should be fed off before the end of his fourth thought that a saving of about 201. per annum year at latest; whereas at that age he scarcely may be effected upon every pair of horses. becomes valuable as a worker. Different kinds of oxen, too, are required for working

We believe this plan attempts to combine and feeding. Nothing can compete with two inconsistent objects, the production of Shorthorns and Herefords for the latter

meat and farın labor by means of the same

purpose; but for working only, we believe the animal, and that those objects would be more Sussex breed would equally surpass all com- profitably pursued separately. Osen lvo petitors.

sometimes been objected to as slow, but it The increased facilities for transmitting has been repeatedly proved that, if wellproduce now afforded by railways is another trained and kept, they will in ploughing step reason for keeping fewer horses, and on strong

iis quickly as horses. lands we are convinced that the farmers might usefully substitute mature and well-fed oxen for some of their horses. The writer we have

Devil's MARKS IN SWINE. 66 We don't kill referred to, in a great measure supports this a pig every day,” but we did a short time since ; view. Ile says, after referring to the causes

and after its hairs were scraped off, our attention which have induced the generally existing

was directed to six small rings, about the size of preference for horse labor —

al pea, and in color as if burnt or branded, on

the inside of e:ch fore leg, and disposed curviThe comparative abundance, then, of winter linearly. Our laborer informed us with great keep, is one of the circumstances which has ma-gravity, and evidently believed it, that these terially altered the question, as to the compara

marks were caused by the pressure of the devil's tive advantages of oxen and horses. The other fingers, whien he entered the herd of swine, which

See change that time has brought about is the rails, immediately ran violently into the sea. by which the long and heavy carriages required Mark v. 11–15; Luke viii. 22, 23. — Notes for farm purposes can be accomplished without

and Queries. the interveution of the farm carts, further than the transport from the station. This precludes the necessity of having carts much upon the

The Text of Shakespeare Vindicated from road, for which species of work cattle are sup

the Interpolations and Corruptions advocated posed to be less useful than horses. Allowing, by John Payne Collier, Esq., in his Notes and then, for the change which the above circum- Emendations. By Samuel Weller Singer. stances live made, the question remains for Mr. Collier's publication of the manuscript agriculturists to decide whether cattle would not emendations from his old folio, followed by the work the general work of the farm, that is, edition of Shakspeare in which those emendaplough, harrow, grub, and go in the threshing tions were incorporated with the text, has called mill, as well as horses if so, then it will be into the field a critic and commentator of the submitted that a very important saving may be olden school, with whom extensive popularity effected in the farmer's expenses.

was not a primary object. In his Shakspeare

Vindicuted, Mr. Singer goes seriatim through We doubt, however, whether the plan he the principal “interpolations and corruptions” proposes is that best adapted for the economi- advocated by Mr. Collier ; pointing out the why ral employment of ox labor. It is this : and wherefore of the errors ; noting when judi

cious emendations have been already made by The system, then, which the writer would rec- some of the numerous editors of the poet ; and ommend, after a good many years' experience, fairly allowing merit where merit is due. The is this. That cattle should be introduced to the conclusion of Mr. Singer is the one we came to yoke at 2 or 2.years old ; that they should be on the appearance of Mr. Collier's first volume selected with a view not only to work, but for – that the manuscript is of no authority whatcapacity of growth and improvement; that four ever, and that each passage must stand or fall cattle should be substituted for each pair of like any other critical suggestion upon a rending. horses laid aside, and consequently that each The most curious point raised by Mr. Singer is, pair of cattle should work only one yoking. whether Mr. Collier's old book is not after all the With this amount of work, it is confidently stated reverse of a rara avis. Mr. Singer has in his that the animals will grow and thrive fully bet- possession two of the folios with manuscript alterter than mere store beasts. the work seems to ations, emendations, and corrections, and, like be no more than wholesome exercise, rather de- Mr. Collier's, in more than one handwriting. veloping than checking their growing powers. Both books, Mr. Singer infer's, originally beTheir feeding during the period of working to be longed to some manager or company, to whom he nothing but grass in summer, and turnips and ascribes the stage-directions, the rejection of straw in winter. In this way they will be worked whole passages deemed unfit for the stage, anil till the end of the turnip-making in the second unwarrantable insertions. The minor emendayear, when they will be put up for feeding off, tions he attributes to later possessors, who most and as they will at that time be mature and not probably had recourse to some critical edition old, the highest price ought to be got for them from which they made their corrections. — Specfrom the butcher. Upon this system it is tator.


