all, be he lived had the itch for a long time ; and triumphantly convicts the band of hypocrites although he was constantly in contact with who labored with such industrious malice to them, he was never attacked by the disease. distort every circumstance connected with In the course of the thirty-five years that this him from his retreat to the Hermitage, which individual was accustomed to eat poison, he they imputed to meanness, to his death, must, according to computation, hare swalwhich they ascribed to poison. From the lowed from twenty to twenty-two ounces of guilt of suicide, we think that history may arsenic ; and yet this enormous quantity of now fairly esonerate Rousseau. He died the most powerful mineral poison caused no naturally, in 1778, in the arms of his wife, observable derangement in his functions, exwho, in his latter days, behaved with great cept a certain hourseness of voice - which, affection to him.
as it would appear, is peculiar all poisonSome have been of opinion that it would eaters.* have been well to lose all the beauty of Rousseau's works, if the world could have * The worthy clergyman A- in M- writes
“On inbeen spared the vice he propagated. What- as follows on this particular symptom : ever we may think of this, certainly we must quiry, I learned that the individual in question grieve that so much eloquence, so much learn- koeps his aroanum a profound seoret, and tells no
body what it is ho eats : however, the general ing, and so much wisdom, were not bequeathed opinion is that it is arsenio. The man is fifty-five by a more pious and less irreligious man. years old, has a healthy look, is robust, was never ant).
It seems to be a general rule, observed also the habit of taking, being guided in the dose by the individual just spoken of, that the arsen- solely by the eye, and the portion was found ic must be taken when the moon is on the in- to weigh three grains and three-fourths. He crease, and never, except under peculiar cir- has thus been in the habit of taking daily becumstances, when it is on the wane.
tween three and four grains of arsenic, at the There are various methods of taking the dose. same time enjoying most excellent health. It Some, when fasting, put a small morsel in is said that he gives bis workmen systematic their mouth, and let it gradually dissolve ; instructions as to how they are to proceed in others reduce it to powder, and strew it on a the enjoyment of arsenic, in order to preserve slice of bread or bacon.
themselves from the hurtful effects caused by It is not uninteresting to mention here an its preparation.”. attempt at murder which occurred at the end It has already been stated, that it is a comof 1851, connected as it is with the effects of mon practice in Austria – in Vienna especialarsenic on the human system. One of the ly — to give horses occasional doses of arsenic, servants of a family, living in the north of in order to improve their coat, and add to its France, was desirous of getting rid of his mis- appearance. Various as are the methods of tress, on account of the strict control she ex- giving it to the animals, and although each ercised over the household. For this pur- person adheres to his own particular practice, pose he mixed small doses of arsenic with her yet all agree on one point — that the arsenio food, during a considerable length of time, ought to be given only when the moon is on probably from the belief that a slow and the increase. Some give it daily during this gradual death by poison would avert all sus- period in doses of from three to four grains ; picion of a violent death. To his no small others administer it in a larger quantity, for astonishment, however, he saw that in the two consecutive days before the moon is at course of some months the lady not only grew the full, and then omit it for two days, during stouter, but improved in her good looks. Her which time the animal is given, once in the countenance was fresher, and she was much week, an aperient of aloes. The grooms and gayer than before.
As the small doses, in- and farm-servants, however, are very particustead of having the desired result, produced lar in giving the arsenic after the animal has quite a contrary one, he mixed a considerably fed and drunk, strewing it generally in the larger quantity of arsenic with some stewed form of powder on a piece of bread. "If, howchicken, and soon after this was eaten by the ever, the borse is to have his dose while at lady, such decided symptoms of poisoning work, the lump of poison is then wrapped in appeared, that the atteinpt at murder was a linen rag, or is strewed in a powdered state discovered.
on a piece of bacon, and wrapped round the It was already known that certain individ- bit or curb. A portion of the arsenic would uals in mountainous districts were accustomed seem to be voided with the excrement; for it to the use of arsenic, for the sake of giving bas often been observed that fowls have died them “good wind ;"! but Dr. Tschudi has after eating corn found in the dung of horses since discovered that in Salzburg and Tyrol, dosed with arsenic. Horses fed on oats are, as well as in Styria and the highlands of as is well known, subject to attacks of colic, Austria, the custoin of eating arsenic is very but the grooms assert that if arsenic be mixed general, especially among the chamois-hunt- with the grain, no illness of the sort ever takes
place. Dr. Tschudi gives, further, the following With cattle, the use of arsenic is less fremost curious communication, received by him quent, and is employed only in the case of from a perfectly trustworthy source. " Mr. fatted oxed and calves. The same rules are F. St, director of the arsenic mines in observed with regard to the moon as those M-kl, in L-au, has been accustoned to alluded to above ; and the poison is strewed take daily at breakfast, for a number of years in a powdered state un their food. The effect past, a small quanity of powdered arsenic, as on the size of the animal is very striking; the much as would lie on the tip of his knife, to increase of weight, however, being in no proprotect him, as he asserts, from the injurious portion to the increase of bulk. For this effects arising from the fabrication of arsenic. reason, the butchers never buy such oxen, At the request of a physician, he sent him a according to the looks of the living animal, similar quantity, such as he had been daily in the real weight of flesh being always much
less than the apparent weight. It is the dangerously ill, but is always hoarse, and speaks same with calves, to which the arsenic is with a roughness in his throat. He keeps his given strewed on wheaten bread. On account secret thus cautiously, for fear of being punished of this manner of fattening cattle for the mar, for possessing arsenic, and lest the supply, so necessary to his health, should be out off. I am ket, many a poasant or grazier in Styria and told he increases the 'dose when the moon in- Upper Austria is known by the name of creases, and diminishes it when she is on the Hidribauer - (arsenic-peasant, poison-peas
From Household Words.
To pigs, arsenic is often given, especially Exclude air from an organic mass, freeze it, at the beginning of the fattening-time. In or dry it perfectly, and it can never decommany handbooks for breeders of cattle, it is pose. Fishes, it is well known, are stored in recommended to strew a dose of sulphuret of Russia as hard masses of ice, and thawed antimony daily on the food of the pigs. Now, before cooking ; in Siberia, the winter store it has been remarked, that the purified anti-of flesh and fowl killed during the summer is mony bought at the druggists' (Antimonium garnered in ice cellars, and remains perfectly sulphuratum nigrum laezigulum) has no effect good throughout the year. We have our whatever ; while the sulphuret of antimony own familiar uses of cold that is to say, the purchased at the oil and color shops proves absence of heat. - as a preservative, but there efficacious which arises probably from the is no known form in which it can be applied circumstance that the latter usually contains upon a syu.em that shall make it possible to no inconsiderable quantity of sulphur. take fresh food in a frozen state unchanged
Thus we see the same rules observed in ad- about the world. It is not very difficult, howministering arsenic to animals which the ever, to remove one of the other two conditions. poison-eaters observe with regard to them- Carrots and parsnips, thoroughly dried and selves. It would not be uninteresting to learn, shrunk to about an eighth of their original whether the favorable effect produced on ani- dimensions, may be taken round the world a mals by small doses of arsenic, first led men dozen times, and soaked and boiled back at to apply it to themselves; or whether, on the any time into reasonable plumpness and good contrary, it was tried on the brute, after favor. Meat and other articles of food way having been found so serviceable in the econo- in the same way be formed into dry cakes, my of the human being.
which must, of course, be kept dry; or if
other fruits by casing them with wax — 80 MAGAZINES OF MEAT.
carrots, meat, &c., may be readily preserved Not very long ago the English public heard in air-tight canisters. with pain that it had been found necessary to Meat so preserved is very cheap, as well as throw overboard at Behring's Straits the good; and an extended demand for it would whole store of preserved meat supplied to a make it cheaper. At present companies or vessel sent in search of Sir John Franklin. firms are engaged in the preparation of preStill more recently the newspapers have been served meat, not only in England, but also in informing us that fresh inquiries have been Australia, Tasmania, the Cape of Good Hope, made at home into the Admiralty stores, and and Canada. In Australia Aucks and herds that the contents of Goldner's canisters have have long been slaughtered only for their talagain suffered condemnation. The details of low, hides and bones. There is no reilson à previous inquiry are too horrible to have why an ounce of their meat should be wasted escaped the memory of any one who read all of it might be, as some of it is, preserved them. A large number of canisters were then in air-tight canisters and sent into the markets found to have been fraudulently filled with of the world. Good fresh meat packed thus offul and improper matter. There had been without waste in brine and bone, in canisters a great neglect of duty on the part of the that do not leak and are much cheaper than contractor, and the consequences of it are casks, besides being more convenient for stowmore serious than might at first sight appear. age, could easily be supplied at a price that The use of preserved meat on a large scale is would render it much cheaper and in every checked, when faith in it is shaken by the way better for the supply of troops and ships, constant news that it is being thrown away than ineat preserved in the old-fashioned way as filth out of the public stores. Because one by pickling. Moreover, there is no reason or two traders could not resist the temptation why the surplus meat from other quarters of to acquire immediate gains in selling articles the world should not be brought — as it could that must be bought unseen within sealed easily be brought into the streets of London canisters, an invention of the first importance and the villages of England, and supply good to society is kept too long out of its due beef and mutton ready cooked at about fourplace in the world's esteem.
pence a pound to the
on. The preserved That it is possible, and far from difficult, so meat so brought among us would be, pound to prepare meat and other articles of food for pound, nearly as nourishing as meat that that they shall preserve their qualities un- has been lately Killed; it would of course be changed for a great number of years, all altogether wholesome, and would differ from people know; but some perhaps are not the home-cooked only as most preserved meats aware how simple and when carefully and do differ from it in having a somewhat duller honestly perforined- how certain the whole relish, and in being, through the action of process is. Three conditions are essential to the very little air rennining in the canister decay, the presence of air, heat, and moisture. land of the boiling water that expelled the rest,