LITTELL'S LIVING AGE. — No. 479. - 23 JULY, 1853.

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CONTENTS. 1. Syria,

Blackwood's Magazine, 195 2. Colza Oil,

Household Words,

205 3 Solar Eclipse from a Norwegian Mountain,

Chambers' Journal,

207 4. The Duke of Buckingham,

Dublin University Magazine, 209 5. Striking Likenesses,

Eliza Cook's Journal,

215 6. Idiots,

Household Words,

218 7. Can Slavery be Abolished,


223 8. Galton's Exploration in South Africa,


225 9. Warburton's Life of Peterborough,

230 10. The Attorney,

Literary World,

232 11. Miss Hurst,

Eliza Cook's Journal, 234 12. The Coquette,

Panorama of Romance, 245 13. A Day with Charles Fox,


250 14. Comparative Atlas,

Examiner, .

256 POETRY : April, 193 ; Stanzas by the Seaside, 194. SHORT ARTICLES : Goes of Liquor, 203; The Dropped Number of The Idler -- Ferdinand

II. - Singularities, 208; Clearness of the Northern Seas - The Pope's Bull, 214; Poets

in Perugia, 244. New Books, 194, 203, 222, 233, 249, 256.

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From Chambers' Journal. | Roll back the shroud from this our life's lost


The mournful day, the pale, gray, wasted day, And he that' sat upon the throne said, “Behold, I make Setting in showers — and in thy glowing arms all things new."

Lift dead morn out o' the west, and bid her

walk I go forth in the fields to meet thee, Spring, By hanging larch-woods, through whose brown Canst thou do this ? - wilt answer ?

Like a returned ghost through upper air ; there runs A trembling under-gush of faintest green,

“ Vain, all vain,'

The larch-wood sighs unto the darkening sky, As daily sun-bursts strike adown the hills ;

The silent sky replies in pitying tears By hedgerows, budding slow in nested nooks

As the slow rain-cloud trails adown the hills. Where primroses look up with childish smile From Mother Earth's rich breast ; who laughs « There is a time to be born, a time to die,” aloud

For all things. The irrevocable Hand, “I am young again! It is the April-time.”

That opes the year's fair gate, doth ope and close Sweet April-time — 0, cruel April-time !

The portals of our earthly destinies ; Year after year returning, with a brow

We walk through blindfold, and the noiseless Of promise, and red lips with longing paled,

doors And backward-hidden hands that clutch the joys Shut after us forever. Of vanished springs like flowers. Cast them not

Pause, my soul,

On these strange words ." forever— whose Let them not root again! Go by — go by,

large sound Young April ; thou art not of us nor ours.

Breaks flood-like, drowning all the petty noise

Our human moans make on the shores of Time. Yet, April-time, 0, golden April-time, Stay but a little! Hast thou not some spell O Thon that openest, and no man shuts ;. In the fresh youth o' the year to make all young? That shut’st, and no man opens - Thee we wait! Thou, at whose touch the rich sap leaps i’ the More longingly than the black frost-bound lands veins

Desire the budding green. Awakener, come! Of dead brown boughs that moaned all winter Fling wide the gate of au eternal year, long,

The April of that glad new heavens and earth CCCCLXXIX. LIVING AGE. VOL, U.


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Which shall grow out of these, as spring-tide The cypress branch has trailed upon my way, grows

Leaving the darkest shadow Death can fing ; Slow out of Winter's breast.

My lips have quivered while they strove to pray, Let Thy wide hand Draining the deepest cup that Grief can bring. Gather us all — with none left out (ah, God ! Leave Thou out none !)—from the east and from I have conned o'er the lessons hard to learn the west.

I have plucked Autumn leaves in fair SpringLoose Thou our burdens ; heal our sicknesses ;

time, Give us one heart, one mouth, one faith, one I have seen loved ones go and ne'er return, love,

And reared high shrines for ivy stalks to In Thy great Oneness made complete and strong

climb. To do Thy work throughout the happy world Thy world, All-merciful — thy perfect world,

My chords of feeling have been sorely swept,

Rousing the strain whose echo ever ioats ;
And mournful measures, one by one, have crept

After the sweet and merry prelude notes.
From Eliza Cook's Journal.

Yet, noble Ocean, do I bail thee now,

With the exulting spirit-gush of old ;
BEAUTIFUL Ocean, how I loved thy face

The same warm glory lights my breast and brow, When mine was fresh and sparkling as thine

Spreading unbidden — gleaming uncontrolled.

Scaling the green crag, while thy rough voice When my bold footstep took its toppling place,

raves, To see thee rise upon thy rock-piled throne !

Here am I sporting on thy lonely strand ;

Shrieking with glee, while hunted by thy waves, 0! how I loved thee, when I bent mine ear

Foam on my feet, and sea-weed in my hand. To listen to the rosy sea-shell's hum, And stood in ecstasy of joyous fear,

I'stand again beside thee as I stood Daring thy broad and bursting wave to come. In panting youth, watching thy billows break,

Fixed by the stroug spell of thy headlong flood, When my wild breast beat high to see thee

Even as the bird is charm-bound by the snake. leap In stormy wrath around the beacon light; Thou bringest visions — would that they could And my eye danced to see thee swell and sweep,

last ! Like a blind lion wasting all thy might.

Thou makest me a laughing child once more,

Casting away the garner of the Past, I loved thee when upon the shingle stones

Heedless of all that Fate may have in store. I heard thy glassy ripples steal and drip, With the soft gush' and gently-murmured tones I feel beside thee like a captive one That dwell upon an infant's gurgling lip. Whose riven fetter-links are left behind ;

I love thee as the flower loves the sun, I loved thee with a childish dreaming zeal,

I greet thee as the incense greets the wind. That gazed in rapture and adored with soul; And my proud heart, that stood like tempered Thou wilt be haunting me when I am found steel

Amid the valleys and green slopes of earth ; Before harsh words, melted beneath thy roll. And I shall hear thy stunning revel-round,

And see the gem-spray scattered in thy mirth. Thou wert a part of God, and I could find

Almighty tidings in thy mystic speech : Creation's first and greatest — though we part – Thou couldst subdue my strangely wayward Though with thy worshipped form I may not mind,

dwell, And tune the string no other hand could reach. Thou art among the idols of my heart

To which it never breathes the word – fareEloquent Ocean, how I worshipped thee,

well! Ere my young breath knew what it was to

sigh; Ere I had proved one cherished flower to be Eternal Life; the Revelation of the Books of A thing of brightness, nurtured but to die !

Moses. By the Rev. James Ellice, M. A. Years have gone by since those light-footed days,

The object of Mr. Ellice's Sermons on “ EterAnd done their work, as years will ever do ;

nal Life” is to prove that a future state of exSetting their thorny barriers in Life's maze,

istence formed a part of the Mosaic revelation ; And burying Hope's gems of rarest hue. .

that when Moses uses the word “ life” he means

eternal life. The manner in which Mr. Ellice I have endured the pangs that all endure aims at establishing his conclusion is by adducing Whose pulses quicken at the world's rude the evident belief of a future state among the touch,

Jews, not only during the time of Jesus Christ, Who dream that all they trust in must be sure, but for many previous ages, and the equally Though sadly taught that they may trust too evident opinion of Christ and the Apostles that much.

Moses inculcated the doctrine. — Spectator.

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From Blackwood's Magazine. memoir of Savary and the projects of Sartine,

has been an especial object of French ambi. SYRIA.*

tion. The protectorate of the Wallachian WESTERN Asia has been the scene of the and Moldavian provinces by Russia, and their most remarkable events of empire, and the possession in the first shaking of the Sultanry, most striking triumphs of civilization, since is as regular a conception in the Russian the origin of society. The earliest associa- heart as its daily bread, and the seizure of tions of man, the earliest inventions by which the provinces bordering on Austria is regarded man has dominion over nature, the earliest as a kind of political necessity. statesmanship, the earliest heroism, the Under the present circumstances of Asiatic earliest science, the earliest legislation, and affairs, the whole territory at the head of the even the earliest poetry, all belong to this Mediterranean must demand the strictest magnificent, lovely, and illustrious region. observation, and the most accurate inquiry. We are beginning at length to comprehend And those objects ought not to be left to the the grandeur, of which the Scriptures had reports of mere travellers, probably unfuronly given the outline, in the capitals of the nished with knowledge, and as probably East; and Babylon, Nineveh, Persepolis, and biased by private considerations. England probably a multitude of other buried monu- ought to have agents in those countries, exments of the slavish power and lofty concep- pressly prepared and commissioned for the tions of man, are yet to remind us, even in purpose, and thus place herself in a position the ruins, of the superb beauty combined in not merely to protect her ally in the hour of Asiatic genius and Asiatic opulence.

danger, but to prevent their possession by an Yet this vast and teeming territory has, enemy for on Syria must depend, in a great for almost a thousand years, been lost, if not degree, the safety of the Indian empire. A to the human eye, to the human contempla- hostile power in possession of the Euphrates, tion. The Mahometan invasion, in the eighth and the road through the Desert, would soon century, swept away its civilization, destroyed cut off the route through Egypt, and reduce its efforts to share in the progress of Europe, us to the circuit of the Cape once more. and, like the lava, cooling from a torrent of But the policy of England is honest and fire to a covering of stone, left the soil barren true. It will take no part in the full of an until our time.

ally, and will respect the faith of treaties. At the close of the last century, the French We say this as a mere matter of principle, expedition to Egypt, under Napoleon, revived for we do not contemplate the fall of Turkey. the attention of Europe ; and from that She has thirty millions of people, and that period it has been almost an anxious object to people divided between strong attachment the policy of the great European powers.

and humble submission.

The Greek may The defence of Acre, one of the most noble murmur, but he will obey; the Turk will achiovements even of British bravery, awoke cling to the mosque and the throne till he is a national feeling to the fortunes of this hacked from them by the sabre. He has no memorable soil; and the seizure of Syria by revolutionary follies in bis head; he hates Mehemet Ali, in 1831, and in reserve by à change ; he despises European innovation, groat European Convention, brought the con- and he looks upon his European neighbors dition of Eastern Turkey immediately before only with the recollection that his fathers the general eye.

once made them slaves, and the conviction The question of Turkish decay is too large that, if well led, their sons would make for our inquiry at present; but there can be them slaves again. European politicians. no doubt that it forms an important topic in have predicted the fall of Turkey for the last the councils of the leading cabinets. The hundred years, and it has baffled the prechief object of the French invasion of Algiers diction. When it falls, it will not be by the in 1830 a desperate breach of faith, which power of man. Barbarisin will be shattered has already cost the ruin of two dynasties by a superior blow, and then the Europese the Bourbon at the instant of its commence- kings may rush in and fight for the fragments. ment, and the Orleans at the instant of its We altogether doubt the decay of Turkey. completion was probably the future posses- We cannot discover it in the decay of her sion of Egypt, on the dismemberment of the national spirit, in the timidity of her counTurkish empire. France had found the peril cils, in the mutiny of her troops, in the disof attempting its seizure by sea, and had affection of her people, or in the bankruptcy designed the safer conquest by a march over- of her commerce ; on the contrary, the spirit land. But whether this is truth or conjecture, of improvement is giving evidence of action Egypt, for the last hundred years, since the in all those sinews of national strength; and

while we deprecate the infinite guilt and * Mount Lebanon, a Ten Years' Residence,

reckless ambition which tempts imperial from 1842 to 1852. By Colonel Churchill. Throe power to look upon all within its reach as its Yolumos. Saundors and Otley, London. prey, and, like the heathen, makes the namo

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of neighbor equivalent to that of enemy, we would be the chief field of battle, and its cannot doubt that principle as well as policy possession would determine the fate of the will prompt England to maintain her own whole. While Turkey stands, Syria must not honor maintaining the honor of her treaties be shaken ; but if this great contingency with the Sultan.

should come, it is difficult to set any limit to We proceed to give a sketch of the history the power, prosperity, civilization, and opuand circumstances of Syria — perhaps, for de- lence, for which it seems to have been designed. liciousness of climate, beauty of landscape, Commanding the head of the Mediterranean, and richness of production, the finest territory the route by the Persian Gulf and the desert of the globe. The origin of the name has been, between India and Europe -- abundant in ferof course, an old subject of antiquarian discus- tility — possessing minerals, marbles, and sion. Some suppose it to be derived from the forests - guarded by mountains and sands ancient name of Tyre (Sur); some, with from surprise — and having a compact and greater probability, from Assyria, of which vigorous population, which might be augempire it once formed a part, and which was wented to any number (for the land, under named from Asshur, the second son of Shem. proper cultivation, might feed a hundred milIn the Hebrew it is called Aram. Syria formed lions, and even then have a surplus for feeding an important feature in the Jewish history, Europe), Syria, under an intelligent governfrom the time of David (B. c. 1055), by whom ment, equal laws, a rational religion, and a it was conquered, till the division of the empire free monarchy, would be a inodel to the East, of Alexander. The next masters were the and a glorious highway for the progress of Romans, in the general conquest of Western man. Asia. In the middle of the seventh century, But from what supremacy could we look for the Saracens rushed on it liko a whirlwind, those magnificent results ? Russia has ber and swept the Greek throne from the land. own task to fulfil in the deserts of the north ; After three hundred years of possession, the Germany has to sustain her own struggle in Turkish invasion burst over the borders, and the midst of vast, active, and ambitious miliswept.in its turn the throne of the Saracens, tary powers ; France never colonizes effectIn the sixteenth century, Syria was united to ively, and has the violent and difficult experithe throne of the Sultan, under Selim the First. ment before her of keeping Algiers in submisIn 1799, it was invaded by Napoleon, who sion, to say nothing of progress. England was beaten out of the country by the English, alone is the power from which the full developfed from his army, and left them to defeat and ment of Syria could be derived. But England captivity.

is an enemy to European extension of territory, In the year 1831, Mehemet Ali, who had has no ambition, and comprehends the weakassumed the sovereignty of Egypt, invaded ness, the cares, and the political bazards of and reduced Syria, routed the Turkish army at distant government too well, to desire the posHems, pressed on to the defiles of Mount session of territory which she could not conTaurus (the key of Asia Minor), again beat trol, and would not conquer. Thus its prosthe Turkish army at Rouiah, taking the Grand perity must rely on a native government, Vizier prisoner, and threatened to expel the founded on freedom, possessing an enlightened Sultan, and finish the war at Constantinople! faith, and giving to every man that power of

The European cabinets stopped his march, advance, and that right of possession, which and commanded him to retire, making a treaty places a whole people under their own vine by which he was left in possession of Syria. and their own lig-tree. There is no single War again commenced in 1839, and an Eng- event which could give a more effectual inlish fleet and army drove Ibrahim, his son and pulse to those noble regions, or to the general general, out of the country, which was finally prosperity of the world, than an independent restored to the Sultan : Mehemet Ali receiv- government, equal to its duties and worthy of ing the hereditary sovereignty of Egypt, though its inheritance, in Syria. as a vassal of the Sultanry (1841).

But we must now limit our observations The names Syria and Aram are equally a single province of this mighty country. unknown to the natives, whose name for it is Mount Lebanon (the white mountain) desEsh-Shaus (the country to the left), in con- ignates a portion of the great range of bills tradistinction to Arabia, Yemen (the country on the northern border of Palestine. The to the right), as looking towards the east they Greek name is Libanus, which enables the take their bearings. Ancient Syria generally geographer to distinguish its two portions or included the whole country from the Mediter-: parallel ranges, the Libanus and Anti-Libanus ranean to the Euphrates, and between the the former being the western ridge, facing Taurus and the borders of Egypt.

the Mediterranean, and the latter the eastern, If western Asia should ever become the facing the plains of Damascus. These ranges theatre of war again — which it would un- include a fertile valley, about fifteen miles in questionably become in case of any attempt to breadth, called of old Colo-Syria (hollow dismember the Turkish dominions — Syria Syria), but now El-Bekar (the valley). The

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